Sclerostin Antibody Treatment Increases Bone Formation, Bone Mass, and Bone Strength of Intact Bones in Adult Male Rats.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the systemic effect of sclerostin monoclonal antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment on intact non-operated bones in an open osteotomy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Six-month-old male SD rats were subjected to transverse osteotomy at the right femur mid-shaft. Rats were injected subcutaneously with vehicle or Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg, 2 times per week) treatment for 9 weeks. Compared with vehicle control, Scl-Ab treatment significantly improved trabecular and cortical bone mass and microarchitecture at L5 vertebrae and left femora by micro-CT at week 6 and 9. Mechanical testing showed that Scl-Ab treatment resulted in significantly higher stiffness, energy to failure and ultimate load at the femora at week 9. Mineral apposition rate, mineralizing surface and bone formation rate on the trabecular bone in the distal femora was significantly increased in Scl-Ab group at week 6 and 9. The administered Scl-Ab was localized in the osteocytes and beta-catenin was strongly expressed in osteoblasts. Scl-Ab treatment significantly increased serum P1NP level and there was no between-group difference in serum level of CTX-1. In conclusion, Scl-Ab treatment could induce rapid and sustained increase in bone formation, bone mass and bone strength in non-operated bones. Sclerostin inhibition might be advantageous to prevent secondary fracture(s).
Project description:This study was to determine if antibody against sclerostin (Scl-Ab) could prevent glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis in mice. We found that Scl-Ab prevented GC-induced reduction in bone mass and bone strength and that the anabolic effects of Scl-Ab might be partially achieved through the preservation of osteoblast activity through autophagy.Glucocorticoids (GCs) inhibit bone formation by altering osteoblast and osteocyte cell activity and lifespan. A monoclonal antibody against sclerostin, Scl-Ab, increased bone mass in both preclinical animal and clinical studies in subjects with low bone mass. The objectives of this study were to determine if treatment with the Scl-Ab could prevent loss of bone mass and strength in a mouse model of GC excess and to elucidate if Scl-Ab modulated bone cell activity through autophagy.We generated reporter mice that globally expressed dsRed fused to LC3, a protein marker for autophagosomes, and evaluated the dose-dependent effects of GCs (0, 0.8, 2.8, and 4 mg/kg/day) and Scl-Ab on autophagic osteoblasts, bone mass, and bone strength.GC treatment at 2.8 and 4 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone significantly lowered trabecular bone volume (Tb-BV/TV) at the lumbar vertebrae and distal femurs, cortical bone mass at the mid-shaft femur (FS), and cortical bone strength compared to placebo (PL). In mice treated with GC and Scl-Ab, Tb-BV/TV increased by 60-125 %, apparent bone strength of the lumbar vertebrae by 30-70 %, FS-BV by 10-18 %, and FS-apparent strength by 13-15 %, as compared to GC vehicle-treated mice. GC treatment at 4 mg/kg/day reduced the number of autophagic osteoblasts by 70 % on the vertebral trabecular bone surface compared to the placebo group (PL, GC 0 mg), and GC + Scl-Ab treatment.Treatment with Scl-Ab prevented GC-induced reduction in both trabecular and cortical bone mass and strength and appeared to maintain osteoblast activity through autophagy.
Project description:Systemic administration of sclerostin neutralizing antibody has led to increased bone formation in animal models of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if systemic administration of sclerostin neutralizing antibody could increase the healing response in a critical-sized femoral defect in rats.Critical-sized femoral defects were created in Lewis rats, and the rats were randomized into four groups. The sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment groups included the continuous Scl-Ab group (twenty-one animals), the early Scl-Ab group (fifteen animals), and the delayed Scl-Ab group (fifteen animals), which received sclerostin antibody (25 mg/kg) twice weekly for weeks 0 through 12; weeks 0 through 2; and weeks 2 through 4; respectively. Twenty-one animals in the control group received vehicle from weeks 0 through 12. In a subsequent study, bone turnover markers were measured at zero, two, six, and twelve weeks after surgery in rats receiving vehicle or sclerostin neutralizing antibody for twelve weeks (fifteen rats per group). The quality of bone formed was evaluated with radiographs, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and histologic and histomorphometric analysis.In the primary study, four of fifteen defects in the continuous (zero to twelve-week) Scl-Ab group, three of fifteen defects in the early (zero to two-week) Scl-Ab group, and four of fifteen defects in the delayed (two to four-week) Scl-Ab group healed at twelve weeks, while none of the defects healed in the control group. In both studies, treatment with sclerostin antibody for twelve weeks demonstrated a significant increase in new bone formation (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. The three treatment groups did not differ significantly with respect to the healing rates and the quality of new bone formed in the defect. The serum markers of bone formation were significantly elevated in the animals in the continuous Scl-Ab group (p < 0.05) compared with the controls.Administration of sclerostin neutralizing antibody led to increased bone formation, resulting in complete healing of femoral defects in a small subset of rats, with a majority of the animals not healing the defect by twelve weeks.
Project description:There is currently an unmet clinical need for improved treatments for skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone disease. This is due in part to a paucity of novel targets and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action for established therapies. We defined the effects of anabolic treatments on bone and the bone marrow adipocyte (BMA). Sclerostin-neutralizing antibodies (Scl-Ab), romosozumab, human parathyroid hormone (hPTH, 1-34), and hPTH/hPTHrP analogues (e.g. teriparatide and abaloparatide) stimulate bone formation and have been studied in clinical trials for severe osteoporosis. In this study, eight-week-old male and female rats were administered vehicle, Scl-Ab (3?mg/kg or 50?mg/kg) weekly, or hPTH (1-34) (75??g/kg) daily for 4 or 26?weeks. Histological analyses of distal femura were performed using a novel ImageJ method for trabecular bone and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Adipocyte number, circumference, and total adipose area were compared within the tissue area (T.Ar) or the marrow area (Ma.Ar), (defined as the T.Ar minus the trabecular bone area). After 26?weeks of treatment, a significant inverse correlation between bone and tissue adiposity (total adipocyte area divided by T.Ar) were observed in males and females (p?<?0.0001). However, there were no significant correlations between bone and marrow adiposity (total adipocyte area divided by Ma.Ar) for either sex after 26?weeks of treatments. Scl-Ab treatments also resulted in no effect on adipocytes based on marrow adiposity for either sex after 26?weeks. However, chronic hPTH treatments significantly reduced adipocyte number and adiposity within the T.Ar and within the Ma.Ar in males. Overall, our data suggest that with long-term treatment, Scl-Abs decrease total tissue adiposity mainly by increasing trabecular bone, resulting in an overall reduction in the space in which adipocytes can reside. These findings were determined by developing and comparing two different methods of assessment of the marrow cavity, defined to either include or exclude trabecular bone. Thus, researchers should consider which adiposity measurement is more informative and relevant for their studies. Overall, our findings should help design improved therapies or combination treatments to target a potential new contributor to bone diseases: the bone marrow adipocyte.
Project description:Both blunted osteocytic production of the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin (Scl) and increased T-cell production of the Wnt ligand Wnt10b contribute to the bone anabolic activity of intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) treatment. However, the relative contribution of these mechanisms is unknown. In this study, we modeled the repressive effects of iPTH on Scl production in mice by treatment with a neutralizing anti-Scl antibody (Scl-Ab) to determine the contribution of T-cell-produced Wnt10b to the Scl-independent modalities of action of iPTH. We report that combined treatment with Scl-Ab and iPTH was more potent than either iPTH or Scl-Ab alone in increasing stromal cell production of OPG, osteoblastogenesis, osteoblast life span, bone turnover, bone mineral density, and trabecular bone volume and structure in mice with T cells capable of producing Wnt10b. In T-cell-null mice and mice lacking T-cell production of Wnt10b, combined treatment increased bone turnover significantly more than iPTH or Scl-Ab alone. However, in these mice, combined treatment with Scl-Ab and iPTH was equally effective as Scl-Ab alone in increasing the osteoblastic pool, bone volume, density, and structure. These findings demonstrate that the Scl-independent activity of iPTH on osteoblasts and bone mass is mediated by T-cell-produced Wnt10b. The data provide a proof of concept of a more potent therapeutic effect of combined treatment with iPTH and Scl-Ab than either alone.
Project description:Sclerostin is a secreted glycoprotein that inhibits the intracellular Wnt signaling pathway, which, when inactivated, stimulates bone formation. This has been seen in fracture studies, which have shown larger and stronger calluses with accelerated fracture healing in sclerostin knockout and sclerostin antibody injection models. However, the effects of these two mechanisms have not been compared in the context of fracture healing.We sought to determine the degree to which sclerostin inhibition (Scl-Ab injection) and complete sclerostin depletion inhibit fracture healing in a mouse model as evaluated by (1) morphometric trabecular bone measures at the fracture site, and (2) fracture site structural strength.Ten-week-old male sclerostin knockout (n = 20) and wild type (n = 40) mice underwent insertion of a tibial intramedullary pin after which a midshaft tibial osteotomy was performed. The mice were divided in three groups: sclerostin knockout (n = 20), wild type with sclerostin antibody injection (intravenous dose of 100 mg/kg weekly) (n = 20), and wild type with saline injection (n = 20). The mice for each group where subdivided and euthanized at 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after surgery, at which time the fractured tibias were assessed with microCT (to assess morphometric trabecular bone measures: bone volume to total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and structural model index at the fracture site. Biomechanical testing in the form of three-point bending also was done to assess fracture site structural strength. A difference greater than 3.7% in our primary outcome (BV/TV) would be required to detect a difference between groups with a power of 80%, as per our power analysis.The wild type with sclerostin antibody and the sclerostin knockout groups showed increased trabecular BV/TV at the fracture site compared with the wild type group with saline at all times, however no difference was seen between the treatment groups with the numbers available, except at 28 days postoperatively when the sclerostin knockout group showed greater BV/TV than the wild type sclerostin antibody group (47.0 ± 3.5 vs 40.1 ± 2.1; p < 0.05). On biomechanical testing the wild type sclerostin antibody showed increased stiffness at Days 14 and 28 compared with the wild type with saline group (70.9 ± 6.4 vs 14.8 ± 8.1; p = 0.001), (106.8 ± 24.3 vs 74.9 ± 16.0; p = 0.004); respectively. However, with the numbers available, no differences were detected between the wild type with sclerostin antibody and the sclerostin knockout groups in terms of whole-bone structural strength.Sclerostin antibody injections showed promising results, which were not different with the numbers available, from results achieved with complete depletion of sclerostin, especially at earlier stages of the healing process, and therefore completed the healing process at an earlier time.Sclerostin antibody injections appear to enhance fracture healing to a degree that is not different than complete sclerostin depletion, but larger animal studies are required to assess the accurate dosage and timing of administration in the fracture healing process to further evaluate its potential clinical utility to enhance fracture healing.
Project description:Breast cancer bone metastases often cause a debilitating non-curable condition with osteolytic lesions, muscle weakness and a high mortality. Current treatment comprises chemotherapy, irradiation, surgery and anti-resorptive drugs that restrict but do not revert bone destruction. In metastatic breast cancer cells, we determined the expression of sclerostin, a soluble Wnt inhibitor that represses osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In mice with breast cancer bone metastases, pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin using an anti-sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) reduced metastases without tumor cell dissemination to other distant sites. Sclerostin inhibition prevented the cancer-induced bone destruction by augmenting osteoblast-mediated bone formation and reducing osteoclast-dependent bone resorption. During advanced disease, NF-κB and p38 signaling was increased in muscles in a TGF-β1-dependent manner, causing muscle fiber atrophy, muscle weakness and tissue regeneration with an increase in Pax7-positive satellite cells. Scl-Ab treatment restored NF-κB and p38 signaling, the abundance of Pax7-positive cells and ultimately muscle function. These effects improved the overall health condition and expanded the life span of cancer-bearing mice. Together, these results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin reduces bone metastatic burden and muscle weakness with a prolongation of the survival time. This might provide novel options for treating musculoskeletal complications in breast cancer patients. .