Lesion Activity on Brain MRI in a Chinese Population with Unilateral Optic Neuritis.
ABSTRACT: Longitudinal studies have shown that brain white matter lesions are strong predictors of the conversion of unilateral optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian populations. Consequently brain MRI criteria have been developed to improve the prediction of the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). In Asian populations, optic neuritis may be the first sign of classical or optic-spinal MS. These signs add to the uncertainty regarding brain MRI changes with respect to the course of unilateral optic neuritis. The aim of this study was to examine the association between brain lesion activity and conversion to CDMS in Chinese patients with unilateral optic neuritis. A small prospective cohort study of 40 consecutive Chinese patients who presented with unilateral optic neuritis was conducted. Brain lesion activity was recorded as the incidence of Gd-enhanced lesions and new T2 lesions. Brain lesions on MRI that were characteristic of MS were defined according to the 2010 revisions of the McDonald criteria. The primary endpoint was the development of CDMS. We found that nineteen patients (48%) had brain lesions that were characteristic of MS on the initial scan. One of these patients (3%) had Gd-enhanced brain lesions. A significantly lower percentage of the patients (10%, p<0.001) presented with new T2 brain lesions on the second scan. During a median of 5 years of follow-up, seven patients (18%) developed CDMS. There was no significant difference in the conversion rate to CDMS between patients with and without brain lesions that were characteristic of MS (4/19 and 3/21, respectively; Fisher exact test, one-sided, p = 0.44). We conclude that brain lesions characteristic of MS are common in Chinese patients with unilateral optic neuritis; however, these patients exhibit low lesion activity. The predictive value of brain lesion activity for CDMS requires investigation in additional patients.
Project description:Changes in cerebral lesion load by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study on erythropoietin in clinically isolated optic neuritis (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00355095) were analyzed. Therefore, patients with acute optic neuritis were assigned to receive either 33,000 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin (IV) daily for three days, or a placebo, as an add-on to methylprednisolone. Of 35 patients, we investigated changes in cerebral lesion load in MRIs obtained at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 16. In 5 of the 35 patients, we found conversion into multiple sclerosis (MS) based on MRI progression only. These five patients had received the placebo. Another five patients showed MRI progression together with relapses. Three of these patients had received erythropoietin, and two the placebo. Yet, analyzing the change in absolute numbers of periventricular, juxtacortical, and infratentorial lesions including gadolinium-enhancing lesions, there were no significant differences between the groups. Although effective in terms of retinal nerve fiber layer protection, erythropoietin treatment of acute isolated optic neuritis did not influence further evolution of MRI lesions in the brain when comparing absolute numbers. However, early conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to MS assessed by MRI activity seemed to occur more frequently in the placebo-treated group.
Project description:In multiple sclerosis, microstructural damage of normal-appearing brain tissue is an important feature of its pathology. Understanding these mechanisms is vital to help develop neuroprotective strategies. The visual pathway is a key model to study mechanisms of damage and recovery in demyelination. Anterograde trans-synaptic degeneration across the lateral geniculate nuclei has been suggested as a mechanism of tissue damage to explain optic radiation abnormalities seen in association with demyelinating disease and optic neuritis, although evidence for this has relied solely on cross-sectional studies. We therefore aimed to assess: (i) longitudinal changes in the diffusion properties of optic radiations after optic neuritis suggesting trans-synaptic degeneration; (ii) the predictive value of early optic nerve magnetic resonance imaging measures for late optic radiations changes; and (iii) the impact on visual outcome of both optic nerve and brain post-optic neuritis changes. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute optic neuritis and eight healthy controls were assessed visually (logMAR, colour vision, and Sloan 1.25%, 5%, 25%) and by magnetic resonance imaging, at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences performed (and metrics obtained) were: (i) optic nerve fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (optic nerve cross-sectional area); (ii) optic nerve proton density fast spin-echo (optic nerve proton density-lesion length); (iii) optic nerve post-gadolinium T1-weighted (Gd-enhanced lesion length); and (iv) brain diffusion-weighted imaging (to derive optic radiation fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity). Mixed-effects and multivariate regression models were performed, adjusting for age, gender, and optic radiation lesion load. These identified changes over time and associations between early optic nerve measures and 1-year global optic radiation/clinical measures. The fractional anisotropy in patients' optic radiations decreased (P = 0.018) and radial diffusivity increased (P = 0.002) over 1 year following optic neuritis, whereas optic radiation measures were unchanged in controls. Also, smaller cross-sectional areas of affected optic nerves at 3 months post-optic neuritis predicted lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity at 1 year (P = 0.007) in the optic radiations, whereas none of the inflammatory measures of the optic nerve predicted changes in optic radiations. Finally, greater Gd-enhanced lesion length at baseline and greater optic nerve proton density-lesion length at 1 year were associated with worse visual function at 1 year (P = 0.034 for both). Neither the cross-sectional area of the affected optic nerve after optic neuritis nor the damage in optic radiations was associated with 1-year visual outcome. Our longitudinal study shows that, after optic neuritis, there is progressive damage to the optic radiations, greater in patients with early residual optic nerve atrophy, even after adjusting for optic radiation lesions. These findings provide evidence for trans-synaptic degeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It was recently reported that, using Western blotting, some multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the United States had antibodies against epsilon toxin (Etx) from Clostridium perfringens, suggesting that the toxin may play a role in the disease. OBJECTIVE:We investigated for serum antibodies against Etx in UK patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) or presenting with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or optic neuritis (ON) and in age- and gender-matched controls. METHODS:We tested sera from CDMS, CIS or ON patients or controls by Western blotting. We also tested CDMS sera for reactivity with linear overlapping peptides spanning the amino acid sequence (Pepscan) of Etx. RESULTS:Using Western blotting, 24% of sera in the combined CDMS, CIS and ON groups ( n?=?125) reacted with Etx. In the control group ( n?=?125), 10% of the samples reacted. Using Pepscan, 33% of sera tested reacted with at least one peptide, whereas in the control group only 16% of sera reacted. Out of 61 samples, 21 (43%) were positive to one or other testing methodology. Three samples were positive by Western blotting and Pepscan. CONCLUSION:Our results broadly support the previous findings and the role of Etx in the aetiology of MS warrants further investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential links between thinning of retinal ganglion cell axons in eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) without past optic neuritis (ON) and MS-related inflammatory damage of the posterior visual pathway. METHODS: Temporal retinal nerve fiber layer (tRNFL) thickness was analyzed in eyes with no history of ON (NON) from 53 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Fifty normal age- and sex-matched controls were examined with optical coherence tomography. Low-contrast visual acuity charts were used for functional assessment of vision. The optic tract (OT) and optic radiation (OR) were identified using probabilistic tractography, and volume of T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices were measured within both structures. Cross-sectional diameter of the OT was also calculated. RESULTS: tRNFL thickness was significantly reduced in NON eyes and was associated with reduced low-contrast visual acuity. Lesions within the OR were detected in the majority of patients. There was a significant correlation between thinning of the tRNFL and OR lesion volume (adjusted for non-OR lesion volume, age, sex, and disease duration). tRNFL thickness also correlated with OR DTI indices. No OT lesions were identified in any of the patients and no relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer loss and potential markers of OT lesions was found. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate a strong tract-specific association between loss of tRNFL fibers and MS-related inflammation within OR.
Project description:PURPOSE: To document the etiology, clinical presentation, and visual prognosis of optic neuritis in Taiwanese children. METHODS: Retrospectively reviewed children younger than 18 years old with optic neuritis in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung Children's Hospital from 1998 to 2009. RESULTS: There were 24 children (38 eyes) with optic neuritis in that period. Overall, 14 patients (58.3%) were female and 10 patients (41.7%) were male. In total, 14 patients (58.3%) had bilateral involvement, and 10 patients (41.7%) had unilateral involvement. Out of 38 eyes, 24 (63.2%) had disc swelling. Out of 24 patients, 21 (87.5%) underwent intravenous steroid therapy (10 to 30 mg/kg/day) for 3-5 days, and followed by an oral taper. Out of 24 patients, 20 (83.3%) achieved final visual acuity (VA) of 20/40 or better. However, a poor visual outcome (four patients) (VA<20/40) was correlated with pale disc at presentation (P=0.002, Pearson χ (2)-test) and age older than 10 years (P=0.012, Fisher's exact test). Five patients were diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (21%), and three patients were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) (12.5%). Patients with ADEM did not have a better visual outcome than patients with MS (P=0.643, Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSIONS: Visual recovery from optic neuritis was favorable in Taiwanese children. A poor visual outcome was correlated with pale disc at presentation and patients' age older than 10 years. ADEM is the most common associated systemic disease; MS is relatively rare.
Project description:Typical optic neuritis is often the presenting manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Its incidence in central Europe is 5 cases per 100 000 persons per year.This review is based on articles retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed database, on the pertinent guidelines, and on the authors' clinical experience.The diagnosis of optic neuritis is based on a constellation of symptoms and signs. The onset is usually with pain on eye movement in one eye and subacute visual loss. In unilateral optic neuritis, the direct pupillary light reflex is weaker in the affected eye. One-third of patients with optic neuritis have a mildly edematous optic disc. The visual disturbance resolves in 95% of cases. A less favorable course may be evidence of neuromyelitis optica, and macular involvement may be evidence of neuroretinitis. High-dosed intravenous methylprednisolone therapy speeds recovery but does not improve the final outcome. The risk that a patient with optic neuritis will later develop multiple sclerosis can be assessed with an MRI scan of the brain.Optic neuritis is easy to distinguish from otherv diseases affecting the optic nerve. Atypical forms of this disease and other optic nerve diseases require special treatment. For patients judged to be at high risk of developing multiple sclerosis, immune prophylaxis with beta- interferon or glatiramer acetate is recommended.
Project description:Long term irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be primarily driven by axonal degeneration. Axonal degeneration leads to degenerative atrophy, therefore early markers of axonal degeneration are required to predict clinical disability and treatment efficacy. Given that additional pathologies such as inflammation, demyelination and oedema are also present in MS, it is essential to develop axonal markers that are not confounded by these processes. The present study investigated a novel method for measuring axonal degeneration in MS based on high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Unlike standard methods, this novel method involved advanced acquisition and modelling for improved axonal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work has developed analytical methods, two novel axonal markers, fibre density and cross-section, that can be estimated for each fibre direction in each voxel (termed a "fixel"). This technique, termed fixel-based analysis, thus simultaneously estimates axonal density and white matter atrophy from specific white matter tracts. Diffusion-weighted imaging datasets were acquired for 17 patients with a history of acute unilateral optic neuritis (35.3 ± 10.2 years, 11 females) and 14 healthy controls (32.7 ± 4.8 years, 8 females) on a 3 T scanner. Fibre density values were compared to standard diffusion tensor imaging parameters (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in lesions and normal appearing white matter. Group comparisons were performed for each fixel to assess putative differences in fibre density and fibre cross-section. Fibre density was observed to have a comparable sensitivity to fractional anisotropy for detecting white matter pathology in MS, but was not affected by crossing axonal fibres. Whole brain fixel-based analysis revealed significant reductions in fibre density and fibre cross-section in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (including the optic radiations) of patients compared to controls. We interpret this result to indicate that this fixel-based approach is able to detect early loss of fibre density and cross-section in the optic radiations in MS patients with a history of optic neuritis. Fibre-specific markers of axonal degeneration should be investigated further for use in early stage therapeutic trials, or to monitor axonal injury in early stage MS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) pathology has an important role in disease progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the association between the development of GM and WM pathology and clinical disease progression in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective, observational, 48-month follow-up study examined 210 CIS patients treated with 30 µg of intramuscular interferon beta-1a once a week. MRI and clinical assessments were performed at baseline, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Associations between clinical worsening [24-weeks sustained disability progression (SDP) and occurrence of a second clinical attack] and longitudinal changes in lesion accumulation and brain atrophy progression were investigated by a mixed-effect model analysis after correction for multiple comparisons.<h4>Results</h4>SDP was observed in 32 (15.2%) CIS patients, while 146 (69.5%) were stable and 32 (15.2%) showed sustained disability improvement. 112 CIS patients (53.3%) developed clinically definite MS (CDMS). CIS patients who developed SDP showed increased lateral ventricle volume (p < .001), and decreased GM (p = .011) and cortical (p = .001) volumes compared to patients who remained stable or improved in disability. Converters to CDMS showed an increased rate of accumulation of number of new/enlarging T2 lesions (p < .001), decreased whole brain (p = .007) and increased lateral ventricle (p = .025) volumes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Development of GM pathology and LVV enlargement are associated with SDP. Conversion to CDMS in patients with CIS over 48 months is dependent on the accumulation of new lesions, LVV enlargement and whole brain atrophy progression.
Project description:To determine the relationships between conventional and segmentation-derived optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal layer thickness measures with intracranial volume (a surrogate of head size) and brain substructure volumes in multiple sclerosis (MS).Cross-sectional study.Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.A total of 84 patients with MS and 24 healthy control subjects.High-definition spectral-domain OCT conventional and automated segmentation-derived discrete retinal layer thicknesses and 3-T magnetic resonance imaging brain substructure volumes.Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer as well as composite ganglion cell layer+inner plexiform layer thicknesses in the eyes of patients with MS without a history of optic neuritis were associated with cortical gray matter (P=.01 and P=.04, respectively) and caudate (P=.04 and P=.03, respectively) volumes. Inner nuclear layer thickness, also in eyes without a history of optic neuritis, was associated with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesion volume (P=.007) and inversely associated with normal-appearing white matter volume (P=.005) in relapsing-remitting MS. As intracranial volume was found to be related with several of the OCT measures in patients with MS and healthy control subjects and is already known to be associated with brain substructure volumes, all OCT-brain substructure relationships were adjusted for intracranial volume. CONCLUSIONS Retinal measures reflect global central nervous system pathology in multiple sclerosis, with thicknesses of discrete retinal layers each appearing to be associated with distinct central nervous system processes. Moreover, OCT measures appear to correlate with intracranial volume in patients with MS and healthy control subjects, an important unexpected factor unaccounted for in prior studies examining the relationships between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and brain substructure volumes.
Project description:Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS); it appears as the presenting symptom in about 25% of MS patients and occurs in 30–70% of patients with MS during the course of their illness Purpose. To evaluate the molecular pathways that operate in the early phase of acute ON by studying gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) subpopulations including CD19+ B cells, CD14+ macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. High throughput gene expression analysis was performed on periferal mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) samples from 6 patients within 96 hours of the acute onset of the first demyelinating event of optic neuritis and 9 age matched healthy subjects using Affymetrix Inc. technology