Combination Therapy of Metformin and Statin May Decrease Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among Diabetic Patients in Asia.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that metformin or statins may decrease hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in diabetic patients. Accordingly, this article evaluates whether combination therapy may further reduce HCC. Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, excluding those with history of malignancy prior to the date of DM diagnosis, were recruited to a DM cohort. DM patients developed HCC as the cancer cohort and the date for HCC diagnosis as index date. Non-cancer cohort was frequency matched with 4:1 according to age, sex, DM-year, and index date as case group from DM cohort. Patients who were treated with statins showed a 63% decreased risk of HCC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.49). Patients who consumed simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin significantly decreased risk for HCC (OR = 0.32, 0.31, and 0.22; 95% CI = 0.18-0.58, 0.19-0.52, and 0.08-0.61, respectively). Metformin combinations with simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin may decrease HCC (OR = 0.30, 0.30, and 0.24; 95% CI = 0.15-0.59, 0.16-0.54, and 0.08-0.70, respectively). The comorbidities for HCC were decreased by consuming simvastatin and atorvastatin (OR = 0.31 and 0.29; 95% CI = 0.14-0.67 and 0.15-0.57, respectively). Only combination therapy of metformin and simvastatin may significantly decreased HCC comorbidities (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.11-0.60) in our study. In Asia, not all metformin combinations with statins may reduce the incidence of HCC and not all of this kind of combination therapy may decrease the HCC comorbidities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyperlipidemia and hypertension are modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). Approximately 25% of adults over age 65 use both antihypertensives (AHTs) and statins for these conditions. While a growing body of evidence found statins and AHTs are independently associated with lower ADRD risk, no evidence exists on simultaneous use for different drug class combinations and ADRD risk. Our primary objective was to compare ADRD risk associated with concurrent use of different combinations of statins and antihypertensives. METHODS:In a retrospective cohort study (2007-2014), we analyzed 694,672 Medicare beneficiaries in the United States (2,017,786 person-years) who concurrently used both statins and AHTs. Using logistic regression adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and comorbidities, we quantified incident ADRD diagnosis associated with concurrent use of different statin molecules (atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin) and AHT drug classes (two renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-acting AHTs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs), vs non-RAS-acting AHTs). FINDINGS:Pravastatin or rosuvastatin combined with RAS-acting AHTs reduce risk of ADRD relative to any statin combined with non-RAS-acting AHTs: ACEI+pravastatin odds ratio (OR) = 0.942 (CI: 0.899-0.986, p = 0.011), ACEI+rosuvastatin OR = 0.841 (CI: 0.794-0.892, p<0.001), ARB+pravastatin OR = 0.794 (CI: 0.748-0.843, p<0.001), ARB+rosuvastatin OR = 0.818 (CI: 0.765-0.874, p<0.001). ARBs combined with atorvastatin and simvastatin are associated with smaller reductions in risk, and ACEI with no risk reduction, compared to when combined with pravastatin or rosuvastatin. Among Hispanics, no combination of statins and RAS-acting AHTs reduces risk relative to combinations of statins and non-RAS-acting AHTs. Among blacks using ACEI+rosuvastatin, ADRD odds were 33% lower compared to blacks using other statins combined with non-RAS-acting AHTs (OR = 0.672 (CI: 0.548-0.825, p<0.001)). CONCLUSION:Among older Americans, use of pravastatin and rosuvastatin to treat hyperlipidemia is less common than use of simvastatin and atorvastatin, however, in combination with RAS-acting AHTs, particularly ARBs, they may be more effective at reducing risk of ADRD. The number of Americans with ADRD may be reduced with drug treatments for vascular health that also confer effects on ADRD.
Project description:Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of iodinated contrast administration. Statins may reduce the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy, but data remain inconclusive. We summarized the evidence based on statins for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with a network meta-analysis. Randomized trials focusing on statins were searched and pooled with random-effect odds ratios. A total of 14 trials (6,160 patients) were included, focusing on atorvastatin (high/low dose), rosuvastatin (high dose), simvastatin (high/low dose), and placebo or no statin therapy before contrast administration. The risk of contrast-induced nephropathy was reduced by atorvastatin high dose and rosuvastatin high dose, with no difference between these two agents. Results for atorvastatin low dose and simvastatin (high/low dose) in comparison to placebo were inconclusive. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin administered at high doses and before iodinated contrast administration have a consistent and beneficial preventive effect on contrast-induced nephropathy and may actually halve its incidence.
Project description:To examine HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) drug dispensing patterns to Nova Scotia Seniors' Pharmacare program (NSSPP) beneficiaries over a 14-year period in response to: 1) rosuvastatin market entry in 2003, 2) JUPITER trial publication in 2008, and 3) generic atorvastatin availability in 2010.All NSSPP beneficiaries who redeemed at least one prescription for a statin from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2013 were included. Aggregated, anonymous monthly prescription counts were extracted by the Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness (Nova Scotia, Canada) and changes in dispensing patterns of statins were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses and interrupted time series methods.The percentage of NSSPP beneficiaries dispensed any statin increased from 5.3% in April 1999 to 20.7% in March 2013. In 1999, most NSSPP beneficiaries were dispensed either simvastatin (29.5%) or atorvastatin (28.7%). When rosuvastatin was added to the NSSPP Formulary in August 2003, prescriptions dispensed for simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin declined significantly (slope change, -0.0027; 95% confidence interval (CI), (-0.0046, -0.0009)). This significant decline continued following the publication of JUPITER (level change, -0.1974; 95% CI, (-0.2991, -0.0957)) and the availability of generic atorvastatin (level change, -0.2436; 95% CI, (-0.3314, -0.1558)). Atorvastatin was not significantly affected by any of the three interventions, although it maintained an overall decreasing trend. Only upon the availability of generic atorvastatin did the upward trend in rosuvastatin use decrease significantly (slope change, -0.0010, 95% CI, (-0.0015, -0.0005)).The type and rate of statins dispensed to NSSPP beneficiaries changed from 1999 to 2013 in response to the availability of new agents and publication of the JUPITER trial. The overall proportion of NSSPP beneficiaries dispensed a statin increased approximately 4-fold during the study period. In 2013, rosuvastatin was the most commonly dispensed statin (44.1%) followed by atorvastatin (39.1%).
Project description:Objective:To assess the effect of statins compared with placebo on the risk of developing hypertransaminasemia. Patients and Methods:We performed a systematic review of electronic databases and included articles published between January 1, 1965, and April 10, 2017. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins vs placebo were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled in random-effect meta-analyses according to established methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Results:Seventy-three eligible RCTs, comprising 123,051 patients, were identified. Statins associated with a significantly risk of hypertransaminasemia (OR 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.69; P<.001). Atorvastatin showed the highest odds (OR 2.66; 95% CI, 1.74-4.06; P<.001) followed by rosuvastatin (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06-1.70; P=.01) and lovastatin (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03-2.28; P=.04). Pravastatin, fluvastatin, and simvastatin yielded no statistically different odds compared with placebo. Conclusions:A dose-dependent risk of developing hypertransaminasemia occurs in patients taking atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and lovastatin.
Project description:The relationship between statin-induced increases in HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and statin-induced decreases in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is unknown. The effects of different statins on HDL-C levels, relationships between changes in HDL-C and changes in LDL-C, and predictors of statin-induced increases in HDL-C have been investigated in an individual patient meta-analysis of 32,258 dyslipidemic patients included in 37 randomized studies using rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and simvastatin. The HDL-C raising ability of rosuvastatin, and simvastatin was comparable, with both being superior to atorvastatin. Increases in HDL-C were positively related to statin dose with rosuvastatin and simvastatin but inversely related to dose with atorvastatin. There was no apparent relationship between reduction in LDL-C and increase in HDL-C, whether analyzed overall for all statins (correlation coefficient = 0.005) or for each statin individually. Percentage increase in apolipoprotein A-I was virtually identical to that of HDL-C at all doses of the three statins. Baseline concentrations of HDL-C and triglyceride (TG) and presence of diabetes were strong, independent predictors of statin-induced elevations of HDL-C. Statins vary in their HDL-C raising ability. The HDL-C increase achieved by all three statins was independent of LDL-C decrease. However, baseline HDL-C and TGs and the presence of diabetes were predictors of statin-induced increases in HDL-C.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cholesterol management drugs known as statins are widely used and often well tolerated; however, a variety of muscle-related side effects can arise. These adverse events (AEs) can have serious impact, and form a significant barrier to therapy adherence. Surveillance of post-marketing AEs is of vital importance to understand real-world AEs and reporting differences between individual statin drugs. We conducted a review of post-approval muscle and tendon AE reports in association with statin use, to assess differences within the drug class. METHODS: We analyzed all case reports from the FDA AE Reporting System (AERS) database linking muscle-related AEs to statin use (07/01/2005-03/31/2011). Drugs examined were: atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. RESULTS: Relative risk rates for rosuvastatin were consistently higher than other statins. Atorvastatin and simvastatin showed intermediate risks, while pravastatin and lovastatin appeared to have the lowest risk rates. Relative risk of muscle-related AEs, therefore, approximately tracked with per milligram LDL-lowering potency, with fluvastatin an apparent exception. Incorporating all muscle categories, rates for atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, and lovastatin were, respectively, 55%, 26%, 17%, and 7.5% as high, as rosuvastatin, approximately tracking per milligram potency (Rosuvastatin>Atorvastatin>Simvastatin>Pravastatin ? Lovastatin) and comporting with findings of other studies. Relative potency, therefore, appears to be a fundamental predictor of muscle-related AE risk, with fluvastatin, the least potent statin, an apparent exception (risk 74% vs rosuvastatin). INTERPRETATION: AE reporting rates differed strikingly for drugs within the statin class, with relative reporting aligning substantially with potency. The data presented in this report offer important reference points for the selection of statins for cholesterol management in general and, especially, for the rechallenge of patients who have experienced muscle-related AEs (for whom agents of lower expected potency should be preferred).
Project description:Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reductions with the PCSK9 monoclonal antibody alirocumab may be affected by background statin dose due to increased PCSK9 levels with higher statin doses. Data from 8 Phase 3 trials conducted with background statin (n = 4629) were pooled by alirocumab dose (75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks) and control (placebo/ezetimibe), and analyzed by background statin type/dose. Overall, 58.4% received high-dose statins (atorvastatin 40-80 mg, rosuvastatin 20-40 mg, simvastatin 80 mg), 28.6% moderate-dose statins (atorvastatin 20-<40 mg, rosuvastatin 10-<20 mg, simvastatin 40-<80 mg), and 12.9% low-dose statins (atorvastatin <20 mg, rosuvastatin <10 mg, simvastatin <40 mg). Mean baseline PCSK9 levels were higher with high versus moderate and low statin doses (318.5 vs 280.6 ng/mL). Baseline LDL-C levels were similar across pools, regardless of statin intensity. No associations were observed between statin type/dose and LDL-C % change from baseline or % of patients achieving LDL-C goals at Week 24 for alirocumab versus control (interaction P-values non-significant). Incidence of adverse events was similar for alirocumab versus control, except for a higher rate of injection-site reactions with alirocumab. In summary, alirocumab provided consistent LDL-C reductions and was generally well tolerated independent of background statin type/dose.
Project description:Introduction ?We previously reported that during the course of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients using statins were at a lower risk to die than nonusers. Methods ?We used the R egistro I nformatizado E nfermedad T rombo E mbólica (RIETE) registry to validate our previous findings in a subsequent cohort of patients and to compare the risk of death according to the use of different types of statins. Results ?From January 2018 to December 2019, 19,557 patients with VTE were recruited in RIETE. Of them, 4,065 (21%) were using statins (simvastatin, 1,406; atorvastatin, 1,328; rosuvastatin, 246; and others, 1,085). During anticoagulation (192 vs.182 days, for statin and no statin users respectively), 500 patients developed a VTE recurrence, 519 suffered major bleeding, and 1,632 died (fatal pulmonary embolism [PE], 88 and fatal bleeding, 78). On multivariable analysis, statin users were at a lower risk to die (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.79) than nonusers. When separately analyzing the drugs, on multivariable analysis, patients using simvastatin (HR?=?0.64; 95% CI: 0.52-0.80), atorvastatin (HR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58-0.89), or other statins (HR?=?0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.87) were at a lower risk to die than nonusers. For those using rosuvastatin, difference was not statistically significant (HR?=?0.77; 95% CI: 0.50-1.19), maybe due to the sample size. Conclusion ?Our data validate previous findings and confirm that VTE patients using statins at baseline are at a lower risk to die than nonusers. No statistically differences were found according to type of statins.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in women in the United States. Aggressive treatment of modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypercholesterolemia) is essential in reducing disease burden. Despite guidelines recommending the use of statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic women, this patient group is often undertreated. This subgroup analysis of the Statin Therapies for Elevated Lipid Levels compared Across doses to Rosuvastatin (STELLAR) trial examines the effects of statin therapy in hypercholesterolemic women.As part of the STELLAR trial, 1,146 women with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ≥160 and <250 mg/dL) and triglycerides <400 mg/dL were randomized to rosuvastatin 10-40 mg, atorvastatin 10-80 mg, simvastatin 10-80 mg, or pravastatin 10-40 mg for 6 weeks.LDL-C reduction with rosuvastatin 10 mg, atorvastatin 10 mg, simvastatin 20 mg, and pravastatin 40 mg was 49%, 39%, 37%, and 30%, respectively, after 6 weeks. High-intensity statins (rosuvastatin 20-40 mg and atorvastatin 40-80 mg) reduced LDL-C to the greatest extent: 53% with rosuvastatin 20 mg, 57% with rosuvastatin 40 mg, 47% with atorvastatin 40 mg, and 51% with atorvastatin 80 mg. Similar results were observed for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C). Increases in HDL-C were greater with rosuvastatin across doses than with other statins. All treatments were well tolerated, with similar safety profiles across dose ranges.Statin therapies in the STELLAR trial led to reductions in LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and triglycerides and increases in HDL-C among hypercholesterolemic women, with rosuvastatin providing the greatest reductions in LDL-C and non-HDL-C.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The therapeutic response to statins has a high interindividual variability with respect to reductions in plasma LDL-cholesterol (c-LDL) and increases in HDL cholesterol (c-HDL). Many studies suggest that there is a relationship between the rs20455 KIF6 gene variant (c.2155T> C, Trp719Arg) and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in patients being treated with statins. AIM:The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the c.2155T> C KIF6 gene variant modulates the hypercholesteremic effects of treatment with simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a prospective, observational and multicenter study. Three hundred and forty-four patients who had not undergone prior lipid-lowering treatment were recruited. Simvastatin, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin were administered. Lipid profiles and multiple clinical and biochemical variables were assessed before and after treatment. RESULTS:The c.2155T> C variant of the KIF6 gene was shown to influence physiological responses to treatment with simvastatin and atorvastatin. Patients who were homozygous for the c.2155T> C variant (CC genotype, ArgArg) had a 7.0% smaller reduction of LDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.015) in response to hypolipidemic treatment compared to patients with the TT (TrpTrp) or CT (TrpArg) genotype. After pharmacological treatment with rosuvastatin, patients carrying the genetic variant had an increase in c-HDL that was 21.9% lower compared to patients who did not carry the variant (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION:Being a carrier of the c.2155T> C variant of the KIF6 gene negatively impacts patient responses to simvastatin, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin in terms of lipid lowering effect. Increasing the intensity of hypolipidemic therapy may be advisable for patients who are positive for the c.2155T> C variant.