Direct detection of ABCA1-dependent HDL formation based on lipidation-induced hydrophobicity change in apoA-I.
ABSTRACT: ABCA1 mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids into apoA-I to form HDL, which is important in the prevention of atherosclerosis. To develop a novel method for the evaluation of HDL formation, we prepared an apoA-I-POLARIC by labeling the specific residue of an apoA-I variant with a hydrophobicity-sensitive fluorescence probe that detects the environmental change around apoA-I during HDL formation. apoA-I-POLARIC possesses the intact ABCA1-dependent HDL formation activity and shows 4.0-fold higher fluorescence intensity in HDL particles than in the lipid-free state. Incubation of apoA-I-POLARIC with ABCA1-expressing cells, but not ABCA1-non-expressing cells, caused a 1.7-fold increase in fluorescence intensity. Gel filtration analysis demonstrated that the increase in fluorescence intensity of apoA-I-POLARIC represents the amount of apoA-I incorporated into the discoidal HDL particles rather than the amount of secreted cholesterol. THP-1 macrophage-mediated HDL formation and inhibition of HDL formation by cyclosporine A could also be measured using apoA-I-POLARIC. Furthermore, HDL formation-independent lipid release induced by microparticle formation or cell death was not detected by apoA-I-POLARIC. These results demonstrate that HDL formation by ABCA1-expressing cells can be specifically detected by sensing hydrophobicity change in apoA-I, thus providing a novel method for assessing HDL formation and screening of the HDL formation modulator.
Project description:The lipidation of apoA-I in liver greatly influences HDL biogenesis and plasma HDL levels by stabilizing the secreted apoA-I. Niacin is the most effective lipid-regulating agent clinically available to raise HDL. This study was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms of niacin action in hepatic lipidation of apoA-I, a critical event involved in HDL biogenesis. In cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2), niacin increased: association of apoA-I with phospholipids and cholesterol by 46% and 23% respectively, formation of lipid-poor single apoA-I molecule-containing particles up to ~2.4-fold, and pre ? 1 and ? migrating HDL particles. Niacin dose-dependently stimulated the cell efflux of phospholipid and cholesterol and increased transcription of ABCA1 gene and ABCA1 protein. Mutated DR4, a binding site for nuclear factor liver X receptor alpha (LXR ? ) in the ABCA1 promoter, abolished niacin stimulatory effect. Further, knocking down LXR ? or ABCA1 by RNA interference eliminated niacin-stimulated apoA-I lipidation. Niacin treatment did not change apoA-I gene expression. The present data indicate that niacin increases apoA-I lipidation by enhancing lipid efflux through a DR4-dependent transcription of ABCA1 gene in HepG2 cells. A stimulatory role of niacin in early hepatic formation of HDL particles suggests a new mechanism that contributes to niacin action to increase the stability of newly synthesized circulating HDL.
Project description:To study the mechanisms of hepatic HDL formation, we investigated the roles of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in nascent HDL formation in primary hepatocytes isolated from mice deficient in ABCA1, ABCG1, or SR-BI and from wild-type (WT) mice. Under basal conditions, in WT hepatocytes, cholesterol efflux to exogenous apoA-I was accompanied by conversion of apoA-I to HDL-sized particles. LXR activation by T0901317 markedly enhanced the formation of larger HDL-sized particles as well as cellular cholesterol efflux to apoA-I. Glyburide treatment completely abolished the formation of 7.4 nm diameter and greater particles but led to the formation of novel 7.2 nm-sized particles. However, cells lacking ABCA1 failed to form such particles. ABCG1-deficient cells showed similar capacity to efflux cholesterol to apoA-I and to form nascent HDL particles compared with WT cells. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and nascent HDL formation were slightly but significantly enhanced in SR-BI-deficient cells compared with WT cells under basal but not LXR activated conditions. As in WT but not in ABCA1-deficient hepatocytes, 7.2 nm-sized particles generated by glyburide treatment were also detected in ABCG1-deficient and SR-BI-deficient hepatocytes. Our data indicate that hepatic nascent HDL formation is highly dependent on ABCA1 but not on ABCG1 or SR-BI.
Project description:The objective of this study was to establish the role of apoA-IV, ABCA1, and LCAT in the biogenesis of apoA-IV-containing HDL (HDL-A-IV) using different mouse models. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) mice did not change plasma lipid levels. ApoA-IV floated in the HDL2/HDL3 region, promoted the formation of spherical HDL particles as determined by electron microscopy, and generated mostly ?- and a few pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) × apoE(-/-) mice increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and 80% of the protein was distributed in the VLDL/IDL/LDL region. This treatment likewise generated ?- and pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Spherical and ?-migrating HDL particles were not detectable following gene transfer of apoA-IV in ABCA1(-/-) or LCAT(-/-) mice. Coexpression of apoA-IV and LCAT in apoA-I(-/-) mice restored the formation of HDL-A-IV. Lipid-free apoA-IV and reconstituted HDL-A-IV promoted ABCA1 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI)-mediated cholesterol efflux, respectively, as efficiently as apoA-I and apoE. Our findings are consistent with a novel function of apoA-IV in the biogenesis of discrete HDL-A-IV particles with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT, and may explain previously reported anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apoA-IV.
Project description:The generation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), one of the most critical events for preventing atherosclerosis, is mediated by ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1). ABCA1 is known to transfer cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) for generating discoidal HDL (dHDL) particles, composed of 100-200 lipid molecules surrounded by two apoA-I molecules; however, the regulatory mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we observed ABCA1-GFP and apoA-I at the level of single molecules on the plasma membrane via a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. We found that about 70% of total ABCA1-GFP spots are immobilized on the plasma membrane and estimated that about 89% of immobile ABCA1 molecules are in dimers. Furthermore, an ATPase-deficient ABCA1 mutant failed to be immobilized or form a dimer. We found that the lipid acceptor apoA-I interacts with the ABCA1 dimer to generate dHDL and is followed by ABCA1 dimer-monomer interconversion. This indicates that the formation of the ABCA1 dimer is the key for apoA-I binding and nascent HDL generation. Our findings suggest the physiological significance of conversion of the ABCA1 monomer to a dimer: The dimer serves as a receptor for two apoA-I molecules for dHDL particle generation.
Project description:We have investigated the ability of apoE (apolipoprotein E) to participate in the biogenesis of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) particles in vivo using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apoA-I-/- (apolipoprotein A-I) or ABCA1-/- (ATP-binding cassette A1) mice. Infection of apoA-I-/- mice with 2x10(9) pfu (plaque-forming units) of an apoE4-expressing adenovirus increased both HDL and the triacylglycerol-rich VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein)/IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein)/LDL (low-density lipoprotein) fraction and generated discoidal HDL particles. ABCA1-/- mice treated similarly failed to form HDL particles, suggesting that ABCA1 is essential for the generation of apoE-containing HDL. Combined infection of apoA-I-/- mice with a mixture of adenoviruses expressing both apoE4 (2x10(9) pfu) and human LCAT (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) (5x10(8) pfu) cleared the triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, increased HDL and converted the discoidal HDL into spherical HDL. Similarly, co-infection of apoE-/- mice with apoE4 and human LCAT corrected the hypercholesterolaemia and generated spherical particles, suggesting that LCAT is essential for the maturation of apoE-containing HDL. Overall, the findings indicate that apoE has a dual functionality. In addition to its documented functions in the clearance of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, it participates in the biogenesis of HDL-sized apoE-containing particles. HDL particles generated by this pathway may account at least for some of the atheroprotective functions of apoE.
Project description:In the present study we have used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mutants in apoA-I-/- mice to investigate how structural mutations in apoA-I affect the biogenesis and the plasma levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein). The natural mutants apoA-I(R151C)Paris, apoA-I(R160L)Oslo and the bioengineered mutant apoA-I(R149A) were secreted efficiently from cells in culture. Their capacity to activate LCAT (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) in vitro was greatly reduced, and their ability to promote ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1)-mediated cholesterol efflux was similar to that of WT (wild-type) apoA-I. Gene transfer of the three mutants in apoA-I-/- mice generated aberrant HDL phenotypes. The total plasma cholesterol of mice expressing the apoA-I(R160L)Oslo, apoA-I(R149A) and apoA-I(R151C)Paris mutants was reduced by 78, 59 and 61% and the apoA-I levels were reduced by 68, 64 and 55% respectively, as compared with mice expressing the WT apoA-I. The CE (cholesteryl ester)/TC (total cholesterol) ratio of HDL was decreased and the apoA-I was distributed in the HDL3 region. apoA-I(R160L)Oslo and apoA-I(R149A) promoted the formation of prebeta1 and alpha4-HDL subpopulations and gave a mixture of discoidal and spherical particles. apoA-I(R151C)Paris generated subpopulations of different sizes that migrate between prebeta and alpha-HDL and formed mostly spherical and a few discoidal particles. Simultaneous treatment of mice with adenovirus expressing any of the three mutants and human LCAT normalized plasma apoA-I, HDL cholesterol levels and the CE/TC ratio. It also led to the formation of spherical HDL particles consisting mostly of alpha-HDL subpopulations of larger size. The correction of the aberrant HDL phenotypes by treatment with LCAT suggests a potential therapeutic intervention for HDL abnormalities that result from specific mutations in apoA-I.
Project description:Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein that is reportedly necessary for pre beta HDL formation; however, its detailed function remains unknown. We investigated the biogenesis and properties of apoM and its effects on the initial steps of nascent pre beta HDL assembly by ABCA1 in HEK293 cells. Transiently transfected apoM was localized primarily in the endomembrane compartment. Pulse-chase analyses demonstrated that apoM is inefficiently secreted, relative to human serum albumin, and that approximately 50% remains membrane-associated after extraction with sodium carbonate, pH 11.5. To investigate the role of apoM in nascent pre beta HDL formation, ABCA1-expressing or control cells, transfected with empty vector, apoM, or C-terminal epitope-tagged apoM (apoM-C-FLAG), were incubated with (125)I-apoA-I for 24 h. Conditioned media were harvested and fractionated by fast-protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) to monitor HDL particle size. Pre beta HDL particles were formed effectively in the absence of apoM expression; however, increased apoM expression stimulated the formation of larger-sized nascent pre beta HDLs. Immunoprecipitation with anti-apoA-I antibody followed by apoM Western blot analysis revealed that little secreted apoM was physically associated with pre beta HDL. Our results suggest that apoM is an atypical secretory protein that is not necessary for ABCA1-dependent pre beta HDL formation but does stimulate the formation of larger-sized pre beta HDL. We propose that apoM may function catalytically at an intracellular site to transfer lipid onto pre beta HDL during or after their formation by ABCA1.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 is required for the lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I to generate high density lipoprotein (HDL). This process is proposed to occur through a retro-endocytosis pathway in which apoA-I internalizes with ABCA1 and generates HDL from the endosomal compartments before resecretion. The aim of this study was to determine the route of apoA-I endocytosis and whether endocytosis contributes to HDL biogenesis. Using confocal microscopy, we found that internalized apoA-I only transiently colocalized with transferrin, a retro-endocytosis marker. Instead, apoA-I perfectly colocalized with a bulk phase uptake marker (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran) and, at later time points, with LysoTracker in several cell models including macrophages, fibroblasts, and baby hamster kidney cells. ABCA1 colocalized poorly with internalized apoA-I. To determine the contribution of internalized apoA-I to HDL biogenesis, we specifically removed apoA-I from the cell surface and analyzed the fate of internalized apoA-I. We found that 23% of cell-associated apoA-I was internalized at steady state. Of internalized apoA-I, only 20% was converted to HDL, and the rest was degraded, consistent with a lysosomal destination. We also found that apoA-I was released approximately five times faster from the plasma membrane than from the intracellular compartments. From these kinetic parameters, we estimated that approximately 5.6% of apoA-I that interacts with cells is degraded and that internalized apoA-I contributes to approximately 1.4% of total HDL production. We also found that blocking endocytosis with sucrose or cytochalasin D did not decrease cholesterol efflux or HDL biogenesis. We therefore conclude that the plasma membrane is the main platform where ABCA1-mediated lipidation of apoA-I occurs.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) plays a key role in generating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and preventing atherosclerosis. ABCA1 exports cholesterol and phospholipid to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in serum to generate HDL. We found that streptolysin O (SLO), a cholesterol-dependent pore-forming toxin, barely formed pores in ABCA1-expressing cells, even in the absence of apoA-I. Neither cholesterol content in cell membranes nor the amount of SLO bound to cells was affected by ABCA1. On the other hand, binding of the D4 domain of perfringolysin O (PFO) to ABCA1-expressing cells increased, suggesting that the amount of cholesterol in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM) increased and that the cholesterol dependences of these two toxins differ. Addition of cholesterol to the PM by the M?CD-cholesterol complex dramatically restored SLO pore formation in ABCA1-expressing cells. Therefore, exogenous expression of ABCA1 causes reduction in the cholesterol level in the inner leaflet, thereby suppressing SLO pore formation.
Project description:We investigated the significance of hydrophobic and charged residues 218-226 on the structure and functions of apoA-I and their contribution to the biogenesis of HDL. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-I[L218A/L219A/V221A/L222A] in apoA-I?/? mice decreased plasma cholesterol and apoA-I levels to 15% of wild-type (WT) control mice and generated pre-?- and ?4-HDL particles. In apoA-I?/? × apoE?/? mice, the same mutant formed few discoidal and pre-?-HDL particles that could not be converted to mature ?-HDL particles by excess LCAT. Expression of the apoA-I[E223A/K226A] mutant in apoA-I?/? mice caused lesser but discrete alterations in the HDL phenotype. The apoA-I[218-222] and apoA-I[E223A/K226A] mutants had 20% and normal capacity, respectively, to promote ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Both mutants had ?65% of normal capacity to activate LCAT in vitro. Biophysical analyses suggested that both mutants affected in a distinct manner the structural integrity and plasticity of apoA-I that is necessary for normal functions. We conclude that the alteration of the hydrophobic 218-222 residues of apoA-I disrupts apoA-I/ABCA1 interactions and promotes the generation of defective pre-? particles that fail to mature into ?-HDL subpopulations, thus resulting in low plasma apoA-I and HDL. Alterations of the charged 223, 226 residues caused milder but discrete changes in HDL phenotype.