Concordance Between Anticholinergic Burden Scales.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate concordance of five commonly used anticholinergic scales.Cross-sectional secondary analysis.Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee.Community-dwelling adults aged 70 to 79 with baseline medication data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (N = 3,055).Any anticholinergic use, weighted scores, and total standardized daily dosage were calculated using five anticholinergic measures (Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale, Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS), Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), Drug Burden Index anticholinergic component (DBI-ACh), and Summated Anticholinergic Medications Scale (SAMS)). Concordance was evaluated using kappa statistics and Spearman rank correlations.Any anticholinergic use in rank order was 51% for the ACB, 43% for the ADS, 29% for the DBI-ACh, 23% for the ARS, and 16% for the SAMS. Kappa statistics for all pairwise use comparisons ranged from 0.33 to 0.68. Similarly, concordance as measured using weighted kappa statistics ranged from 0.54 to 0.70 for the three scales not incorporating dosage (ADS, ARS, ACB). Spearman rank correlation between the DBI-ACh and SAMS was 0.50.Only low to moderate concordance was found between the five anticholinergic scales. Future research is needed to examine how these differences in measurement affect their predictive validity with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, such as cognitive impairment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several scales to quantify the impact of potentially harmful medications (PHMs) have been shown to predict mortality and functional decline; however, the effect of PHMs on quality of life (QoL) has not been well-studied.<h4>Objective</h4>The aims of this study were to investigate an association between PHM use and change in health-related QoL among community-dwelling older adults, and to compare the predictive capacity of PHM scales.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective cohort study using prescription claims data and survey responses. A total of 426 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who visited senior centers and had received prescriptions through a statewide prescription drug subsidy program were included. Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB), Drug Burden Index-sedative component (DBI-Se), Drug Burden Index-anticholinergic component (DBI-ACh), and the number of regular medications and Beers list medications were calculated from the claims data between baseline and 12 months. In addition, change in the EuroQoL five-dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) between baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up were measured as the main outcome. A linear mixed model was used for the analysis.<h4>Results</h4>After adjusting for covariates, both DBI-Se (coefficients - 0.076, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 0.131 to - 0.020) and DBI-Ach (coefficients - 0.095, 95% CI - 0.188 to - 0.002) significantly predicted a decline in EQ-5D index. The ACB, number of regular medications, and number of Beers medications did not have a significant association with EQ-5D changes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>PHM measures incorporating dose revealed a better predictive capacity for QoL change. Reducing cumulative drug dose, as well as stopping medications, would be important for the well-being of this population.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The aims of our study were to examine the anticholinergic drug use and to assess the association between anticholinergic burden and cognitive function in the multimorbid elderly patients of the MultiCare cohort.<h4>Setting</h4>MultiCare was conducted as a longitudinal cohort study in primary care, located in eight different study centres in Germany.<h4>Participants</h4>3189 patients (59.3% female).<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Baseline data were used for the following analyses. Drugs were classified according to the well-established anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) and the recently published German anticholinergic burden (German ACB). Cognitive function was measured using a letter digit substitution test (LDST) and a mixed-effect multivariate linear regression was performed to calculate the influence of anticholinergic burden on the cognitive function.<h4>Results</h4>Patients used 1764 anticholinergic drugs according to ADS and 2750 anticholinergics according to the German ACB score (prevalence 38.4% and 53.7%, respectively). The mean ADS score was 0.8 (±1.3), and the mean German ACB score was 1.2 (±1.6) per patient. The most common ADS anticholinergic was furosemide (5.8%) and the most common ACB anticholinergic was metformin (13.7%). The majority of the identified anticholinergics were drugs with low anticholinergic potential: 80.2% (ADS) and 73.4% (ACB), respectively. An increasing ADS and German ACB score was associated with reduced cognitive function according to the LDST (-0.26; p=0.008 and -0.24; p=0.003, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Multimorbid elderly patients are in a high risk for using anticholinergic drugs according to ADS and German ACB score. We especially need to gain greater awareness for the contribution of drugs with low anticholinergic potential from the cardiovascular system. As anticholinergic drug use is associated with reduced cognitive function in multimorbid elderly patients, the importance of rational prescribing and also deprescribing needs to be further evaluated.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>ISRCTN89818205.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>The aim was to investigate associations between drugs with anticholinergic effects (DACEs) and cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults.<h4>Methods</h4>A literature search using CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort and case-control studies examining the use of DACEs in subjects ≥65 years with outcomes on falls, cognitive impairment and all-cause mortality. Retrieved articles were published on or before June 2013. Anticholinergic exposure was investigated using drug class, DACE scoring systems (anticholinergic cognitive burden scale, ACB; anticholinergic drug scale, ADS; anticholinergic risk scale, ARS; anticholinergic component of the drug burden index, DBIAC ) or assessment of individual DACEs. Meta-analyses were performed to pool the results from individual studies.<h4>Results</h4>Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (total 124 286 participants). Exposure to DACEs as a class was associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.16, 1.73). Olanzapine and trazodone were associated with increased odds and risk of falls (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.05, 4.44; RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.60, 1.97, respectively), but amitriptyline, paroxetine and risperidone were not (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.81, 2.65; RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.81, 2.79; RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.59, 3.26, respectively). A unit increase in the ACB scale was associated with a doubling in odds of all-cause mortality (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.82, 2.33) but there were no associations with the DBIAC (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.55, 1.42) or the ARS (OR 3.56, 95% CI 0.29, 43.27).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Certain individual DACEs or increased overall DACE exposure may increase the risks of cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Anticholinergic burden potentially increases the risk of fracture. Although there are various anticholinergic burden scales, little is known about the inter-scale compatibility regarding the relationship of anticholinergic burden with fracture risk. We performed meta-analysis to examine the association of fracture risk with anticholinergic burden measured using various scales.<h4>Methods</h4>Primary literature was retrieved from PubMed (1966 to March, 2021), the Cochrane Library (1974 to March, 2021), Scopus (1970 to March, 2021), and Ichushi-web (1983 to March, 2021). Cohort and case-control studies that evaluated the association between any fracture and anticholinergic drugs were included. Additionally, we included studies in which patients were administered anticholinergic drugs included on the anticholinergic risk scale (ARS), anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB), anticholinergic drug scale, or drug burden index-anticholinergic component. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) due to heterogeneity among the studies. Publication bias was examined by funnel plots and the Begg's test.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 49 datasets from 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Six of the 10 studies included only patients aged over 65 years, who accounted for 93% of the total study population (453,186/487,247). Meta-analysis indicated a positive relationship between use of anticholinergic drugs and fracture risk, regardless of the anticholinergic burden scale used. However, the relationship between anticholinergic burden and fracture risk varied depending on the scale used. Fracture risk increased linearly with increasing anticholinergic burden measured using ARS. ARS 1 point was associated with 28% increase in fracture risk, ARS 1-2 point(s) with 39%, ARS 2 points with 54%, ARS 3 points with 66%, and ARS ≥ 4 points with 77%. On the other hand, ACB 1 point and ACB 2 points were associated with similar fracture risk (pooled RR [95% CI]: overall; 1.28 [1.18-1.39], 1 point; 1.12 [1.06-1.18], 2 points; 1.15 [1.08-1.23]).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This result suggests that the relationship between anticholinergic drug burden and fracture risk may differ depending on the anticholinergic burden scale used.
Project description:Background:Greater anticholinergic burden (ACB) increases the risk of mortality in older individuals, yet the strength of this association varies between studies. One possible explanation for this variance is the use of different approaches to quantify ACB. This systematic review (PROSPERO number CRD42019115918) assessed the prognostic utility of ACB-specific measures on mortality in older individuals. Methods:Multiple cross-disciplinary databases were searched from 2006-2018. Observational studies assessing the association between ACB and mortality utilizing ?1 ACB measure, involving persons aged ?65 years were included. Screening and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers, with disagreements resolved by a third independent reviewer. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed using Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) criteria. Meta-analysis was conducted where appropriate. Results:Of 19,224 titles, 20 articles describing 18 cohort studies involving 498,056 older individuals were eligible. Eight anticholinergic-specific measures were identified; the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACBS, n=9) and Anticholinergic Risk scale (ARS, n=8) were most frequently reported. The evidence base was of poor quality, with moderate to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed increased mortality risk. Conclusions:There was a modest association between some ACB measures and mortality, with most evidence derived from the ACBS. Studies comparing different measures within the same population were lacking. Analysis was limited by poor generalizability between studies, specifically regarding heterogeneity in methodology and reporting, as well as high risk of bias for most studies in the evidence base.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent and serious complication after surgery. Evidence of a relationship between anticholinergic medication and the development of delirium is inconclusive, but studies on POD are rare.<h4>Objectives</h4>The objective of this study was to evaluate the anticholinergic load of preoperative medication in older adult patients and its association with the development of POD.<h4>Methods</h4>This investigation was part of the European BioCog project ( http://www.biocog.eu ), a prospective multicenter observational study in older adult surgical patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02265263, 15 October 2014). Patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination score ≤ 23 points were excluded. POD was assessed up to 7 days after surgery using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale, Confusion Assessment Method and a patient chart review. The preoperative anticholinergic load was calculated using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS), the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS) and the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACBS), and associations with POD were analyzed using logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities, duration of anesthesia and number of drugs used.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 837 participants were included for analysis, and 165 patients (19.7%) fulfilled the criteria of POD. After adjusting for confounders, we found no association between preoperative anticholinergic load and the development of POD (ADS [points] odds ratio [OR] 0.928; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.749-1.150; ARS [points] OR 0.832; 95% CI 0.564-1.227; ACBS [points] OR 1.045; 95% CI 0.842-1.296).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study found no association between the anticholinergic load of drugs used preoperatively and the development of POD in older adult patients without severe preexisting cognitive impairment. Future analyses should examine the influence of intra- and postoperative administration of anticholinergic drugs as well as dosages of and interactions between medications.
Project description:(1) To describe the anticholinergic burden experienced by nursing home residents with dementia using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale; and (2) to determine the association of anticholinergic burden and engagement in activity.Cross-sectional, using baseline data from an ongoing clinical trial.Nine nursing homes in Pennsylvania.Eighty-seven nursing home residents with dementiaThe ACB Scale was used to classify the severity of each resident's prescribed drugs' anticholinergic activity on cognition. Engagement in activity was measured by direct observation using a standard instrument.Across 775 observations, subjects were active approximately 54% of the time, doing nothing 24% of the time, and asleep over 21% of the time. Seventy-one (81.6%) subjects were prescribed at least one drug with anticholinergic properties and 32 (36.7%) were prescribed at least one drug with severe anticholinergic properties. On average, subjects had a total ACB score of 2.55 (+/- 1.9). Mental status (MMSE) and dependency (PGDRS) were associated with engagement, but use of anticholinergic drugs was not.Nursing home residents are prescribed many drugs with anticholinergic properties. The ACB Scale has utility as a tool to alert practitioners to high anticholinergic burden, who can then use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications. Further study using larger samples of persons with dementia in earlier stages of the disease, and use of intense measurement designs are needed to more clearly determine the association of ACB with quality of life indicators.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Previous studies suggest an association between use of anticholinergic drugs in elderly patients and cognitive impairment. However, there are still limited data on the association of anticholinergic drug use and cognitive impairment as well as contribution of individual drugs to anticholinergic load using large, well-documented patient cohorts treated in geriatric units from Europe.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated 797,440 prescriptions to 89,579 hospitalized patients treated in geriatric units within the GiB-DAT database. Data of all patients discharged between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2015 was included. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale was used to classify anticholinergic drugs as definite (score 2 or 3) and possible anticholinergics (score 1). Cognitive function was determined using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the standardized scale for dementia (4D+S).<h4>Results</h4>In two multivariable logistic regression models age, sex, number of drugs and ACB total scores were identified as variables independently associated with cognitive impairment as measured by MMSE (odds ratio per ACB unit 1.114, 95% CI 1.099-1.130) or the diagnosis dementia (odds ratio 1.159 per ACB unit, 95% CI 1.144-1.173, both p < 0.0001). High anticholinergic load was associated with patients with severe cognitive impairment (p < 0.05 for all pairwise comparisons). ACB score 3 anticholinergic drugs contributed 77.9% to the cumulative amount of ACB points in patients with an anticholinergic load of 3 and higher.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Using a cross-sectional study design, a significant positive association between anticholinergic drug load and cognitive impairment in European patients treated in specialised geriatric units was found. The most frequently used definitve anticholinergic drugs were quetiapine, amitriptyline and carbamazepine.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To estimate the association between the duration and level of exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and subsequent incident dementia.<h4>Design</h4>Case-control study.<h4>Setting</h4>General practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.<h4>Participants</h4>40?770 patients aged 65-99 with a diagnosis of dementia between April 2006 and July 2015, and 283?933 controls without dementia.<h4>Interventions</h4>Daily defined doses of anticholinergic drugs coded using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale, in total and grouped by subclass, prescribed 4-20 years before a diagnosis of dementia.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Odds ratios for incident dementia, adjusted for a range of demographic and health related covariates.<h4>Results</h4>14?453 (35%) cases and 86?403 (30%) controls were prescribed at least one anticholinergic drug with an ACB score of 3 (definite anticholinergic activity) during the exposure period. The adjusted odds ratio for any anticholinergic drug with an ACB score of 3 was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.14). Dementia was associated with an increasing average ACB score. When considered by drug class, gastrointestinal drugs with an ACB score of 3 were not distinctively linked to dementia. The risk of dementia increased with greater exposure for antidepressant, urological, and antiparkinson drugs with an ACB score of 3. This result was also observed for exposure 15-20 years before a diagnosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A robust association between some classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence was observed. This could be caused by a class specific effect, or by drugs being used for very early symptoms of dementia. Future research should examine anticholinergic drug classes as opposed to anticholinergic effects intrinsically or summing scales for anticholinergic exposure.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Registered to the European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies EUPAS8705.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is not known whether drugs with different anticholinergic ratings contribute proportionately to overall anticholinergic score. OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to assess the risk of falls or fall-related injuries as a function of the overall anticholinergic score resulting from drugs with different anticholinergic ratings among people with impaired cognition. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of adults aged ???65 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and two or more additional chronic conditions (N?=?10,698) in an integrated delivery system. Electronic health record data, including pharmacy fills and diagnosis claims, were used to assess anticholinergic medication use, quantified using the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) scale, falls and fall-related injuries. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 366 days, 63% of the cohort used one or more ACB drug; 2015 (18.8%) people experienced a fall or fall-related injury. Among patients with a daily ACB score of 5, the greatest increase in risk of falls or fall-related injuries was seen when level 2 and level 3 drugs were used in combination [hazard ratio (HR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-2.83]. Multiple ACB level 1 drugs taken together also increased the hazard of a fall or fall-related injury (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.03-1.32). The risk of fall or fall-related injury as a function of exposure to ACB level 2 drugs (HR 1.56; 95% CI 1.16-2.10) was higher than that for ACB level 1 or 3 drugs. CONCLUSIONS:The same daily ACB score was associated with a different degree of risk, depending on the ACB ratings of the individual drugs comprising the score. Combinations of level 2 and level 3 drugs had the greatest risk of fall or fall-related injury relative to other individuals with the same daily ACB score. Low-potency anticholinergic drugs taken together modestly increased the hazard of a fall or fall-related injury.