Stereoselective synthesis of macrocyclic peptides via a dual olefin metathesis and ethenolysis approach.
ABSTRACT: Macrocyclic compounds occupy an important chemical space between small molecules and biologics and are prevalent in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. The growing interest in macrocycles has been fueled, in part, by the design of novel synthetic methods to these compounds. One appealing strategy is ring-closing metathesis (RCM) that seeks to construct macrocycles from acyclic diene precursors using defined transition-metal alkylidene catalysts. Despite its broad utility, RCM generally gives rise to a mixture of E- and Z-olefin isomers that can hinder efforts for the large-scale production and isolation of such complex molecules. To address this issue, we aimed to develop methods that can selectively enrich macrocycles in E- or Z-olefin isomers using an RCM/ethenolysis strategy. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the stereoselective formation of macrocyclic peptides, a class of compounds that have gained prominence as therapeutics in drug discovery. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that promote catalyst-directed RCM and ethenolysis on a variety of peptide substrates by varying the olefin type, peptide sequence, and placement of the olefin in macrocycle formation. These methods allow for control over olefin geometry in peptides, facilitating their isolation and characterization. The studies outlined in this report seek to expand the scope of stereoselective olefin metathesis in general RCM.
Project description:Macrocyclic compounds are central to the development of new drugs, but preparing them can be challenging because of the energy barrier that must be surmounted in order to bring together and fuse the two ends of an acyclic precursor such as an alkene (also known as an olefin). To this end, the catalytic process known as ring-closing metathesis (RCM) has allowed access to countless biologically active macrocyclic organic molecules, even for large-scale production. Stereoselectivity is often critical in such cases: the potency of a macrocyclic compound can depend on the stereochemistry of its alkene; alternatively, one isomer of the compound can be subjected to stereoselective modification (such as dihydroxylation). Kinetically controlled Z-selective RCM reactions have been reported, but the only available metathesis approach for accessing macrocyclic E-olefins entails selective removal of the Z-component of a stereoisomeric mixture by ethenolysis, sacrificing substantial quantities of material if E/Z ratios are near unity. Use of ethylene can also cause adventitious olefin isomerization-a particularly serious problem when the E-alkene is energetically less favoured. Here, we show that dienes containing an E-alkenyl-B(pinacolato) group, widely used in catalytic cross-coupling, possess the requisite electronic and steric attributes to allow them to be converted stereoselectively to E-macrocyclic alkenes. The reaction is promoted by a molybdenum monoaryloxide pyrrolide complex and affords products at a yield of up to 73 per cent and an E/Z ratio greater than 98/2. We highlight the utility of the approach by preparing recifeiolide (a 12-membered-ring antibiotic) and pacritinib (an 18-membered-ring enzyme inhibitor), the Z-isomer of which is less potent than the E-isomer. Notably, the 18-membered-ring moiety of pacritinib-a potent anti-cancer agent that is in advanced clinical trials for treating lymphoma and myelofibrosis-was prepared by RCM carried out at a substrate concentration 20 times greater than when a ruthenium carbene was used.
Project description:An expanded family of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts bearing cyclic alkyl amino carbene (CAAC) ligands was prepared. These catalysts exhibited exceptional activity in the ethenolysis of the seed-oil derivative methyl oleate. In many cases, catalyst turnover numbers (TONs) of more than 100,000 were achieved, at a catalyst loading of only 3?ppm. Remarkably, the most active catalyst system was able to achieve a TON of 340,000, at a catalyst loading of only 1?ppm. This is the first time a series of metathesis catalysts has exhibited such high performance in cross-metathesis reactions employing ethylene gas, with activities sufficient to render ethenolysis applicable to the industrial-scale production of linear ?-olefins (LAOs) and other terminal-olefin products.
Project description:The first report of Z-selective macrocyclizations using a ruthenium-based metathesis catalyst is described. The selectivity for Z macrocycles is consistently high for a diverse set of substrates with a variety of functional groups and ring sizes. The same catalyst was also employed for the Z-selective ethenolysis of a mixture of E and Z macrocycles, providing the pure E isomer. Notably, an ethylene pressure of only 1 atm was required. These methodologies were successfully applied to the construction of several olfactory macrocycles as well as the formal total synthesis of the cytotoxic alkaloid motuporamine C.
Project description:N-Aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium metathesis catalysts are highly selective toward the ethenolysis of methyl oleate, giving selectivity as high as 95% for the kinetic ethenolysis products over the thermodynamic self-metathesis products. The examples described herein represent some of the most selective NHC-based ruthenium catalysts for ethenolysis reactions to date. Furthermore, many of these catalysts show unusual preference and stability toward propagation as a methylidene species and provide good yields and turnover numbers at relatively low catalyst loading (<500 ppm). A catalyst comparison showed that ruthenium complexes bearing sterically hindered NHC substituents afforded greater selectivity and stability and exhibited longer catalyst lifetime during reactions. Comparative analysis of the catalyst preference for kinetic versus thermodynamic product formation was achieved via evaluation of their steady-state conversion in the cross-metathesis reaction of terminal olefins. These results coincided with the observed ethenolysis selectivities, in which the more selective catalysts reach a steady state characterized by lower conversion to cross-metathesis products compared to less selective catalysts, which show higher conversion to cross-metathesis products.
Project description:Introducing a silyl group at one of the internal olefin positions in diolefinic substrates results in E-selective olefin formation in macrocyclic ring-forming metathesis. The application of this method to a range of macrocyclic (E)-alkenylsiloxanes is described. Protodesilylation of alkenylsiloxane products yields novel Z-configured macrocycles.
Project description:A phosphate tether-mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM) study to the synthesis of Z-configured, P-stereogenic bicyclo[7.3.1]- and bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates is reported. Investigations suggest that C3-substitution, olefin substitution, and proximity of the forming olefin to the bridgehead carbon of the bicyclic affect the efficiency and stereochemical outcome of the RCM event. This study demonstrates the utility of phosphate tether-mediated desymmetrization of C2-symmetric, 1,3-anti-diol-containing dienes in the generation of macrocyclic phosphates with potential synthetic and biological utility.
Project description:The Z-selective ethenolysis activity of chelated ruthenium metathesis catalysts was investigated with experiment and theory. A five-membered chelated catalyst that was successfully employed in Z-selective cross metathesis reactions has now been found to be highly active for Z-selective ethenolysis at low ethylene pressures, while tolerating a wide variety of functional groups. This phenomenon also affects its activity in cross metathesis reactions and prohibits crossover reactions of internal olefins via trisubstituted ruthenacyclobutane intermediates. In contrast, a related catalyst containing a six-membered chelated architecture is not active for ethenolysis and seems to react through different pathways more reminiscent of previous generations of ruthenium catalysts. Computational investigations of the effects of substitution on relevant transition states and ruthenacyclobutane intermediates revealed that the differences of activities are attributed to the steric repulsions of the anionic ligand with the chelating groups.
Project description:Trypanothione reductase (TR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of trypanothione disulfide (1). TR plays a central role in the trypanosomatid parasite's defense against oxidative stress and has emerged as a promising target for antitrypanosomal drugs. We describe the synthesis and activity of dethiotrypanothione and analogues (2-4) as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi TR. The syntheses of these macrocycles feature ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by ruthenium catalyst 17. Derivative 4 is our most potent inhibitor with a Ki=16 microM.
Project description:The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.
Project description:A convenient and sustainable three-step synthesis of the tyrosinase inhibitor 2-hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid was developed that starts directly from the anacardic acid component of natural cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL). Natural CNSL contains 60-70% of anacardic acid as a mixture of several double bond isomers. The anacardic acid component was converted into a uniform starting material by ethenolysis of the entire mixture and subsequent selective precipitation of 6-(?-nonenyl)salicylic acid from cold pentane. The olefinic side chain of this intermediate was elongated by its cross-metathesis with 1-hexene using a first generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst, which was reused as precatalyst in a subsequent hydrogenation step. Overall, the target compound was obtained in an overall yield of 61% based on the unsaturated anacardic acid content and 34% based on the crude CNSL.