Hyaluronic acid-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles for colon cancer-targeted combination chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle (NP)-based combination chemotherapy has been proposed as an effective strategy for achieving synergistic effects and targeted drug delivery for colon cancer therapy. Here, we fabricated a series of hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized camptothecin (CPT)/curcumin (CUR)-loaded polymeric NPs (HA-CPT/CUR-NPs) with various weight ratios of CPT to CUR (1?:?1, 2?:?1 and 4?:?1). The resultant spherical HA-CPT/CUR-NPs had a desirable particle size (around 289 nm), relative narrow size distribution, and slightly negative zeta potential. These NPs exhibited a simultaneous sustained release profile for both drugs throughout the time frame examined. Subsequent cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the introduction of HA to the NP surface endowed NPs with colon cancer-targeting capability and markedly increased cellular uptake efficiency compared with chitosan-coated NPs. Importantly, the combined delivery of CPT and CUR in one HA-functionalized NP exerted strong synergistic effects. HA-CPT/CUR-NP (1?:?1) showed the highest antitumor activity among the three HA-CPT/CUR-NPs, resulting in an extremely low combination index. Collectively, our findings indicate that this HA-CPT/CUR-NP can be exploited as an efficient formulation for colon cancer-targeted combination chemotherapy.
Project description:Nanoparticle (NP)-based combination chemotherapy has been proposed as a potent strategy for enhancing intracellular drug concentrations and achieving synergistic effects in colon cancer therapy. Here, we fabricated a series of chitosan-functionalized camptothecin (CPT)/curcumin (CUR)-loaded polymeric NPs with various weight ratios of CPT to CUR. The resultant cationic spherical CPT/CUR-NPs had a desirable particle size (193-224 nm), relatively narrow size distribution, and slightly positive zeta-potential. These NPs exhibited a simultaneous sustained release profile for both drugs throughout the study period with a slight, initial burst release. Subsequent cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the introduction of chitosan to the NP surface markedly increased cellular-uptake efficiency compared with other drug formulations, and thus increased the intracellular drug concentrations. Importantly, the combined delivery of CPT and CUR in a single NP enhanced synergistic effects of the two drugs. Among the five cationic CPT/CUR-NPs tested, NPs with a CPT/CUR weight ratio of 4:1 showed the highest anticancer activity, resulting in a combination index of approximately 0.46. In summary, our study represents the first report of combinational application of CPT and CUR with a one-step-fabricated co-delivery system for effective colon cancer combination chemotherapy.
Project description:Combination therapy is an emerging strategy that is under intensive preclinical investigation for the treatment of various diseases. CD98 is highly overexpressed on the surfaces of epithelial cells and macrophages in the colon tissue with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is usually associated with mucosal damage and inflammation. We previously proved that CD98 siRNA (siCD98)-induced down-regulation of CD98 in colitis tissue decreased the severity of UC to a certain extent. In an effort to further improve the therapeutic efficacy, we aim to simultaneously deliver siCD98 in combination with a potent anti-inflammatory agent, curcumin (CUR), using hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant spherical HA-siCD98/CUR-NPs are featured by a desirable particle size (?246 nm) and slightly negative zeta potential (?-14 mV). The NPs functionalized with HA are able to guide the co-delivery of drugs to the targeted cells related to UC therapy (colonic epithelial cells and macrophages). Compared to either siCD98- or CUR-based monotherapy, co-delivery of siCD98 and CUR by HA-functionalized NPs can exert combinational effects against UC by protecting the mucosal layer and alleviating inflammation both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. This study shows the promising capability of the co-delivered siCD98 and CUR for boosting the conventional monotherapy via this novel nanotherapeutic agent, which offers a structurally simple platform for orally administered delivery of drugs to target cells in UC therapy.
Project description:The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) has promising potential in the synergistic treatment of cancer. However, chemotherapy and photodynamic synergistic therapy are impeded by uncontrolled chemotherapeutics release behavior, targeting deficiencies, and hypoxia-associated poor PDT efficacy in solid tumors. Here, a platinum nanozyme (PtNP) loaded reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive prodrug nanoparticle (CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP) is created to overcome these limitations. The ROS-responsive prodrug consists of a thioketal bond linked with camptothecin (CPT) and photosensitizer-2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). The PtNP in CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP can efficiently catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxygen to relieve hypoxia. The production of oxygen can satisfy the consumption of HPPH under 660 nm laser irradiation to attain the on-demand release of CPT and ensure enhanced photodynamic therapy. As a tumor diagnosis agent, the results of photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence imaging for CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP exhibit desirable long circulation and enhanced in vivo targeting. CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NPs effectively inhibit tumor proliferation and growth in vitro and in vivo. CPT-TK-HPPH/Pt NP, with its excellent ROS-responsive drug release behavior and enhanced PDT efficiency can serve as a new cancer theranostic agent, and will further promote the research of chemophotodynamic synergistic cancer therapy.
Project description:The conventional mono-chemotherapy still suffers from unsatisfied potency for cancer therapy due to tumor heterogeneity and the occurrence of drug resistance. Combination chemotherapy based on the nanosized drug delivery systems (nDDSs) has been developed as a promising platform to circumvent the limitations of mono-chemotherapy. In this work, starting from cisplatin and curcumin (Cur), we prepared a dual drug backboned shattering polymeric nDDS for synergistic chemotherapy. By in situ polymerization of the Cur, platinum (IV) complex-based prodrug monomer (DHP), L-lysine diisocyanate (LDI), and then conjugation with a hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG) derivative, a backbone-type platinum (IV) and Cur linkage containing mPEG-poly(platinum-co-Cur)-mPEG (PCPt) copolymer was synthesized. Notably, the platinum (IV) (Pt (IV)) and Cur were incorporated into the hydrophobic segment of PCPt with the fixed drugs loading ratio and high drugs loading content. The batch-to-batch variability could be decreased. The resulting prodrug copolymer then self-assembled into nanoparticles (PCPt NPs) with an average diameter around 100 nm, to formulate a synergetic nDDS. Importantly, PCPt NPs could greatly improve the solubility and stability of Cur. In vitro drug release profiles have demonstrated that PCPt NPs were stable in PBS 7.4, rapid burst release was greatly decreased, and the Pt and Cur release could be largely enhanced under reductive conditions due to the complete dissociation of the hydrophobic main chain of PCPt. In vitro cell viability test indicated that PCPt NPs were efficient synergistic chemotherapy units. Moreover, PCPt NPs were synergistic for cisplatin-resistant cell lines A549/DDP cells, and they exhibited excellent reversal ability of tumor resistance to cisplatin. This work provides a promising strategy for the design and synthesis of nDDS for combination chemotherapy.
Project description:Nanomedicine options for colon cancer therapy have been limited by the lack of suitable carriers capable of delivering sufficient drug into tumors to cause lethal toxicity. To circumvent this limitation, we fabricated a camptothecin (CPT)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (NP) with dual-surface functionalization-Pluronic F127 and chitosan-for inhibiting multi-drug resistant gene 1 (MDR1) expression and enhancing tumor uptake. The resultant spherical NPs-P/C had a desirable particle size (?268 nm), slightly positive zeta-potential, and the ability to efficiently down-regulate the expression of MDR1. In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the 24 and 48 h IC50 values of NPs-P/C1 were 2.03 and 0.67 ?m, respectively, which were much lower than those for free CPT and other NPs. Interestingly, NPs-P/C1 showed the highest cellular uptake efficiency (approximately 85.5%) among the different drug formulations. Most importantly, treatment of colon tumor-bearing mice with various drug formulations confirmed that the introduction of Pluronic F127 and chitosan to the NP surface significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CPT, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced systemic toxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that our one-step-fabricated, dual-surface-functionalized NPs may hold promise as a readily scalable and effective drug carrier with clinical potential in colon cancer therapy.
Project description:Abstract The incorporation of new modalities into chemotherapy greatly enhances the anticancer efficacy combining the merits of each treatment, showing promising potentials in clinical translations. Herein, a hybrid nanomedicine (Au/FeMOF@CPT NPs) is fabricated using metal–organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as building blocks for cancer chemo/chemodynamic therapy. MOF NPs are used as vehicles to encapsulate camptothecin (CPT), and the hybridization by Au NPs greatly improves the stability of the nanomedicine in a physiological environment. Triggered by the high concentration of phosphate inside the cancer cells, Au/FeMOF@CPT NPs effectively collapse after internalization, resulting in the complete drug release and activation of the cascade catalytic reactions. The intracellular glucose can be oxidized by Au NPs to produce hydrogen dioxide, which is further utilized as chemical fuel for the Fenton reaction, thus realizing the synergistic anticancer efficacy. Benefitting from the enhanced permeability and retention effect and sophisticated fabrications, the blood circulation time and tumor accumulation of Au/FeMOF@CPT NPs are significantly increased. In vivo results demonstrate that the combination of chemotherapy and chemodynamic therapy effectively suppresses the tumor growth, meantime the systemic toxicity of this nanomedicine is greatly avoided. A hybrid nanomedicine (Au/FeMOF@CPT NPs) consisting of metal–organic framework nanoparticles (MOF NPs) and Au NPs is developed for cancer chemo/chemodynamic therapy. MOF NPs are used as vehicles to encapsulate camptothecin (CPT). H2O2 from the oxidation of intracellular glucose by Au NPs is further utilized as fuel for the Fenton reaction, thus realizing the synergistic anticancer efficacy.
Project description:Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) is a widely recognized cancer, while treatment with the existing chemotherapeutic drugs affords limited clinical benefits. Herein we proposed a site-specific, combination nanotherapy strategy for targeted treatment of CAC by the oral route. <b>Methods</b>: A reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive and hydrogen peroxide-eliminating material OCD was synthesized, which was further produced into a functional nanoparticle (OCD NP). The antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of OCD NP were examined by <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments. By packaging an anticancer drug camptothecin-11 (CPT-11) into OCD NP, a ROS-responsive nanotherapy CPT-11/OCD NP was obtained, and its antitumor activity was evaluated by both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies. Preliminary safety studies were also performed for CPT-11/OCD NP in mice. <b>Results</b>: OCD NP significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibited inflammatory response in different cells and mice with induced colitis. CPT-11/OCD NP could selectively release drug molecules under intestinal pH conditions and at high levels of ROS. In C26 murine colon carcinoma cells, this nanotherapy showed significantly higher antitumor activity compared to free CPT-11 and a non-responsive CPT-11 nanotherapy. Correspondingly, oral delivery of CPT-11/OCD NP notably inhibited tumorigenesis and tumor growth in mice with induced CAC. By combination therapy with the nanovehicle OCD NP in the inflammatory phase, more desirable therapeutic effects were achieved. Furthermore, CPT-11/OCD NP displayed excellent safety profile for oral administration at a dose that is 87.3-fold higher than that employed in therapeutic studies. <b>Conclusions</b>: Anticancer nanotherapies derived from intrinsic anti-inflammatory nanocarriers are promising for targeted combination treatment of inflammation-associated tumors by simultaneously shaping pro-inflammatory microenvironment toward a relatively normal niche sensitive to chemotherapy.
Project description:The simultaneous delivery of multiple cancer drugs in combination therapies to achieve optimal therapeutic effects in patients can be challenging. This study investigated whether co-encapsulation of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) in PEGylated polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) was a viable strategy for overcoming their clinical limitations and to deliver both compounds at optimal ratios. We found that thrombocytopenia induced by exposure to ABT-737 was diminished through its encapsulation in NPs. Similarly, CPT-associated leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity were reduced compared with the administration of free CPT. In addition to the reduction of dose-limiting side effects, the co-encapsulation of both anticancer compounds in a single NP produced synergistic induction of apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo colorectal cancer models. This strategy may widen the therapeutic window of these and other drugs and may enhance the clinical efficacy of synergistic drug combinations.
Project description:Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff's base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff's base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy.
Project description:Tumor metastasis occurs naturally in pancreatic cancer, and the efficacy of chemotherapy is usually poor. Precision medicine, combining downregulation of target genes with chemotherapy drugs, is expected to improve therapeutic effects. Therefore, we developed a combined therapy of microRNA-21 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO-miR-21) and gemcitabine (Gem) using a targeted co-delivery nanoparticle (NP) carrier and investigated the synergistic inhibitory effects on pancreatic cancer cells metastasis and growth. Polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine-magnetic iron oxide NPs were used to co-deliver ASO-miR-21 and Gem. An anti-CD44v6 single-chain variable fragment (scFvCD44v6 ) was used to coat the particles to obtain active and targeted delivery. Our results showed that the downregulation of the oncogenic miR-21 by ASO resulted in upregulation of the tumor-suppressor genes PDCD4 and PTEN and the suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which inhibited the proliferation and induced the clonal formation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The co-delivery of ASO-miR-21 and Gem induced more cell apoptosis and inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells to a greater extent than single ASO-miR-21 or Gem treatment in vitro. In animal tests, more scFvCD44v6 -PEG-polyethylenimine/ASO-magnetic iron oxide NP/Gem accumulated at the tumor site than non-targeted NPs and induced a potent inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to observed tumor homing of NPs. These results imply that the combination of miR-21 gene silencing and Gem therapy using an scFv-functionalized NP carrier exerted synergistic antitumor effects on pancreatic cancer cells, which is a promising strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy.