Taxonomic and functional characteristics of microbial communities and their correlation with physicochemical properties of four geothermal springs in Odisha, India.
ABSTRACT: This study describes microbial diversity in four tropical hot springs representing moderately thermophilic environments (temperature range: 40-58°C; pH: 7.2-7.4) with discrete geochemistry. Metagenome sequence data showed a dominance of Bacteria over Archaea; the most abundant phyla were Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria, although other phyla were also present, such as Acetothermia, Nitrospirae, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota, Verrucomicrobia, Ignavibacteriae, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Armatimonadetes, Crenarchaeota, and Aquificae. The distribution of major genera and their statistical correlation analyses with the physicochemical parameters predicted that the temperature, aqueous concentrations of ions (such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate), total hardness, dissolved solids and conductivity were the main environmental variables influencing microbial community composition and diversity. Despite the observed high taxonomic diversity, there were only little variations in the overall functional profiles of the microbial communities in the four springs. Genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and carbon fixation were the most abundant functional class of genes present in these hot springs. The distribution of genes involved in carbon fixation predicted the presence of all the six known autotrophic pathways in the metagenomes. A high prevalence of genes involved in membrane transport, signal transduction, stress response, bacterial chemotaxis, and flagellar assembly were observed along with genes involved in the pathways of xenobiotic degradation and metabolism. The analysis of the metagenomic sequences affiliated to the candidate phylum Acetothermia from spring TB-3 provided new insight into the metabolism and physiology of yet-unknown members of this lineage of bacteria.
Project description:The Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China hosts a number of hot springs that represent a biodiversity hotspot for thermophiles, yet their diversity and relationship to environmental conditions are poorly explored in these habitats. In this study we investigated microbial diversity and community composition in 13 Tibetan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (22.1-75°C) and other geochemical conditions by using the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach. Bacteria (10(8)-10(11) copy/g; 42 bacterial phyla) in Tibetan hot springs were more abundant and far more diverse than Archaea (10(7)-10(10) copy/g; 5 archaeal phyla). The dominant bacterial phyla systematically varied with temperature. Moderate temperatures (75-66°C) favored Aquificae, GAL35, and novel Bacteria, whereas low temperatures (60-22.1°C) selected for Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative abundance of Aquificae was correlated positively with temperature, but the abundances of Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi were negatively correlated with temperature. Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant in Tibetan hot springs and their abundances were positively correlated at low temperatures (55-43°C) but negatively correlated at moderate temperatures (75-55°C). These correlation patterns suggest a complex physiological relationship between these two phyla. Most archaeal sequences were related to Crenarchaeota with only a few related to Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Despite the fact that microbial composition in Tibetan hot springs was strongly shaped by temperature, microbial diversity (richness, evenness and Shannon diversity) was not significantly correlated with temperature change. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in Tibetan hot springs and provide a basis for a global comparison.
Project description:Malaysia has a great number of hot springs, especially along the flank of the Banjaran Titiwangsa mountain range. Biological studies of the Malaysian hot springs are rare because of the lack of comprehensive information on their microbial communities. In this study, we report a cultivation-independent census to describe microbial communities in six hot springs. The Ulu Slim (US), Sungai Klah (SK), Dusun Tua (DT), Sungai Serai (SS), Semenyih (SE), and Ayer Hangat (AH) hot springs exhibit circumneutral pH with temperatures ranging from 43°C to 90°C. Genomic DNA was extracted from environmental samples and the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that microbial richness was high in all samples as indicated by the detection of 6,334-26,244 operational taxonomy units. In total, 59, 61, 72, 73, 65, and 52 bacterial phyla were identified in the US, SK, DT, SS, SE, and AH hot springs, respectively. Generally, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities in all hot springs. Archaeal communities mainly consisted of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Parvarchaeota. In beta diversity analysis, the hot spring microbial memberships were clustered primarily on the basis of temperature and salinity. Canonical correlation analysis to assess the relationship between the microbial communities and physicochemical variables revealed that diversity patterns were best explained by a combination of physicochemical variables, rather than by individual abiotic variables such as temperature and salinity.
Project description:Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche.
Project description:Unkeshwar hot springs are located at geographical South East Deccan Continental basalt of India. Here, we report the microbial community analysis of this hot spring using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. The analysis revealed a total of 848,096 reads with 212.87 Mbps with 50.87% G + C content. Metagenomic sequences were deposited in SRA database with accession number (SUB1242219). Community analysis revealed 99.98% sequences belonging to bacteria and 0.01% to archaea and 0.01% to Viruses. The data obtained revealed 41 phyla including bacteria and Archaea and including 719 different species. In taxonomic analysis, the dominant phyla were found as, Actinobacteria (56%), Verrucomicrobia (24%), Bacteriodes (13%), Deinococcus-Thermus (3%) and firmicutes (2%) and Viruses (2%). Furthermore, functional annotation using pathway information revealed dynamic potential of hot spring community in terms of metabolism, environmental information processing, cellular processes and other important aspects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of each contig sequence by assigning KEGG Orthology (KO) numbers revealed contig sequences that were assigned to metabolism, organismal system, Environmental Information Processing, cellular processes and human diseases with some unclassified sequences. The Unkeshwar hot springs offer rich phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential for biotechnological applications.
Project description:Chemosynthetic microbial communities develop and form dense cell aggregates in slightly alkaline sulfidic hot springs in the temperature range of 70-86°C at Nakabusa, Japan. Nitrogenase activity has recently been detected in the microbial communities collected. To identify possible members capable of nitrogen fixation, we examined the diversities of 16S rRNA and nitrogenase reductase (NifH) gene sequences in four types of chemosynthetic communities with visually different colors and thicknesses. The results of a 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that all four microbial communities had similar bacterial constituents; the phylum Aquificae was the dominant member, followed in abundance by Thermodesulfobacteria, Firmicutes, and Thermotogae. Most of the NifH sequences were related to sequences reported in hydrothermal vents and terrestrial hot springs. The results of a phylogenetic analysis of NifH sequences revealed diversity in this gene among the communities collected, distributed within 7 phylogenetic groups. NifH sequences affiliated with Aquificae (Hydrogenobacter/Thermocrinis) and Firmicutes (Caldicellulosiruptor) were abundant. At least two different energy metabolic pathways appeared to be related to nitrogen fixation in the communities analyzed; aerobic sulfur/hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in Aquificae and fermentative bacteria in Firmicutes. The metabolic characteristics of these two dominant phyla differed from those previously inferred from nitrogenase activity assays on chemosynthetic communities, which were associated with hydrogen-dependent autotrophic sulfate reduction. These assays may correspond to the observed NifH sequences that are distantly related to the known species of Thermodesulfovibrio sp. (Nitrospirae) detected in the present study. The activities of nitrogen-fixing organisms in communities may depend on redox states as well as the availability of electron donors, acceptors, and carbon sources.
Project description:Diverse microorganisms specifically inhabit extreme environments, such as hot springs and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. To test the hypothesis that the microbial community structure is predictable based on environmental factors characteristic of such extreme environments, we conducted correlation analyses of microbial taxa/functions and environmental factors using metagenomic and 61 types of physicochemical data of water samples from nine hot springs in the Kirishima area (Kyusyu, Japan), where hot springs with diverse chemical properties are distributed in a relatively narrow area. Our metagenomic analysis revealed that the samples can be classified into two major types dominated by either phylum Crenarchaeota or phylum Aquificae. The correlation analysis showed that Crenarchaeota dominated in nutrient-rich environments with high concentrations of ions and total carbons, whereas Aquificae dominated in nutrient-poor environments with low ion concentrations. These environmental factors were also important explanatory variables in the generalized linear models constructed to predict the abundances of Crenarchaeota or Aquificae. Functional enrichment analysis of genes also revealed that the separation of the two major types is primarily attributable to genes involved in autotrophic carbon fixation, sulfate metabolism and nitrate reduction. Our results suggested that Aquificae and Crenarchaeota play a vital role in the Kirishima hot spring water ecosystem through their metabolic pathways adapted to each environment. Our findings provide a basis to predict microbial community structures in hot springs from environmental parameters, and also provide clues for the exploration of biological resources in extreme environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Himalaya is an ecologically pristine environment. The geo-tectonic activities have shaped various environmental niches with diverse microbial populations throughout the Himalayan biosphere region. Albeit, limited information is available in terms of molecular insights into the microbiome, including the uncultured microbes, of the Himalayan habitat. Hence, a vast majority of genomic resources are still under-explored from this region. Metagenome analysis has simplified the extensive in-depth exploration of diverse habitats. In the present study, the culture-independent whole metagenome sequencing methodology was employed for microbial diversity exploration and identification of genes involved in various metabolic pathways in two geothermal springs located at different altitudes in the Sikkim Himalaya. RESULTS:The two hot springs, Polok and Reshi, have distinct abiotic conditions. The average temperature of Polok and Reshi was recorded to be 62?°C and 43?°C, respectively. Both the aquatic habitats have alkaline geochemistry with pH in the range of 7-8. Community profile analysis revealed genomic evidence of plentiful bacteria, with a minute fraction of the archaeal population in hot water reservoirs of Polok and Reshi hot spring. Mesophilic microbes belonging to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla were predominant at both the sites. Polok exhibited an extravagant representation of Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, Aquificae, and Thermotogae. Metabolic potential analysis depicted orthologous genes associated with sulfur, nitrogen, and methane metabolism, contributed by the microflora in the hydrothermal system. The genomic information of many novel carbohydrate-transforming enzymes was deciphered in the metagenomic description. Further, the genomic capacity of antimicrobial biomolecules and antibiotic resistance were discerned. CONCLUSION:The study provided comprehensive molecular information about the microbial treasury as well as the metabolic features of the two geothermal sites. The thermal aquatic niches were found a potential bioresource of biocatalyst systems for biomass-processing. Overall, this study provides the whole metagenome based insights into the taxonomic and functional profiles of Polok and Reshi hot springs of the Sikkim Himalaya. The study generated a wealth of genomic data that can be explored for the discovery and characterization of novel genes encoding proteins of industrial importance.
Project description:Various aspects of hot springs at Bakreshwar (Lat. 23°52'48?N; Long. 87°22'40?E) in West Bengal, India have been investigated since the middle of 20th century, but comprehending the complete diversity and the complexity of the microbial population therein has been in the continuing process. Some of these microorganisms are found to have immense industrial importance. Microbes generally exist in milieus of varying complexities and diversities. Attempting the usually employed cultivation-based techniques in experimentation with those microbes had confronted various limitations. To overcome these limitations a strategy based on high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis was employed for studying the differential diversity and the detailed nature of microbial population of the two hot springs of Bakreshwar (54 °C & 65 °C). Paired-end libraries of amplified V-3 hyper-variable 16S rDNA fragments from sets of samples that varied in their contents, ranging from a single bacterium to highly complex communities were sequenced. The comparison revealed the differential aspects in the two hot spring waters; the samples at 54 °C showed the bacterial phylum Firmicutes (65.85%) and Synergistetes (27.24%) predominating and those from hot spring water at 65 °C showed the abundance of the phyla Firmicutes (96.10%) and Proteobacteria (3.36%). The presence of Archaea in the hot springs could not be ascertained.
Project description:Little is known about the distribution and ecological functions of abundant, intermediate, and rare biospheres and their correlations with environmental factors in hot springs. Here, we explored the microbial community composition of total, abundant, intermediate, and rare biospheres in 66 Tibetan hot springs (pairwise geographic distance 0-610 km, temperature 32-86°C, pH 3.0-9.5, and salinity 0.13-1.32 g/L) with the use of Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the abundant sub-communities were mainly composed of Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Aquificae, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, the rare sub-communities mainly consisted of most newly proposed or candidate phyla of Dictyoglomi, Hydrogenedentes, Atribacteria, Hadesarchaea, Aminicenantes, Microgenomates, Calescamantes, Omnitrophica, Altiarchaeales, and Chlamydiae. However, the abundant and rare sub-communities shared some common phyla (e.g., Crenarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota, and Chlorobi), which were composed of different OTUs. The abundant, intermediate, and rare sub-communities were mainly influenced by different environmental variables, which could be ascribed to the fact that they may have different growth and activity and thus respond differently to these variables. Spatial factors showed more contribution to shaping of the intermediate and rare communities than to abundant sub-community, suggesting that the abundant taxa were more easily dispersed than their rare counterparts among hot springs. Microbial ecological function prediction revealed that the abundant and rare sub-communities responded differently to the measured environmental factors, suggesting they may occupy different ecological niches in hot springs. The rare sub-communities may play more important roles in organic matter degradation than their abundant counterparts in hot springs. Collectively, this study provides a better understanding on the microbial community structure and potential ecological functions of the abundant and rare biospheres in hot spring ecosystems. The identified rare taxa provide new opportunities of ecological, taxonomic and genomic discoveries in Tibetan hot springs.
Project description:Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5-55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5-98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together, the results of this study reveal a novel consortium of microbes, genes, and pathways associated with the hot spring environment.