Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).
ABSTRACT: Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990's. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of reindeer to BVDV-1 has been confirmed under experimental conditions.
Project description:The <i>Pestivirus</i> genus comprises species that affect animal health and productivity worldwide. Members of the <i>Suidae</i> family are hosts for classical swine fever virus (CSFV), an important pathogen tracked by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). However, swine are also susceptible to other pestivirus species that can result in disease or compromise CSFV detection. We searched for pestivirus infection in swine sera collected from 320 backyard pig herds in southern Brazil. We used reverse-transcription PCR primers for Bungowannah virus; atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV); and a panpestivirus pair that detects bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1, -2, and HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBiPeV), border disease virus (BDV), and CSFV. Two samples were positive using the panpestivirus primer pair and were classified as BVDV-1d and -2a, respectively. Serum samples were tested for virus neutralization against BVDV-1a, -1b, and -2 strains, resulting in 28 (4.4%) positive samples. Of those, 16 samples had the highest titers against BVDV-1a (2), BVDV-1b (5), and BVDV-2 (9). Our results indicate that Bungowannah virus, APPV, CSFV, BDV, and HoBiPeV have not been circulating in these specific backyard swine populations. However, ruminant pestiviruses were detected and must be considered in future pestivirus control programs conducted in Brazil.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Border disease virus (BDV) is a pestivirus responsible for significant economic losses in sheep industry. The present study was conducted between 2015 and 2016 to determine the flock seroprevalence of the disease in Algeria and to identify associated risk factors. 56 flocks from nine departments were visited and 689 blood samples were collected from adult sheep between 6 and 24 months of age (n?=?576) and from lambs younger than 6 months (n?=?113). All samples were tested by RT-PCR as well as by Ag-ELISA, to detect Persistently Infected (PI) animals. Serum samples from adults were tested by Ab-ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay), to detect specific antibodies against pestivirus and 197 of them were further characterized by VNT (virus neutralization test) for the detection of neutralizing antibodies specific for BDV and for Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).<h4>Results</h4>No PI animals were found among the 689 sheep tested. 144/197 sera were positive in VNT for BDV, and 2 sera were strongly positive BVDV-2. Fifty-five flocks (98%) had at least one seropositive animal and the apparent within-flock seroprevalence was estimated to be 60.17% (95% C.I.: 52.96-66.96). The true seroprevalence based on estimated sensitivity and specificity of the Ab-ELISA was 68.20% (95% C.I.; 60.2-76.3). Several risk factors were identified as linked to BDV such as climate, landscape, flock management and presence of other ruminant species in the farm.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These high seroprevalence rates suggest that BDV is widespread and is probably endemic all over the country. Further studies are needed to detect and isolate the virus strains circulating in the country and understand the distribution and impact of pestiviruses in the Algerian livestock.
Project description:The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae comprises three established species, namely, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus from sheep (BDV). In this study, we report the first complete nucleotide sequence of BDV, that of strain X818. The genome is 12,333 nucleotides long and contains one long open reading frame encoding 3, 895 amino acids. The 5' noncoding region (NCR) of BDV X818 consists of 372 nucleotides and is thus similar in length to the 5' NCR reported for other pestiviruses. The 3' NCR of X818 is 273 nucleotides long and thereby at least 32 nucleotides longer than the 3' NCR of pestiviruses analyzed thus far. Within the 3' NCR of BDV X818, the sequence motif TATTTATTTA was identified at four locations. The same repeat was found at two or three locations within the 3' NCR of different CSFV isolates but was absent in the 3' NCR of BVDV. Analysis of five additional BDV strains showed that the 3' NCR sequences are highly conserved within this species. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of X818 with the ones of other pestiviruses allowed the prediction of polyprotein cleavage sites which were conserved with regard to the structural proteins. It has been reported for two BVDV strains that cleavage at the nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B is mediated by the NS3 serine protease and for each site a conserved leucine was found at the P1 position followed by either serine or alanine at P1' (N. Tautz, K. Elbers, D. Stoll, G. Meyers, and H.-J. Thiel, J. Virol. 71:5415-5422, 1997; J. Xu, E. Mendez, P. R. Caron, C. Lin, M. A. Murcko, M. S. Collett, and C. M. Rice, J. Virol. 71:5312-5322). Interestingly, P1' of the predicted NS5A/5B cleavage site of BDV is represented by an asparagine residue. Transient expression studies demonstrated that this unusual NS5A/5B processing site is efficiently cleaved by the NS3 serine protease of BDV.
Project description:Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.
Project description:Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), together with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV) of sheep, belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae. BVDV is either cytopathic (cp) or noncytopathic (ncp), as defined by its effect on cultured cells. Infection of pregnant animals with the ncp biotype may lead to the birth of persistently infected calves that are immunotolerant to the infecting viral strain. In addition to evading the adaptive immune system, BVDV evades key mechanisms of innate immunity. Previously, we showed that ncp BVDV inhibits the induction of apoptosis and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) synthesis by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here, we report that (i) both ncp and cp BVDV block the induction by dsRNA of the Mx protein (which can also be induced in the absence of IFN signaling); (ii) neither biotype blocks the activity of IFN; and (iii) once infection is established, BVDV is largely resistant to the activity of IFN-alpha/beta but (iv) does not interfere with the establishment of an antiviral state induced by IFN-alpha/beta against unrelated viruses. The results of our study suggest that, in persistent infection, BVDV is able to evade a central element of innate immunity directed against itself without generally compromising its activity against unrelated viruses ("nonself") that may replicate in cells infected with ncp BVDV. This highly selective "self" and "nonself" model of evasion of the interferon defense system may be a key element in the success of persistent infection in addition to immunotolerance initiated by the early time point of fetal infection.
Project description:Border disease virus (BDV) is a recognized virus in the genus Pestivirus and causes border disease (BD) in sheep and goats. Here, a novel BDV strain, JSLS12-01, was identified from sheep in Jiangsu Province, China. The complete coding sequence (CDS) was finished, which provides a better understanding of the molecular evolution of BDV isolates.
Project description:Pestiviruses are distributed worldwide and are responsible for a variety of economically important diseases. They are not very host-specific, and thus sheep can be infected by well-known pestiviruses like bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), as well as by other recently discovered pestivirus species. The aim of this study is to describe the isolation and characterization of four pestivirus strains detected in aborted lamb fetuses from a single farm in the Brescia province (Northern Italy). A total of twelve aborted fetuses were collected and examined. After necropsy, organs were tested for the presence of infectious agents known as potential causes of abortion (Brucella spp., Listeria spp., Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Mycoplasma spp., Neospora caninum, and Toxoplasma gondii), and submitted to viral identification by isolation on Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell culture and by PCR assay for Schmallenberg virus and pan-pestivirus RT-PCR real time assay. Three viral strains (Ovine/IT/1756/2017, Ovine/IT/338710-2/2017, and Ovine/IT/338710-3/2017) were isolated in the absence of cytopathic effects (CPEs) in cell cultures and identified with RT-PCR. Another pestivirus strain (Ovine/IT/16235-2/2018) was detected by PCR, but was not successfully isolated. Complete sequence genomic data of the three isolated viruses showed that they were highly similar, differed genetically from known pestivirus species, and were closely related to classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Beyond the identification of new ovine pestiviruses, this study indicates that a systematic diagnostic approach is important to identify the presence and map the distribution of both known and emerging pestiviruses.
Project description:Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus which exists in the two distinct species BVDV-1 (syn. <i>Pestivirus A</i>) and BVDV-2 (syn. <i>Pestivirus B</i>), is the causative agent of one of the most widespread and economically important virus infections in cattle. For economic as well as for animal health reasons, an increasing number of national BVDV control programs were recently implemented. The main focus lies on the detection and removal of persistently infected cattle. The application of efficient marker or DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines would be beneficial for the eradication success in regions with a high BVDV prevalence to prevent fetal infection and it would allow serological monitoring of the BVDV status also in vaccinated farms. Therefore, a marker vaccine based on the cytopathic (cp) BVDV-1b strain CP7 was constructed as a synthetic backbone (BVDV-1b_synCP7). For serological discrimination of vaccinated from infected animals, the viral protein E<sup>rns</sup> was substituted by the heterologous E<sup>rns</sup> of Bungowannah virus (BuPV, species <i>Pestivirus F</i>). In addition, the vaccines were attenuated by a deletion within the type I interferon inhibitor N<sup>pro</sup> protein encoding sequence. The BVDV-2 vaccine candidate is based on the genetic sequence of the glycoproteins E1 and E2 of BVDV-2 strain CS8644 (CS), which were introduced into the backbone of BVDV-1b_synCP7_?N<sup>pro</sup>_E<sup>rns</sup> Bungo in substitution of the homologous glycoproteins. Vaccine virus recovery resulted in infectious cytopathic virus chimera that grew to titers of up to 10<sup>6</sup> TCID<sub>50</sub>/mL. Both synthetic chimera BVDV-1b_synCP7_?N<sup>pro</sup>_E<sup>rns</sup> Bungo and BVDV-1b_synCP7_?N<sup>pro</sup>_E<sup>rns</sup> Bungo_E1E2 BVDV-2 CS were avirulent in cattle, provided a high level of protection in immunization and challenge experiments against both BVDV species and allowed differentiation of infected from vaccinated cattle. Our study presents the first report on an efficient BVDV-1 and -2 modified live marker vaccine candidate and the accompanying commercially available serological marker ELISA system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV) pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. RESULTS: To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical swine fever virus, a pestivirus, and the hepatitis C viruses, another genus of the Flaviviridae. CONCLUSION: The IRES of the non-cytopathic BVDV SD-1 strain displays features known from other pestivirus IRESes. The predicted pseudoknot in the 5'UTR of BVDV SD-1 virus represents an important structural element in BVDV translation.
Project description:The genus pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae includes bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus. The two recognised genotypes of BVDV are divided into subtypes based on phylogenetic analysis, namely a-p for BVDV-1 and a-c for BVDV-2.Three studies were conducted to investigate the phylogenetic diversity of pestiviruses present in Northern Ireland. Firstly, pestiviruses in 152 serum samples that had previously tested positive for BVDV between 1999 and 2008 were genotyped with a RT-PCR assay. Secondly, the genetic heterogeneity of pestiviruses from 91 serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 was investigated by phylogenetic analysis of a 288 base pair portion of the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Finally, blood samples from 839 bovine and 4,437 ovine animals imported in 2010 and 2011 were tested for pestiviral RNA. Analysis of animal movement data alongside the phylogenetic analysis of the strains was carried out to identify any links between isolates and animal movement.No BVDV-2 strains were detected. All of the 152 samples in the first study were genotyped as BVDV-1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predominant subtype circulating was BVDV-1a (86 samples out of 91). The remaining five samples clustered close to reference strains in subtype BVDV-1b. Out of the imported animals, 18 bovine samples tested positive and 8 inconclusive (Ct ?36), while all ovine samples were negative. Eight sequences were obtained and were defined as BVDV-1b. Analysis of movement data between herds failed to find links between herds where BVDV-1b was detected.Given that only BVDV-1a was detected in samples collected between 1968 and 1999, this study suggests that at least one new subtype has been introduced to Northern Ireland between 1999 and 2011 and highlights the potential for importation of cattle to introduce new strains.