Induction of lcc2 expression and activity by Agaricus bisporus provides defence against Trichoderma aggressivum toxic extracts.
ABSTRACT: Laccases are used by fungi for several functions including defence responses to stresses associated with attack by other fungi. Laccase activity changes and the induction of two laccase genes, lcc1 and lcc2, in Agaricus bisporus were measured in response to toxic extracts of medium in which Trichoderma aggressivum, the cause of green mould disease, was grown. A strain of A.?bisporus that shows resistance to the extracts showed higher basal levels and greater enzymatic activity after extract exposure than did a sensitive strain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of T.?aggressivum extract with laccases reduced toxicity. Faster induction and greater numbers of lcc2 transcripts in response to the extract were noted in the resistant strain than in the sensitive strain. The timing and increase in lcc2 transcript abundance mirrored changes in total laccase activity. No correlation between resistance and lcc1 transcription was apparent. Transcript abundance in transformants with a siRNA construct homologous to both genes varied widely. A strong negative correlation between transcript abundance and sensitivity of the transformant to toxic extract was observed in plate assays. These results indicated that laccase activity and in particular that encoded by lcc2 contributes to toxin metabolism and by extension green mould disease resistance.
Project description:The litter-degrading dung fungus Coprinopsis cinerea has the high number of seventeen different laccase genes. In this work, ten different monokaryons were compared in their ability to produce laccases in two different complete media at different temperatures. Few strains showed laccase activity at the optimal growth temperature of 37 °C. Nine of the strains gave laccase activities between 0.2 and 5.9 U mL(-1) at the suboptimal temperature of 25 °C in mKjalke medium. Laccase activities in YMG/T medium were detected for only three strains (0.5-4.5 U mL(-1)). Zymograms of supernatants from mKjalke medium resulted in total in 10 different laccase bands but strains differed in distribution. LC-MS/MS analysis with Mascot searches of the annotated C. cinerea genome identified isoenzymes from five different genes (Lcc1, Lcc2, Lcc5, Lcc9 and Lcc10) and of Lcc1 three and of Lcc5 two distinct electrophoretical forms. Lcc1 and Lcc5 were expressed in all laccase positive strains, but not all forms were found in all of the strains. Lcc2, Lcc9 and Lcc10 occurred only in three strains as minor laccases, indicating that Lcc1 and Lcc5 are the main laccases of C. cinerea secreted in liquid mKjalke medium.
Project description:Two laccases have been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity from the extracellular medium of a 2,5-xylidine-induced culture of the white rot basidiomycete Trametes villosa (Polyporus pinsitus or Coriolus pinsitus). These proteins are dimeric, consisting of two subunits of 63 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and have typical blue laccase spectral properties. Under nondenaturing conditions, the two purified laccases have different pIs; purified laccase forms 1 and 3 have pIs of 3.5 and 6 to 6.5, respectively. A third purified laccase form 2 has the same N terminus as that of laccase form 3, but its pI is in the range of 5 to 6. The laccases have optimal activity at pH 5 to 5.5 and pH < or = 2.7 with syringaldazine and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] as substrates, respectively. The genes lcc1 and lcc2 coding for the two purified laccases (forms 1 and 3) have been cloned, and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. The genes for lcc1 and lcc2 have 8 and 10 introns, respectively. The predicted proteins are 79% identical at the amino acid level. From Northern (RNA) blots containing total RNA from both induced and uninduced cultures, expression of lcc1 is highly induced, while the expression of lcc2 appears to be constitutive. Lcc1 has been expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the purified recombinant protein has the same pI, spectral properties, stability, and pH profiles as the purified native protein.
Project description:A new lignin-degrading basidiomycete, strain I-62 (CECT 20197), isolated from decayed wood exhibited both a high dephenolization activity and decolorization capacity when tested on effluents from the sugar cane by-product fermentation industry. It has been classified as a member of the Polyporaceae family. The major ligninolytic activity detected in culture supernatants of basidiomycete I-62 was a phenoloxidase (laccase), in conjunction with small amounts of manganese peroxidase. No lignin peroxidase was detected. Laccase activity was produced in either defined or complete media. Addition of veratryl alcohol as the inducer, in defined medium, enhanced laccase production 10-fold. The use of fructose instead of glucose as a carbon source resulted in a 100-fold increase in laccase specific activity. Native isoelectrofocusing gels stained with guaiacol revealed the presence of at least seven laccase isozymes, with the most intense band being detected at pI 3. Southern hybridization analysis indicated the presence of a laccase gene family in strain I-62. Three different genes coding for phenoloxidases, lcc1, lcc2, and lcc3, were cloned and characterized. The high degree of homology between laccases from strain I-62 and laccases from Trametes species suggests a phylogenetic proximity between this new isolated fungus and the genus Trametes.
Project description:A laccase from Coprinus cinereus is active at alkaline pH, an essential property for some potential applications. We cloned and sequenced three laccase genes (lcc1, lcc2, and lcc3) from the ink cap basidiomycete C. cinereus. The lcc1 gene contained 7 introns, while both lcc2 and lcc3 contained 13 introns. The predicted mature proteins (Lcc1 to Lcc3) are 58 to 80% identical at the amino acid level. The predicted Lcc1 contains a 23-amino-acid C-terminal extension rich in arginine and lysine, suggesting that C-terminal processing may occur during its biosynthesis. We expressed the Lcc1 protein in Aspergillus oryzae and purified it. The Lcc1 protein as expressed in A. oryzae has an apparent molecular mass of 66 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and absorption maxima at 278 and 614 nm. Based on the N-terminal protein sequence of the laccase, a 4-residue propeptide was processed during the maturation of the enzyme. The dioxygen specificity of the laccase showed an apparent K(m) of 21 +/- 2 microM and a catalytic constant of 200 +/- 10 min(-1) for O(2) with 2, 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as the reducing substrate at pH 5.5. Lcc1 from A. oryzae may be useful in industrial applications. This is the first report of a basidiomycete laccase whose biosynthesis involves both N-terminal and C-terminal processing.
Project description:Bacillus velezensis QST713 is widely used as a biological control agent for crop protection and disease suppression. This strain is used industrially in France for the protection of Agaricus bisporus against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum, which causes green mold disease. The efficacy of this biocontrol process was evaluated in a previous study, yet the mode of its action has not been explored under production conditions. In order to decipher the underlying biocontrol mechanisms for effective biofilm formation by strain QST713 in the compost and for the involvement of antimicrobial compounds, we developed a simplified micromodel for the culture of A. bisporus during its early culture cycle. By using this micromodel system, we studied the transcriptional response of strain QST713 in the presence or absence of A. bisporus and/or T. aggressivum in axenic industrial compost. We report the overexpression of several genes of the biocontrol agent involved in biofilm formation in the compost compared to their expression during growth in broth compost extract either in the exponential growth phase (the epsC, blsA, and tapA genes) or in the stationary growth phase (the tapA gene), while a gene encoding a flagellar protein (hag) was underexpressed. We also report the overexpression of Bacillus velezensis QST713 genes related to surfactin (srfAA) and fengycin (fenA) production in the presence of the fungal pathogen in the compost.IMPORTANCE Biocontrol agents are increasingly used to replace chemical pesticides to prevent crop diseases. In the button mushroom field in France, the use of Bacillus velezensis QST713 as a biocontrol agent against the green mold Trichoderma aggressivum has been shown to be efficient. However, the biocontrol mechanisms effective in the Agaricus bisporus/Trichoderma aggressivum/Bacillus velezensis QST713 pathosystem are still unknown. Our paper focuses on the exploration of the bioprotection mechanisms of the biocontrol agent Bacillus velezensis QST713 during culture of the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in a micromodel culture system to study the specific response of strain QST713 in the presence of T. aggressivum and/or A. bisporus.
Project description:<i>Schizophyllum commune</i> is a filamentous basidiomycete causing white-rot in many wood species with the help of a broad range of enzymes including multicopper oxidases such as laccases and laccase-like oxidases. Since these enzymes exhibit a broad substrate range, their ability to oxidatively degrade black slate was investigated. Both haploid monokaryotic, and mated dikaryotic strains were able to grow on black slate rich in organic carbon as sole carbon source. On defined media, only the monokaryon showed growth promotion by addition of slate. At the same time, metals were released from the slate and, after reaching a threshold concentration, inhibited further growth of the fungus. The proteome during decomposition of the black slate showed induction of proteins potentially involved in rock degradation and stress resistance, and the gene for laccase-like oxidase <i>mco2</i> was up-regulated. Specifically in the dikaryon, the laccase gene <i>lcc1</i> was induced, while <i>lcc2</i> as well as <i>mco1, mco3</i>, and <i>mco4</i> expression levels remained similar. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that both life forms were able to degrade the rock and produce smaller particles.
Project description:Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.
Project description:Although the model agaricomycete Coprinopsis cinerea possess 17 different laccase genes, up to now only four C. cinerea laccases have been purified and characterized to some degree. By exchanging the nucleotide sequence of the deduced signal peptide of Lcc8 it was possible to homologously express lcc8 in C. cinerea under control of the Agaricus bisporus gdpII promoter and the C. cinerea lcc1 terminator. The purified Lcc8 showed two bands in the SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 64 kDa and 77 kDa, respectively. The IEF determined pI values of 3.3 and 3.4 for both bands. The optimal pH for oxidation of the substrates ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol and syringaldazine was pH 4.0, pH 5.0, pH 4.5 and pH 5.0, respectively. Best pH for enzyme storage was pH 8.0. The optimal temperature for oxidation of ABTS was 63 °C, while Lcc8 showed activity of at least 50% over 300 min at 50 °C. The comparable high stability of Lcc8 at alkaline pH and higher temperatures can be of interest for biotechnical applications.
Project description:Laccases are a class of multi-copper oxidases with industrial potential. In this study, eight laccases (Lac1-8) from Cerrena sp. strain HYB07, a white-rot fungus with high laccase yields, were analyzed. The laccases showed moderate identities to each other as well as with other fungal laccases and were predicted to have high redox potentials except for Lac6. Selected laccase isozymes were heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and different enzymatic properties were observed. Transcription of the eight laccase genes was differentially regulated during submerged and solid state fermentation, as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and validated reference genes. During 6-day submerged fermentation, Lac7 and 2 were successively the predominantly expressed laccase gene, accounting for over 95% of all laccase transcripts. Interestingly, accompanying Lac7 downregulation, Lac2 transcription was drastically upregulated on days 3 and 5 to 9958-fold of the level on day 1. Consistent with high mRNA abundance, Lac2 and 7, but not other laccases, were identified in the fermentation broth by LC-MS/MS. In solid state fermentation, less dramatic differences in transcript abundance were observed, and Lac3, 7 and 8 were more highly expressed than other laccase genes. Elucidating the properties and expression profiles of the laccase gene family will facilitate understanding, production and commercialization of the fungal strain and its laccases.
Project description:Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is a significant clinical problem in treating patients with estrogen receptor ? (ER?)+ breast cancer. We reported that ER? increases nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), which regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene transcription, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NRF-1 knockdown stimulates apoptosis. Whether NRF-1 and target gene expression is altered in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells is unknown. We measured NRF-1and metabolic features in a cell model of progressive TAM-resistance. NRF-1 and its target mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were higher in TAM-resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells than TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Using extracellular flux assays we observed that LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells showed similar oxygen consumption rate (OCR), but lower mitochondrial reserve capacity which was correlated with lower Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit B in LCC1 and LCC2 cells. Complex III activity was lower in LCC9 than MCF-7 cells. LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells had higher basal extracellular acidification (ECAR), indicating higher aerobic glycolysis, relative to MCF-7 cells. Mitochondrial bioenergetic responses to estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were reduced in the endocrine-resistant cells compared to MCF-7 cells. These results suggest the acquisition of altered metabolic phenotypes in response to long term antiestrogen treatment may increase vulnerability to metabolic stress.