The periciliary ring in polarized epithelial cells is a hot spot for delivery of the apical protein gp135.
ABSTRACT: In polarized epithelial cells, newly synthesized cell surface proteins travel in carrier vesicles from the trans Golgi network to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Despite extensive research on polarized trafficking, the sites of protein delivery are not fully characterized. Here we use the SNAP tag system to examine the site of delivery of the apical glycoprotein gp135. We show that a cohort of gp135 is delivered to a ring surrounding the base of the primary cilium, followed by microtubule-dependent radial movement away from the cilium. Delivery to the periciliary ring was specific to newly synthesized and not recycling protein. A subset of this newly delivered protein traverses the basolateral membrane en route to the apical membrane. Crumbs3a, another apical protein, was not delivered to the periciliary region, instead making its initial apical appearance in a pattern that resembled its steady-state distribution. Our results demonstrate a surprising "hot spot" for gp135 protein delivery at the base of the primary cilium and suggest the existence of a novel microtubule-based directed movement of a subset of apical surface proteins.
Project description:Polarized epithelial cells sort newly synthesized and recycling plasma membrane proteins into distinct trafficking pathways directed to either the apical or basolateral membrane domains. While the trans-Golgi network is a well-established site of protein sorting, increasing evidence indicates a key role for endosomes in the initial trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. Both basolateral and apical proteins have been shown to traverse endosomes en route to the plasma membrane. In particular, apical proteins traffic through either subapical early or recycling endosomes. Here we use the SNAP tag system to analyze the trafficking of the apical protein gp135, also known as podocalyxin. We show that newly synthesized gp135 traverses the apical recycling endosome, but not the apical early endosomes (AEEs). In contrast, post-endocytic gp135 is delivered to the AEE before recycling back to the apical membrane. The pathways pursued by the newly synthesized and recycling gp135 populations do not detectably intersect, demonstrating that the biosynthetic and post-endocytic pools of this protein are subjected to distinct sorting processes.
Project description:Epithelial polarization involves the segregation of apical and basolateral membrane domains, which are stabilized and maintained by tight junctions and membrane traffic. We report that unlike most apical and basolateral proteins in MDCK cells, which separate only after junctions have formed, the apical marker gp135 signifies an early level of polarized membrane organization established already in single cells. We identified gp135 as the dog orthologue of podocalyxin. With a series of domain mutants we show that the COOH-terminal PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding motif is targeting podocalyxin to the free surface of single cells as well as to a subdomain of the terminally polarized apical membrane. This special localization of podocalyxin is shared by the cytoplasmic PDZ-protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-2. Depleting podocalyxin by RNA interference caused defects in epithelial polarization. Together, our data suggest that podocalyxin and NHERF-2 function in epithelial polarization by contributing to an early apical scaffold based on PDZ domain-mediated interactions.
Project description:In polarized epithelial cells, newly synthesized membrane proteins are delivered on specific pathways to either the apical or basolateral domains, depending on the sorting motifs present in these proteins. Because myosin VI has been shown to facilitate secretory traffic in nonpolarized cells, we investigated its role in biosynthetic trafficking pathways in polarized MDCK cells. We observed that a specific splice isoform of myosin VI with no insert in the tail domain is required for the polarized transport of tyrosine motif containing basolateral membrane proteins. Sorting of other basolateral or apical cargo, however, does not involve myosin VI. Site-directed mutagenesis indicates that a functional complex consisting of myosin VI, optineurin, and probably the GTPase Rab8 plays a role in the basolateral delivery of membrane proteins, whose sorting is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex (AP) AP-1B. Our results suggest that myosin VI is a crucial component in the AP-1B-dependent biosynthetic sorting pathway to the basolateral surface in polarized epithelial cells.
Project description:Polarized epithelial cells contain apical and basolateral surfaces with distinct protein compositions. To establish and maintain this asymmetry, newly made plasma membrane proteins are sorted in the trans Golgi network for delivery to apical or basolateral surfaces. Signals for basolateral sorting are generally located in the cytoplasmic domain of the protein, whereas signals for apical sorting can be in any part of the protein and can depend on N-linked glycosylation of the protein. Signals for constitutive transcytosis to the apical surface have not been reported. In this study, we used the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), which is biosynthetically delivered to the basolateral surface. There the pIgR can bind a ligand and, with or without bound ligand, the pIgR can then be transcytosed to the apical surface. We found that the glycosylation of the pIgR did not affect the biosynthetic transport of the pIgR. However, glycosylation had an effect on pIgR apical transcytosis. Importantly, analysis of the cytoplasmic tail of the pIgR suggested that a short peptide segment was sufficient to transcytose the pIgR or a neutral reporter from the basolateral to the apical surface. This apical transcytosis sorting signal was not involved in polarized biosynthetic traffic of the pIgR.
Project description:The polarized organization of epithelial cells is required for vectorial solute transport and may be altered in renal cystic diseases. Vesicle integral protein of 17 kDa (VIP17/MAL) is involved in apical vesicle transport. VIP17/MAL overexpression in vivo results in renal cystogenesis of unknown etiology. Renal cystogenesis can occur as a consequence of defects of the primary cilium. To explore the role of VIP17/MAL in renal cystogenesis and ciliogenesis, we examined the polarization and ciliary morphology of wild-type and VIP17/MAL overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney renal epithelial cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cyst culture. VIP17/MAL is apically localized when expressed in cells maintained in 2D and 3D culture. VIP17/MAL overexpressing cells produce more multilumen cysts compared with controls. While the distributions of basolateral markers are not affected, VIP17/MAL expression results in aberrant sorting of the apical marker gp135 to the primary cilium. VIP17/MAL overexpression is also associated with shortened or absent cilia. Immunofluorescence analysis performed on kidney sections from VIP17/MAL transgenic mice also demonstrates fewer and shortened cilia within dilated lumens (P < 0.01). These studies demonstrate that VIP17/MAL overexpression results in abnormal cilium and cyst development, in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that VIP17/MAL overexpressing mice may develop cysts secondary to a ciliary defect.
Project description:Podocalyxin/Gp135 was recently demonstrated to participate in the formation of a preapical complex to set up initial polarity in MDCK cells, a function presumably depending on the apical targeting of Gp135. We show that correct apical sorting of Gp135 depends on a bipartite signal composed of an extracellular O-glycosylation-rich region and the intracellular PDZ domain-binding motif. The function of this PDZ-binding motif could be substituted with a fusion construct of Gp135 with Ezrin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). In accordance with this observation, EBP50 binds to newly synthesized Gp135 at the Golgi apparatus and facilitates oligomerization and sorting of Gp135 into a clustering complex. A defective connection between Gp135 and EBP50 or EBP50 knockdown results in a delayed exit from the detergent-resistant microdomain, failure of oligomerization, and basolateral missorting of Gp135. Furthermore, the basolaterally missorted EBP50-binding defective mutant of Gp135 was rapidly retrieved via a PKC-dependent mechanism. According to these findings, we propose a model by which a highly negative charged transmembrane protein could be packed into an apical sorting platform with the aid of its cytoplasmic partner EBP50.
Project description:Although epithelial cells are known to exhibit a polarized distribution of membrane components, the pathways responsible for delivering membrane proteins to their appropriate domains remain unclear. Using an optimized approach to three-dimensional live cell imaging, we have visualized the transport of newly synthesized apical and basolateral membrane proteins in fully polarized filter-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. We performed a detailed quantitative kinetic analysis of trans-Golgi network (TGN) exit, passage through transport intermediates, and arrival at the plasma membrane using cyan/yellow fluorescent protein-tagged glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein as apical and basolateral reporters, respectively. For both pathways, exit from the TGN was rate limiting. Furthermore, apical and basolateral proteins were targeted directly to their respective membranes, resolving current confusion as to whether sorting occurs on the secretory pathway or only after endocytosis. However, a transcytotic protein did reach the apical surface after a prior appearance basolaterally. Finally, newly synthesized proteins appeared to be delivered to the entire lateral or apical surface, suggesting-contrary to expectations-that there is not a restricted site for vesicle docking or fusion adjacent to the junctional complex.
Project description:The polarity of epithelial cells is dependent on their ability to target proteins and lipids in a directional fashion. The trans-Golgi network, the endosomal compartment, and the plasma membrane act as sorting stations for proteins and lipids. The site of intracellular sorting and pathways used for the apical delivery of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are largely unclear. Using biochemical assays and confocal and video microscopy in living cells, we show that newly synthesized GPI-APs are directly delivered to the apical surface of fully polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Impairment of basolateral membrane fusion by treatment with tannic acid does not affect the direct apical delivery of GPI-APs, but it does affect the organization of tight junctions and the integrity of the monolayer. Our data clearly demonstrate that GPI-APs are directly sorted to the apical surface without passing through the basolateral membrane. They also reinforce the hypothesis that apical sorting of GPI-APs occurs intracellularly before arrival at the plasma membrane.
Project description:Unlike simple epithelial cells that directly target newly synthesized glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and single transmembrane domain (TMD) proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the apical membrane, hepatocytes use an indirect pathway: proteins are delivered to the basolateral domain and then selectively internalized and transcytosed to the apical plasma membrane. Myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) and MAL2 have been identified as regulators of direct and indirect apical delivery, respectively. Hepatocytes lack endogenous MAL consistent with the absence of direct apical targeting. Does MAL expression reroute hepatic apical residents into the direct pathway? We found that MAL expression in WIF-B cells induced the formation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-enriched Golgi domains that contained GPI-anchored and single TMD apical proteins; polymeric IgA receptor (pIgA-R), polytopic apical, and basolateral resident distributions were excluded. Basolateral delivery of newly synthesized apical residents was decreased in MAL-expressing cells concomitant with increased apical delivery; pIgA-R and basolateral resident delivery was unchanged. These data suggest that MAL rerouted selected hepatic apical proteins into the direct pathway.
Project description:MUC1 is efficiently delivered to the apical surface of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by transit through apical recycling endosomes, a route associated with delivery of apical proteins with glycan-dependent targeting signals. However, a role for glycans in MUC1 sorting has not been established. A key feature of MUC1 is a heavily O-glycosylated mucin-like domain with a variable number of nearly perfect tandem repeats and adjacent imperfect repeats. Metabolic labeling, cell surface biotinylation, immobilized lectins, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were used to characterize the polarized delivery of MUC1 mutants and chimeras in MDCK cells to identify the apical targeting signal. Both the interleukin-2 receptor ? subunit (Tac) and a chimera where the Tac ectodomain replaced that of MUC1 were delivered primarily to the basolateral surface. Attachment of the MUC1 mucin-like domain to the N terminus of Tac enhanced apical but not basolateral delivery when compared with Tac. Conversely, deletions within the mucin-like domain in MUC1 reduced apical but not basolateral delivery when compared with MUC1. In pull-down assays with lectins, we found a notable difference in the presence of core 1 O-glycans, but not poly-N-acetyllactosamine, in apically targeted MUC1 and chimeras when compared with Tac. Consistent with these data, we found no effect on MUC1 targeting when galectin-3, with preference for poly-N-acetyllactosamine, was depleted from polarized MDCK cells. However, we did block the apical targeting activity of the mucin-like repeats when we overexpressed CMP-Neu5Ac:GalNAc-R?2,6-sialyltransferase-1 to block core O-glycan synthesis. The cumulative data indicate that the core-glycosylated mucin-like repeats of MUC1 constitute an apical targeting signal.