Hepatic resection versus transarterial chemoembolization for the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, hepatic resection and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) should be recommended in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within and beyond the BCLC stage A, respectively. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the overall survival between HCC patients undergoing hepatic resection and TACE.PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were searched. All relevant studies were considered, if they reported the survival data in HCC patients undergoing hepatic resection and TACE. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the comparison of cumulative overall survival. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95%CIs were calculated for the comparison of 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the BCLC stages and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). Sensitivity analyses were performed in moderate- and high-quality studies and in studies published after 2005.Fifty of 2029 retrieved papers were included. One, 15, and 34 studies were of high-, moderate-, and low-quality, respectively. The overall meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significantly higher overall survival in hepatic resection group than in TACE group (HR=0.60, 95%CI=0.55-0.66). Additionally, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were statistically significantly higher in hepatic resection group than in TACE group (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.56-2.14; OR=3.09, 95%CI=2.60-3.67; OR=3.48, 95%CI=2.83-4.27). The subgroup meta-analyses confirmed the statistical significance in HCC within the BCLC stage A (HR=0.72, 95%CI=0.64-0.80), in HCC beyond the BCLC stage A (HR=0.60, 95%CI=0.51-0.69), in HCC within the BCLC stage B alone (HR=0.48, 95%CI=0.25-0.90), and in HCC with PVTT (HR=0.78, 95%CI=0.68-0.91). The statistical significance was also confirmed by sensitivity analyses in moderate- and high-quality studies (HR=0.62, 95%CI=0.53-0.71) and in studies published after 2005 (HR=0.59, 95%CI=0.53-0.66).Based on a systematic review and meta-analysis, hepatic resection may be considered in HCC beyond the BCLC stage A. However, given the limitations of study quality, more well-designed randomized controlled trials should be warranted to confirm these findings.
Project description:The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with hepatic resection may be improved by the adjunctive use of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). This study aimed to systematically compare the outcomes between hepatic resection with and without TACE groups.All relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs were searched by the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were two major outcomes. Meta-analyses were performed according to the timing of TACE (pre- or post-operative TACE). Subgroup analyses were also performed. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated.Overall, 55 papers were included (14 RCTs and 41 non-RCTs). Overall meta-analyses demonstrated that OS and DFS were statistically similar between hepatic resection with and without pre-operative TACE groups (HR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.87-1.19, P = 0.87; HR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.82-1.01, P = 0.07). Subgroup analyses of RCTs or non-RCTs showed that OS and DFS remained statistically similar between hepatic resection with and without pre-operative TACE groups. Subgroup analysis of incomplete or no tumor necrosis showed that OS was worse in hepatic resection with pre-operative TACE group than in hepatic resection without pre-operative TACE group. By contrast, subgroup analysis of complete tumor necrosis showed that DFS was better in hepatic resection with pre-operative TACE group than in hepatic resection without pre-operative TACE group.Overall meta-analyses demonstrated that OS and DFS were better in hepatic resection with post-operative TACE group than in hepatic resection without post-operative TACE group (HR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.72-1.00, P = 0.06; HR = 0.83, 95%CI = 0.73-0.94, P = 0.004). Subgroup analyses of RCTs, vascular invasion, or large HCC showed that OS and DFS remained better in hepatic resection with post-operative TACE group than in hepatic resection without post-operative TACE group. By contrast, subgroup analyses of non-RCTs, no vascular invasion, or small HCC showed that OS and DFS were statistically similar between the two groups.Post-operative TACE, rather than pre-operative TACE, may be considered as an adjunctive treatment option for HCC treated with hepatic resection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been used extensively for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), no consensus has been reached and an evidence base for practice is lacking. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of TACE for treatment of HCC with PVTT.<h4>Methods</h4>Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane library databases were searched up to August 2012 for controlled trials assessing TACE in patients with PVTT. Data concerning the study design, characteristics of trials, and outcomes were extracted. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random effects models.<h4>Results</h4>Eight controlled trials involving 1601 HCC patients were included. TACE significantly improved the 6-month (HR, 0.41; 95% CI: 0.32-0.53; z, 6.28; p = 0.000) and 1-year (HR, 0.44; 95% CI: 0.34-0.57; z, 6.22; p = 0.000) overall survival of patients with PVTT compared with conservative treatment. Subgroup analyses showed that TACE was significantly effective in HCC patients whether with main portal vein (MPV) obstruction or with segmental PVTT. Fatal complications were rare, even in patients with MPV obstruction. Temporary liver decompensation and postembolization syndrome occurred frequently. However, they could be treated successfully with conservative treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>TACE, as a safe treatment, has potential for incurring a survival benefit for advanced HCC with PVTT, even with MPV obstruction. Further large randomized controlled trials may be needed to confirm this result.
Project description:<h4>Background/aims</h4>It is important to identify patients who are refractory to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), which is performed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the predictors of poor treatment outcomes in patients with recurrent HCC treated who were treated with TACE after curative resection.<h4>Methods</h4>428 patients with recurrent HCC after curative resection who were treated with TACE were enrolled.<h4>Results</h4>The median age of the study population was 59.2 years. On multivariate analysis, ?2 TACE procedures within 6 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.898), and the des-gamma carboxyprothrombin level (HR = 1.000) independently predicted the progression to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C in patients with BCLC stage 0-B HCC (both P<0.05). In addition, ?2 and ?3 TACE procedures within 6 months independently predicted mortality in the entire study population (HR = 1.863 and 1.620, respectively). The probability of progression to BCLC stage C in patients with BCLC stage 0-B HCC and the mortality rate in the entire study population were significantly higher in patients treated with ?2 TACE within 6 months than in those who underwent fewer procedures (P = 0.002 and P<0.001, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>More than 2 TACE procedures within 6 months might be associated with the refractoriness to TACE in patients with recurrent HCC after curative resection.
Project description:BackgroundProphylactic transarterial chemoembolization (p-TACE) is strongly recommended for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with microvascular invasion (MVI), but the potential beneficiaries remain controversial.MethodsData of HCC patients with MVI who underwent R0 resection between December 2013 and December 2015 were identified through the primary liver cancer big data. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients who received p-TACE or not using Kaplan?–Meier survival curves before and after propensity scoring match (PSM).ResultsA total of 695 patients were eligible for this study, including 199 patients (28.6%) receiving p-TACE and 496 patients (71.4%) receiving resection alone. In the crude cohort, median DFS and OS were longer in the p-TACE group than those in the non-TACE group without significant differences (25.0 months vs 24.2 months, P=0.100; 48.0 months vs 46.5 months, P=0.150; respectively), but significant differences were observed both in DFS and OS (both P<0.05) after 1:1 PSM. p-TACE was identified as one of the independent risk factors of both DFS and OS using multivariate analysis in the matched cohort (HR=0.69, 95% CI=0.54–0.88; HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.50–0.88; respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that p-TACE could beneficiate patients if they were male, aged ?50 years old, had HBV infection, preoperative AFP level ?400 ng/mL, Child-Pugh grading A, no transfusion, single tumor, tumor diameter ?5cm, Edmondson–Steiner grading I/II, capsule, or BCLC stage A, CNLC stage Ib, AJCC stage II both in DFS and OS (all P<0.05).ConclusionWith the current data, we concluded that not all HCC patients with MVI would be benefited from p-TACE, and p-TACE could benefit patients with “middle risk” according to the current staging systems.
Project description:Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accompanying portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) have relatively few therapeutic options and an extremely poor prognosis. These patients are classified into barcelona clinic liver cancer stage C and sorafenib is suggested as the standard therapy of care. However, overall survival (OS) gain from sorafenib is unsatisfactory and better treatment modalities are urgently required. Therefore, we critically appraised recent data for the various treatment strategies for patients with HCC accompanying PVTT. In suitable patients, even surgical resection can be considered a potentially curative strategy. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) can be performed effectively and safely in a carefully chosen population of patients with reserved liver function and sufficient collateral blood flow nearby the blocked portal vein. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that TACE achieved a substantial improvement of OS in HCC patients accompanying PVTT compared with best supportive care. In addition, transarterial radioembolization (TARE) using yttrium-90 microspheres achieves quality-of-life advantages and is as effective as TACE. A large proportion of HCC patients accompanying PVTT are considered to be proper for TARE. Moreover, TACE or TARE achieved comparable outcomes to sorafenib in recent studies and it was also reported that the combination of radiotherapy with TACE achieved a survival gain compared to sorafenib in HCC patients accompanying PVTT. Surgical resection-based multimodal treatments, transarterial approaches including TACE and TARE, and TACE-based appropriate combination strategies may improve OS of HCC patients accompanying PVTT.
Project description:BackgroundDue to heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), outcome assessment of HCC with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is challenging.MethodsWe built histologic-related scores to determine microvascular invasion (MVI) and Edmondson-Steiner grade by training CT radiomics features using machine learning classifiers in a cohort of 494 HCCs with hepatic resection. Meanwhile, we developed a deep learning (DL)-score for disease-specific survival by training CT imaging using DL networks in a cohort of 243 HCCs with TACE. Then, three newly built imaging hallmarks with clinicoradiologic factors were analyzed with a Cox-Proportional Hazard (Cox-PH) model.FindingsIn HCCs with hepatic resection, two imaging hallmarks resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71–0.85) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64–0.79) for predicting MVI and Edmondson-Steiner grade, respectively, using test data. In HCCs with TACE, higher DL-score (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.01; 95% CI: 2.02–4.50), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III+IV (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12–2.61), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) with stable disease?+?progressive disease (HR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.84–4.01), and TACE-course > 3 (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45–0.76) were independent prognostic factors. Using these factors via a Cox-PH model resulted in a concordance index of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.71–0.76) for predicting overall survival and AUCs of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81–0.89), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86–0.94), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84–0.92), respectively, for predicting 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year survival.InterpretationOur study offers a DL-based, noninvasive imaging hallmark to predict outcome of HCCs with TACE.FundingThis work was supported by the key research and development program of Jiangsu Province (Grant number: BE2017756).
Project description:Background and Objective: It is unclear if stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is better for the treatment of inoperable early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to retrospectively compare the efficacy of SBRT to TACE in patients with inoperable Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-A stage HCC. Materials and Methods: In this multi-institutional retrospective study, a total of 326 patients with inoperable BCLC-A stage HCC were enrolled. Totally, 167 patients initially received SBRT and 159 initially received TACE. Overall survival (OS), local control (LC), intrahepatic control (IC), and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated in univariable and propensity-score matched analyses. Results: There was a smaller median tumor size in the SBRT group than in the TACE group (3.4 cm vs. 7.2 cm, P < 0.001). After propensity score matching in the selection of 95 patient pairs, SBRT had better LC, IC, and PFS than TACE but showed comparable OS. The accumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 85.7, 65.1, and 62.8% in the SBRT group and 83.6, 61.0, and 50.4% in the TACE group, respectively (P = 0.29). The accumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 63.4, 35.9, and 27.5% in the SBRT group and 53.5, 27.4, and 14.2% in the TACE group, respectively (P = 0.049). The accumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year LC were 86.8, 62.5, and 56.9% in the SBRT group and 69.3, 53.3, and 36.6% in the TACE group, respectively (P = 0.0047). The accumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year IC were 77.3, 45.9, and 42.4% in the SBRT group and 57.3, 34.1, and 17.7% in the TACE group, respectively (P = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, treatment (SBRT vs. TACE) was a significant covariate associated with local and intrahepatic control (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.03-2.47; P = 0.04; HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.13-2.29; P = 0.009). Conclusions: SBRT was an alternative to TACE for inoperable BCLC-A stage HCC with better local and intrahepatic control. Controlled clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the actual effects of this novel regimen adequately.
Project description:The optimal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the best treatment for patients with HCC with PVTT. From January 2002 to January 2014, the data from all consecutive patients with HCC with PVTT who underwent surgical treatment (ST),TACE,TACE combined with sorafenib (TACE-Sor), or TACE combined with radiotherapy (TACE-RT) in the 4 largest tertiary hospitals in China were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into 3 subtypes according to the extent of PVTT in the portal vein (type I-III). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). A total of 1580 patients with HCC with PVTT were included in the study. The median survival times (MST) for ST (n?=?745) for type I, II, and III patients (95% CI) were 15.9 (13.3-18.5), 12.5 (10.7-14.3), and 6.0 (4.3-7.7) months, respectively. The corresponding figures for patients after TACE (n?=?604) were 9.3 (5.6-12.9), 4.9 (4.1-5.7), and 4.0 (3.1-4.9), respectively; for patients after TACE-Sor (n?=?113) 12.0 (6.6-17.4), 8.9 (6.7-11.1), and 7.0 (3.0-10.9), respectively; and for patients after TACE-RT (n?=?118) 12.2 (0-24.7), 10.6 (6.8-14.5), and 8.9 (5.2-12.6), respectively. Comparison among the different treatments for the 3 subtypes of PVTT patients after propensity score (PS) matching showed the effectiveness of ST to be the best for type I and type II PVTT patients, and TACE-RT was most beneficial for type III patients. Treatment was an independent risk factor of OS. ST was the best treatment for type I and II PVTT patients with Child-Pugh A and selected B liver function. TACE-RT should be given to type III PVTT patients.
Project description:Background:Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard therapy for intermediate-stage (IM) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, IM-HCC includes various clinical conditions, and various therapies were conducted in practice. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the actually conducted treatments for IM-HCC and their efficacies to elucidate the treatment strategies suitable for IM-HCC. Methods:This study included 627 IM-HCC of 5,260 HCC from 9 hospitals. We examined the treatment strategies of these patients and analyzed the efficacy of each therapy with the Cox proportional hazard model and propensity score-matched analysis. Results:Liver resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and TACE were performed in 165, 108, and 351 patients, respectively. Liver resection and RFA were preferably selected in cases of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-B1/B2, and patient survival was significantly longer than in those treated with TACE (p< 0.0001). However, no beneficial effect of these active therapies was observed in cases of BCLC-B3/B4. Multivariate analysis revealed that surgical resection (hazard ratio = 0.384) and RFA (hazard ratio = 0.597) were negative risk factors for survival. Propensity score-matching analysis revealed that -survival of RFA-treated patients was longer than that of TACE-treated patients (p = 0.036). Conclusion:RFA and surgical resection were effective for IM-HCC, particularly in BCLC-B1/B2 cases.
Project description:Paired-box family member PAX8 encodes a transcription factor that has a role in cell differentiation and cell growth and may participate in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By bioinformatics analysis, we identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a newly identified long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) AC016683.6 as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for PAX8. Hence, we hypothesized that PAX8eQTLs in lncRNA AC016683.6 may influence the HCC prognosis. We then performed a case-only study to assess the association between the two SNPs as well as the prognosis of HCC in 331 HBV-positive HCC patients without surgical treatment. Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis with adjustments for the age, gender, smoking status, drinking status, Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and chemotherapy or TACE (transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization) status. We found that the G allele of rs1110839 and the T allele of rs4848320 in PAX8was significantly associated with a better prognosis compared with the T allele of rs1110839 and the C allele of rs4848320 (adjusted HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91, P = 0.004 for rs1110839 and adjusted HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.54-0.94, P = 0.015 for rs4848320 in the additive model). Furthermore, the combined effect of the variant genotypes for these two SNPs was more prominent in patients with the BCLC-C stage orpatients with chemotherapy or TACE. Although the exact biological function remains to be explored, our findings suggest a possible association of PAX8eQTLs in lncRNA AC016683.6 with the HCC prognosis inthe Chinese population. Further large and functional studies are needed to confirm our findings.