NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT: Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol(-1)) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in all studied plant groups. Enrichment of CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1)) with HS remarkably increased the Fv/Fm value in all plant groups except hsp70-1, indicating that NPR1-dependent SA signaling is not involved in the elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. These results also suggest an essentiality of HSP70-1, but not HSP21 in elevated CO2-induced HS mitigation.
Project description:Thermal adaptation plays a fundamental role in the expansion and distribution of insects, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) play important roles in the temperature adaptation of various organisms. To determine the roles of Hsp genes (Hsp70, Hsp21, and sHsp21) on the high temperature tolerance of Agasicles hygrophila, we obtained complete cDNA (complementary DNA) sequences for Hsp70, Hsp21, and sHsp21 by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), analyzed their expression profiles under different high temperature treatments by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and performed functional verification by RNA interference (RNAi). The open reading frames of Hsp70, Hsp21, and sHsp21 were 1940, 543, and 567 bp, encoding 650, 180, and 188 amino acids, respectively. Their molecular weights (MWs) were 71.757, 20.879, and 21.510 kDa, and the isoelectric points were 5.63, 6.45, and 6.24, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the Hsp70, Hsp21, and sHsp21 genes of A. hygrophila were relatively conserved in evolution. The Hsp70 and Hsp21 genes in A. hygrophila were homologous to those in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (87 and 79% similarity, respectively), and the sHsp21 gene in A. hygrophila was homologous to that in Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (74% similarity). The amino acid polypeptide chain had highly conserved sequences of DLGGGTFD, VLVGGSTR, and GPTIEEVD. The sequence of EEVD was the characteristic motif of cytoplasmic Hsp70, and the highly conserved sequences of MALFR and MSLLP were characteristic sequences of Hsp2 and sHsp21, respectively. Relative quantitative real time PCR showed that the three Hsps could be induced by 4-h treatment at high temperatures. Significant upregulation of these Hsps was observed when the temperature was further increased. The RNAi results showed that the injection of the three Hsps' dsRNA could suppress the expression at the gene level significantly. Compared with the control group, high temperature heat shock reduced the fecundity of A. hygrophila significantly, and the fecundity decreased with the increase in temperature. Our results suggest that Hsp70, Hsp21, and sHsp21 might play key roles in high temperature adaptation of A. hygrophila and help improve our understanding of their mechanism of thermotolerance.
Project description:Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant-pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.
Project description:Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers.
Project description:Fusarium graminearum is the principal causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat and barley. This fungus can also colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease resistance was enhanced in transgenic wheat and Arabidopsis plants that constitutively overexpress the NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) gene, which regulates salicylic acid (SA) signaling and modulates the activation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent defenses. Here, we provide several lines of evidence that reveal an important role for SA and JA signaling in Arabidopsis defense against F. graminearum. SA level was elevated in fungus-inoculated leaves, and SA application and biologically activated systemic acquired resistance enhanced resistance. Furthermore, the disruption of SA accumulation and signaling in the sid2 mutant and NahG transgenic plant, and the npr1 and wrky18 mutants, respectively, resulted in heightened susceptibility to this fungus in leaves and inflorescence. JA signaling was activated in parallel with SA signaling in the fungus-challenged plants. However, the hyperresistance of the JA pathway mutants opr3, coi1, and jar1 indicates that this pathway contributes to susceptibility. Genetic and biochemical experiments indicate that the JA pathway promotes disease by attenuating the activation of SA signaling in fungus-inoculated plants. However, the hypersusceptibility of the jar1 npr1 double mutant compared with the npr1 mutant suggests that JAR1 also contributes to defense, signifying a dichotomous role of JA and a JAR1-dependent mechanism in this interaction.
Project description:Salicylic acid (SA) is responsible for certain plant defence responses and NON EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (NPR1) is the master regulator of SA perception. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are five paralogs of NPR1. In this work we tested the role of these paralogs in SA perception by generating combinations of mutants and transgenics. NPR2 was the only paralog able to partially complement an npr1 mutant. The null npr2 reduces SA perception in combination with npr1 or other paralogs. NPR2 and NPR1 interacted in all the conditions tested, and NPR2 also interacted with other SA-related proteins as NPR1 does. The remaining paralogs behaved differently in SA perception, depending on the genetic background, and the expression of some of the genes induced by SA in an npr1 background was affected by the presence of the paralogs. NPR2 fits all the requirements of an SA receptor while the remaining paralogs also work as SA receptors with a strong hierarchy. According to the data presented here, the closer the gene is to NPR1, the more relevant its role in SA perception.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the effect of HS on HSPs gene expression in bovine PBMCs of beef calves in in vitro and in vivo models. In the in vitro experiment, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of five beef calves (age: 174.2 ± 5.20 days, BW: 145.2 ± 5.21 kg). In the in vivo experiment, sixteen Korean native male beef calves (age: 169.6 ± 4.60 days, BW: 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were exposed to ambient temperature for seven days (22 to 24 °C, relative humidity 60%; temperature-humidity index (THI) = 68 to 70) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). For PBMC isolation, blood samples were collected every three days. In the in vitro model, the cell viability was significantly decreased in HS groups compared with the control group (p = 0.015). The expression of HSP70 (p = 0.022), HSP90 (p = 0.003) and HSPB1 (p = 0.026) genes was increased in the HS group in in vitro model. In the in vivo experiment, the HSP70 gene expression was increased after sudden exposure to HS conditions (severe THI levels; THI = 88 to 90), whereas HSP90 and HSPB1 showed no differences among the THI groups (p > 0.05). However, in the severe THI group, the HSP70 gene expression returned to normal range after six days of continuous HS. In conclusion, the HSP70 gene plays a pivotal role in protecting cells from damage and is sensitive to HS in immune cells compared with other HSP genes in in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, the in vivo models suggest that calves exhibit active physiological mechanisms of adaptation to HS after six days of continuous exposure by regulating the HSP70 gene expression.
Project description:The expansion of the world's population requires the development of high production agriculture. For this purpose, it is essential to identify target points conditioning crop responsiveness to predicted [CO2]. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of ear sink strength in leaf protein and metabolomic profiles and its implications in photosynthetic activity and yield of durum wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO2]. For this purpose, a genotype with high harvest index (HI) (Triticum durum var. Sula) and another with low HI (Triticum durum var. Blanqueta) were exposed to elevated [CO2] (700 µmol mol(-1) versus 400 µmol mol(-1) CO2) in CO2 greenhouses. The obtained data highlighted that elevated [CO2] only increased plant growth in the genotype with the largest HI; Sula. Gas exchange analyses revealed that although exposure to 700 µmol mol(-1) depleted Rubisco content, Sula was capable of increasing the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat) whereas, in Blanqueta, the carbohydrate imbalance induced the down-regulation of Asat. The specific depletion of Rubisco in both genotypes under elevated [CO2], together with the enhancement of other proteins in the Calvin cycle, revealed that there was a redistribution of N from Rubisco towards RuBP regeneration. Moreover, the down-regulation of N, NO3 (-), amino acid, and organic acid content, together with the depletion of proteins involved in amino acid synthesis that was detected in Blanqueta grown at 700 µmol mol(-1) CO2, revealed that inhibition of N assimilation was involved in the carbohydrate imbalance and consequently with the down-regulation of photosynthesis and growth in these plants.
Project description:NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1; also known as NIM1) is a master regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). SAR is induced by salicylic acid (SA), leading to the expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes. Current evidence suggests that NPR1 is part of a transcription complex tethered to activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like cis-acting elements in PR-1 gene promoters through TGA transcription factors, and that SA-dependent PR-1 gene expression is regulated by NIM1-INTERACTING (NIMIN) proteins. In Arabidopsis, NPR1 is active only after SA induction. Regulation of Arabidopsis NPR1 activity has been proposed to comprise cysteine-156 (Cys-156), mediating SA-induced cytoplasmic oligomer-nuclear monomer exchange, and Cys-521 and Cys-529, mediating SA-dependent transcriptional activation. Tobacco NPR1 does not harbour these residues. To understand the function of tobacco NPR1, we analysed its biochemical capabilities in a heterologous system: yeast. Tobacco NPR1 differs from Arabidopsis NPR1 in its subcellular localization and its transactivation potential. Yet, both tobacco and Arabidopsis NPR1, as well as tobacco NIM1-like1, alter some of their biochemical activities in response to SA. Whereas the addition of SA to yeast growth medium induces transcriptional activity in tobacco NPR1, its interaction with NIMIN2-type proteins is suppressed. The effects of SA are specific, sensitive and occur coordinately. They are abolished completely by mutation of the arginine residue within the invariable penta-amino acid motif LENRV, as present in the nonfunctional Arabidopsis nim1-4 allele. Furthermore, NPR1 proteins with the LENRV domain coincidently harbour a broad and strongly conserved NIMIN1/NIMIN2 binding site. Our data suggest that NPR1 and some NPR1-like proteins are sensitive to the plant hormone SA, altering some of their biochemical capabilities to enable stimulus-dependent gene expression. The sensitivity of NPR1 proteins to SA, together with their differential interaction with diverse NIMIN proteins, seems a plausible molecular basis for the timely and coordinated activation of PR genes during SAR.
Project description:In all organisms, heat-shock proteins (HSPs) provide an ancient defense system. These proteins act as molecular chaperones by assisting proper folding and refolding of misfolded proteins and aid in the elimination of old and damaged cells. HSPs include Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40, and small HSPs. Through its substrate-binding domains, Hsp70 interacts with wide spectrum of molecules, ranging from unfolded to natively folded and aggregated proteins, and provides cytoprotective role against various cellular stresses. Under pathophysiological conditions, the high expression of Hsp70 allows cells to survive with lethal injuries. Increased Hsp70, by interacting at several points on apoptotic signaling pathways, leads to inhibition of apoptosis. Elevated expression of Hsp70 in cancer cells may be responsible for tumorigenesis and for tumor progression by providing resistance to chemotherapy. In contrast, inhibition or knockdown of Hsp70 reduces the size of tumors and can cause their complete regression. Moreover, extracellular Hsp70 acts as an immunogen that participates in cross presentation of MHC-I molecules. The goals of this review are to examine the roles of Hsp70 in cancer and to present strategies targeting Hsp70 in the development of cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signaling) and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression of P6 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana has profound effects on defence signaling, suppressing expression of representative SA-responsive genes and increasing expression of representative JA-responsive genes. Relative to wild-type Arabidopsis P6-expressing transgenics had greatly reduced expression of PR-1 following SA-treatment, infection by CaMV or inoculation with an avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Similarly transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of P6 (including a mutant form defective in translational transactivation activity) suppressed PR-1a transcript accumulation in response to Agrobacterium infiltration and following SA-treatment. As well as suppressing the expression of representative SA-regulated genes, P6-transgenic Arabidopsis showed greatly enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Pst (titres elevated 10 to 30-fold compared to non-transgenic controls) but reduced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Necrosis following SA-treatment or inoculation with avirulent Pst was reduced and delayed in P6-transgenics. NPR1 an important regulator of SA/JA crosstalk, was more highly expressed in the presence of P6 and introduction of the P6 transgene into a transgenic line expressing an NPR1:GFP fusion resulted in greatly increased fluorescence in nuclei even in the absence of SA. Thus in the presence of P6 an inactive form of NPR1 is mislocalized in the nucleus even in uninduced plants. These results demonstrate that P6 is a new type of pathogenicity effector protein that enhances susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens by suppressing SA- but enhancing JA-signaling responses.