Phage display-based generation of novel internalizing antibody fragments for immunotoxin-based treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
ABSTRACT: The current standard treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chemotherapy based on cytarabine and daunorubicine (7 + 3), but it discriminates poorly between malignant and benign cells. Dose-limiting off‑target effects and intrinsic drug resistance result in the inefficient eradication of leukemic blast cells and their survival beyond remission. This minimal residual disease is the major cause of relapse and is responsible for a 5-year survival rate of only 24%. More specific and efficient approaches are therefore required to eradicate malignant cells while leaving healthy cells unaffected. In this study, we generated scFv antibodies that bind specifically to the surface of AML blast cells and AML bone marrow biopsy specimens. We isolated the antibodies by phage display, using subtractive whole-cell panning with AML M2‑derived Kasumi‑1 cells. By selecting for internalizing scFv antibody fragments, we focused on potentially novel agents for intracellular drug delivery and tumor modulation. Two independent methods showed that 4 binders were internalized by Kasumi-1 cells. Furthermore, we observed the AML‑selective inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by a recombinant immunotoxin comprising one scFv fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA'). This method may therefore be useful for the selection of novel disease-specific internalizing antibody fragments, providing a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of AML patients.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor for which there is no curative treatment to date. Resistance to conventional therapies and tumor recurrence pose major challenges to treatment and management of this disease, and therefore new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Previous studies by other investigators have shown that a subpopulation of GBM cells can grow as neurosphere-like cells when cultured in restrictive medium and exhibits enhanced tumor-initiating ability and resistance to therapy. We report here the identification of internalizing human single-chain antibodies (scFv) targeting GBM tumor sphere cells. We selected a large naive phage antibody display library on the glycosylation-dependent CD133 epitope-positive subpopulation of GBM cells grown as tumor spheres and identified internalizing scFvs that target tumor sphere cells broadly, as well as scFvs that target the CD133-positive subpopulation. These scFvs were found to be efficiently internalized by GBM tumor sphere cells. One scFv GC4 inhibited self-renewal of GBM tumor sphere cells in vitro. We have further developed a full-length human IgG1 based on this scFv, and found that it potently inhibits proliferation of GBM tumor sphere cells and GBM cells grown in regular nonselective medium. Taken together, these results show that internalizing human scFvs targeting brain tumor sphere cells can be readily identified from a phage antibody display library, which could be useful for further development of novel therapies that target subpopulations of GBM cells to combat recurrence and resistance to treatment.
Project description:Immunoliposomes (ILs) anchored with internalizing human antibodies capable of targeting all subtypes of mesothelioma can be useful for targeted imaging and therapy of this malignant disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate both the in vitro and in vivo tumor targeted internalization of novel internalizing human single chain antibody (scFv) anchored ILs on both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatoid (VAMT-1) subtypes of human mesothelioma. ILs were prepared by post-insertion of mesothelioma-targeting human scFv (M1) onto preformed liposomes and radiolabeled with (111)In ((111)In-IL-M1), along with control non-targeted liposomes ((111)In-CL). Incubation of (111)In-IL-M1 with M28, VAMT-1, and a control non-tumorigenic cell line (BPH-1) at 37 °C for 24 h revealed efficient binding and rapid internalization of ILs into both subtypes of tumor cells but not into the BPH-1 cells; internalization accounted for approximately 81-94% of total cell accumulation in mesothelioma cells compared to 37-55% in control cells. In tumor-bearing mice intravenous (i.v.) injection of (111)In-IL-M1 led to remarkable tumor accumulation: 4% and 4.7% injected dose per gram (% ID/g) for M28 and VAMT-1 tumors, respectively, 48 h after injection. Furthermore, tumor uptake of (111)In-IL-M1 in live xenograft animal models was verified by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). In contrast, i.v. injection of (111)In-CL in tumor-bearing mice revealed very low uptake in both subtypes of mesothelioma, 48 h after injection. In conclusion, M1 scFv-anchored ILs showed selective tumor targeting and rapid internalization into both epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes of human mesothelioma, demonstrating its potential as a promising vector for enhanced tumor drug targeting.
Project description:Mesothelioma is a malignancy of the mesothelium and current treatments are generally ineffective. One promising area of anticancer drug development is to explore tumor susceptibility to targeted therapy. To achieve efficient, targeted intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents to mesothelioma cells, we selected a naive human single-chain (scFv) phage antibody display library directly on the surface of live mesothelioma cells to identify internalizing antibodies that target mesothelioma-associated cell surface antigens. We have identified a panel of internalizing scFvs that bind to mesothelioma cell lines derived from both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatous (VAMT-1) types of this disease. Most importantly, these antibodies stain mesothelioma cells in situ and therefore define a panel of clinically represented tumor antigens. We have further exploited the internalizing function of these scFvs to achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery to mesothelioma cells. We showed that scFv-targeted immunoliposomes were efficiently and specifically taken up by both epithelioid and sarcomatous mesothelioma cells, but not control cells, and immunoliposomes encapsulating the small-molecule drug topotecan caused targeted killing of both types of mesothelioma cells in vitro.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, congenital immunodeficiencies, and other conditions, possibly including AIDS. Autologous HSCT using genetically corrected cells would avoid the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the genotoxicity of conditioning remains a substantial barrier to the development of this approach. Here we report an internalizing immunotoxin targeting the hematopoietic-cell-restricted CD45 receptor that effectively conditions immunocompetent mice. A single dose of the immunotoxin, CD45-saporin (SAP), enabled efficient (>90%) engraftment of donor cells and full correction of a sickle-cell anemia model. In contrast to irradiation, CD45-SAP completely avoided neutropenia and anemia, spared bone marrow and thymic niches, enabling rapid recovery of T and B cells, preserved anti-fungal immunity, and had minimal overall toxicity. This non-genotoxic conditioning method may provide an attractive alternative to current conditioning regimens for HSCT in the treatment of non-malignant blood diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an immunophenotypically heterogeneous malignant disease, in which CD34 positivity is associated with poor prognosis. CD34+ AML cells are 10-15-fold more resistant to daunorubicin (DNR) than CD34- AML cells. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric that has shown cytotoxic activity in multiple cancers; however, its anti-cancer activity has not been well studied in DNR-insensitive CD34+ AML cells. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore curcumin-induced cytotoxicity in DNR-insensitive CD34+ AML cell lines (KG1a, Kasumi-1), DNR-sensitive U937 AML cells, and primary CD34+ AML bone-marrow-derived cells.<h4>Methods</h4>Primary human CD34+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or bone marrow mononuclear cells using a CD34 MicroBead kit. The growth inhibitory effects of curcumin were evaluated by MTT and colony-formation assays. Cell cycle distribution was examined by propidium iodide (PI) assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by Wright-Giemsa, Hoechst 33342 and Annexin-V/PI staining assays. The change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by JC-1 staining and flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) against Bcl-2 was used in CD34+ KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells incubated with/without DNR.<h4>Results</h4>Curcumin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis and G1/S arrest in both DNR-insensitive KG1a, Kasumi-1 and DNR-sensitive U937 cells. Curcumin-induced apoptosis was associated with reduced expression of both Bcl-2 mRNA and protein, subsequent loss of MMP, and activation of caspase-3 followed by PARP degradation. Curcumin synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of DNR in DNR-insensitive KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells, consistent with decreased Bcl-2 expression. Accordingly, siRNA against Bcl-2 increased the susceptibility of KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells to DNR-induced apoptosis. More importantly, curcumin suppressed Bcl-2 expression, selectively inhibited proliferation and synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity of DNR in primary CD34+ AML cells, while showing limited lethality in normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Curcumin down-regulates Bcl-2 and induces apoptosis in DNR-insensitive CD34+ AML cell lines and primary CD34+ AML cells.
Project description:A subset of monoclonal anti-DNA autoantibodies enters a variety of living cells. Here, we aimed to identify the endocytic receptors recognized by an internalizing anti-nucleic acid autoantibody, the 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (scFv). We found that cell surface binding and internalization of 3D8 scFv were inhibited markedly in soluble heparan sulfate (HS)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)-deficient or -removed cells and in the presence of soluble HS and CS. 3D8 scFv colocalized intracellularly with either HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) or CSPGs in HeLa cells. 3D8 scFv was co-endocytosed and co-precipitated with representative individual HSPG and CSPG molecules: syndecan-2 (a transmembrane HSPG), glypican-3 (a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored HSPG); CD44 (a transmembrane CSPG); and brevican (a GPI-anchored CSPG). Collected data indicate that 3D8 scFv binds to the negatively charged sugar chains of both HSPGs and CSPGs and is then internalized along with these molecules, irrespective of how these proteoglycans are associated with the cell membrane. This is the first study to show that anti-DNA antibodies enter cells via both HSPGs and CSPGs simultaneously. The data may aid understanding of endocytic receptors that bind anti-DNA autoantibodies. The study also provides insight into potential cell membrane targets for macromolecular delivery.
Project description:The t(8;21) (q22;q22) chromosomal translocation is one of the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which has a need for improved therapeutic strategies. We found PLC-?1 as one of the highest phosphorylated peptides in t(8;21) AML samples compared to NBM or CN-AML in our previous peptide microarray. PLC-?1 is known to play a role in cancer progression, however, the impact of PLC-?1 in AML is currently unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the functional role of PLC-?1 by investigating the cellular growth, survival and its underlying mechanism in t(8;21) AML. In this study, PLC-?1 expression was significantly higher in t(8;21) AML compared to other karyotypes. The PLC-?1 protein expression was suppressed in AML1-ETO knock down cells indicating that it might induce kasumi-1 cell death. ShRNA-mediated PLC-?1 knockdown in kasumi-1 cells significantly blocked cell growth, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest which was explained by the increased activation of apoptotic related and cell cycle regulatory protein expressions. Gene expression array analysis showed the up-regulation of apoptotic and DNA damage response genes together with the downregulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation genes in the PLC-?1 suppressed kasumi-1 cells, consistent with the observed phenotypic effects. Importantly, PLC-?1 suppressed kasumi-1 cells showed higher chemosensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug treatments and lower cell proliferation upon hypoxic stress. Taken together, these <i>in vitro</i> finding strongly support an important role for PLC-?1 in the survival of t(8;21) AML mimicking kasumi-1 cells and identify PLC-?1 as a potential therapeutic target for t(8;21) AML treatment.
Project description:The single-chain triplebody HLA-ds16-hu19 consists of three single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments connected in a single polypeptide chain. This protein with dual-targeting capacity mediated preferential lysis of antigen double positive(dp) over single-positive (sp) leukemic cells by recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells as effectors. The two distal scFv modules were specific for the histocompatibility protein HLA-DR and the lymphoid antigen CD19, the central one for the Fc gamma receptor CD16. In antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) experiments with a mixture of leukemic target cells comprising both HLA-DR sp HuT-78 or Kasumi-1 cells and (HLA-DR plus CD19) dp SEM cells, the triplebody mediated preferential lysis of the dp cells even when the sp cells were present in ? 20-fold numerical excess.The triplebody promoted equal lysis of SEM cells at 2.5-fold and 19.5-fold lower concentrations than the parental antibodies specific for HLA-DR and CD19, respectively. Finally, the triplebody also eliminated primary leukemic cells at lower concentrations than an equimolar mixture of bispecific single-chain Fv fragments (bsscFvs) separately addressing each target antigen (hu19-ds16 and HLA-ds16). The increased selectivity of targeting and the preferential lysis of dp over sp cells achieved by dual-targeting open attractive new perspectives for the use of dual-targeting agents in cancer therapy.
Project description:Overexpression of survivin is observed in various hematological malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies show that elevated expression of survivin correlates with a worse clinic outcome in AML patients. It remains unclear whether inhibition of survivin may alter the efficacy of chemotherapy against AML. Here, we evaluate the effects of specific knockdown of survivin on AML cells' sensitivity to chemotherapy, and investigate the therapeutic potential of the transcription inhibitor of survivin YM155 either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. We found Kasumi-1 and HL-60 cells had relatively higher expression levels of survivin among all AML cell lines tested. Specific knockdown of survivin in Kasumi-1 and HL-60 cells resulted in: inhibition of cell proliferation; cell cycle G2/M arrest; induction of DNA damage response and apoptosis. Downregulation of survivin enhanced etoposide- or doxorubicin-induced anti-proliferative/anti-survival activity in AML cells. The small molecule inhibitor YM155 reduced survivin in a dose- and time-dependent manner and trigged apoptosis in Kasumi-1 and HL-60 cells. The combinatorial effects of YM155 and chemotherapeutics were either synergetic or antagonistic, depending upon the drugs used for combination and the type of AML cells being treated. Collectively, our data demonstrate that survivin plays an important role in the maintenance and proliferation of AML cells. While specific knockdown of survivin enhances chemosensitivity, the combinations of YM155 and chemotherapeutic agents exhibit synergetic or antagonistic effects on AML cells. Our findings provide a rationale for further assessment of survivin-targeted therapy in the treatment of patients with AML.
Project description:Therapeutic use of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) that hybridize to and downregulate target mRNAs encoding proteins that contribute to malignant transformation has a sound rationale, but has had an overall limited clinical success in cancer due to insufficient intracellular delivery. Here we report a development of formulations capable of promoting targeted delivery and enhanced pharmacologic activity of ODNs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and patient primary cells. In this study, transferrin (Tf) conjugated pH-sensitive lipopolyplex nanoparticles (LPs) were prepared to deliver GTI-2040, an antisense ODN against the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase that has been shown to contribute to chemoresistance in AML. LPs had an average particle size around 110 nm and a moderately positive zeta potential at approximately 10 mV. The ODN encapsulation efficiency of LPs was >90%. These nanoparticles could release ODNs at acidic endosomal pH and facilitate the cytoplasmic delivery of ODNs after endocytosis. In addition, Tf-mediated targeted delivery of GTI-2040 was achieved. R2 downregulation at both mRNA and protein levels was improved by 8-fold in Kasumi-1 cells and 2- to 20-fold in AML patient primary cells treated with GTI-2040-Tf-LPs, compared to free GTI-2040 treatment. Moreover, Tf-LPs were more effective than nontargeted LPs, with 10 to 100% improvement at various concentrations in Kasumi-1 cells and an average of 45% improvement at 3 microM concentration in AML patient primary cells. Treatment with 1 microM GTI-2040-Tf-LPs sensitized AML cells to the chemotherapy agent cytarabine, by decreasing its IC(50) value from 47.69 nM to 9.05 nM. This study suggests that the combination of pH sensitive LP formulation and Tf mediated targeting is a promising strategy for antisense ODN delivery in leukemia therapy.