Infant peripheral blood repetitive element hypomethylation associated with antiretroviral therapy in utero.
ABSTRACT: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy and delivery is generally considered safe. However, vigilant assessment of potential risks of these agents remains warranted. Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation are considered potential mechanisms linking the in utero environment with long-term health outcomes. Few studies have examined the epigenetic effects of prenatal exposure to pharmaceutical agents, including antiretroviral therapies, on children. In this study, we examined the methylation status of the LINE-1 and ALU-Yb8 repetitive elements as markers of global DNA methylation alteration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from newborns participating in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study SMARTT cohort of HIV-exposed, cART-exposed uninfected infants compared to a historical cohort of HIV-exposed, antiretroviral-unexposed infants from the Women and Infants Transmission Study Cohort. In linear regression models controlling for potential confounders, we found the adjusted mean difference of AluYb8 methylation of the cART-exposed compared to the -unexposed was -0.568 (95% CI: -1.023, -0.149) and for LINE-1 methylation was -1.359 (95% CI: -1.860, -0.857). Among those exposed to cART, subjects treated with atazanavir (ATV), compared to those on other treatments, had less AluYb8 methylation (-0.524, 95% CI: -0.025, -1.024). Overall, these results suggest a small but statistically significant reduction in the methylation of these repetitive elements in an HIV-exposed, cART-exposed cohort compared to an HIV-exposed, cART-unexposed historic cohort. The potential long-term implications of these differences are worthy of further examination.
Project description:Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress, skewing the cell’s immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART) exposure on the infants’ immune metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1–exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning. The lipid metabolism was further dysregulated with increased triglyceride species and a subsequent decrease in phospholipids in cART/HIV-1–exposed infants compared to control infants. Proinflammatory immune mediators, lysophospholipids as well as cytokines such as CXCL10 and CCL3, were increased whereas anti-inflammatory metabolites from the cytochrome P450 pathway were reduced in cART/HIV-1–exposed infants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the fetal metabolism is impacted by maternal factors (cART and HIV-1) and skews physiological immune responses toward inflammation in the newborn infant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HIV infection is known to cause developmental delay, but the effects of HIV exposure without infection during pregnancy on child development are unclear. We compared the neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children during their first 2 years of life. METHODS:Pregnant women (>18 years of age) at 20-28 weeks' gestation were enrolled into the Drakenstein Child Health cohort study while attending routine antenatal appointments at one of two peri-urban community-based clinics in Paarl, South Africa. Livebirths born to enrolled women during follow-up were included in the birth cohort. Mothers and infants received antenatal and postnatal HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy per local guidelines. Developmental assessments on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (BSID-III), were done in a subgroup of infants at 6 months of age, and in the full cohort at 24 months of age, with assessors masked to HIV exposure status. Mean raw scores and the proportions of children categorised as having a delay (scores <-2 SDs from the reference mean) on BSID-III were compared between HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children. FINDINGS:1225 women were enrolled between March 5, 2012, and March 31, 2015. Of 1143 livebirths, 1065 (93%) children were in follow-up at 6 months and 1000 (87%) at 24 months. Two children were diagnosed with HIV infection between birth and 24-month follow-up and were excluded from the analysis. BSID-III assessments were done in 260 (24%) randomly selected children (61 HIV-exposed uninfected, 199 HIV-unexposed) at 6 months and in 732 (73%) children (168 HIV-exposed uninfected, 564 HIV-unexposed) at 24 months. All HIV-exposed uninfected children were exposed to antiretrovirals (88% to maternal triple antiretroviral therapy). BSID-III outcomes did not significantly differ between HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children at 6 months. At 24 months, HIV-exposed uninfected children scored lower than HIV-unexposed for receptive language (adjusted mean difference -1·03 [95% CI -1·69 to -0·37]) and expressive language (-1·17 [-2·09 to -0·24]), whereas adjusted differences in cognitive (-0·45 [-1·32 to 0·43]), fine motor (0·09 [-0·49 to 0·66]), and gross motor (-0·41 [-1·09 to 0·27]) domain scores between groups were not significant. Correspondingly, the proportions of HIV-exposed uninfected children with developmental delay were higher than those of HIV-unexposed children for receptive language (adjusted odds ratio 1·96 [95% CI 1·09 to 3·52]) and expressive language (2·14 [1·11 to 4·15]). INTERPRETATION:Uninfected children exposed to maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy have increased odds of receptive and expressive language delays at 2 years of age. Further long-term work is needed to understand developmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected children, especially in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa that have a high prevalence of HIV exposure among children. FUNDING:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, SA Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust.
Project description:Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress, skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART) exposure on the infants' immune metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning. The lipid metabolism was further dysregulated with increased triglyceride species and a subsequent decrease in phospholipids in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants compared to control infants. Proinflammatory immune mediators, lysophospholipids as well as cytokines such as CXCL10 and CCL3, were increased whereas anti-inflammatory metabolites from the cytochrome P450 pathway were reduced in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the fetal metabolism is impacted by maternal factors (cART and HIV-1) and skews physiological immune responses toward inflammation in the newborn infant.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have developed rapidly, yet little is known about how outcomes of HIV-exposed infants have changed over time. We describe HIV-exposed infant outcomes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2007 and 2013. DESIGN:Cohort study of mother-infant pairs enrolled in family-centered comprehensive HIV care. METHODS:Accounting for competing risks, we estimated the cumulative incidences of early infant diagnosis, HIV transmission, death, loss to follow-up, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation for infants enrolled in three periods (2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012). RESULTS:1707 HIV-exposed infants enrolled at a median age of 2.6 weeks. Among infants whose mothers had recently enrolled into HIV care (N = 1411), access to EID by age two months increased from 28% (95% confidence limits [CL]: 24,34%) among infants enrolled in 2007-2008 to 63% (95% CL: 59,68%) among infants enrolled in 2011-2012 (Gray's p-value <0.01). The 18-month cumulative incidence of HIV declined from 16% (95% CL: 11,22%) for infants enrolled in 2007-2008 to 11% (95% CL: 8,16%) for infants enrolled in 2011-2012 (Gray's p-value = 0.19). The 18-month cumulative incidence of death also declined, from 8% (95% CL: 5,12%) to 3% (95% CL: 2,5%) (Gray's p-value = 0.02). LTFU did not improve, with 18-month cumulative incidences of 19% (95% CL: 15,23%) for infants enrolled in 2007-2008 and 22% (95% CL: 18,26%) for infants enrolled in 2011-2012 (Gray's p-value = 0.06). Among HIV-infected infants, the 24-month cumulative incidence of cART increased from 61% (95% CL: 43,75%) to 97% (95% CL: 82,100%) (Gray's p-value <0.01); the median age at cART decreased from 17.9 to 9.3 months. Outcomes were better for infants whose mothers enrolled before pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS:We observed encouraging improvements, but continued efforts are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) and improves maternal health. Data on the outcomes of HIV-exposed infants (HEI) compared to their unexposed counterparts in the era of universal ART is limited. We compared birth and 6-week outcomes among infants born to HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Lesotho. METHODS:941 HIV-negative and 653 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in an observational cohort to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program after implementation of universal maternal ART in 14 health facilities. Pregnancy, delivery, birth, and 6-week data were collected through participant interviews and medical record review. DNA PCR testing for HEI was conducted within 2 weeks of birth and at around 6 weeks of age. Data were analysed to estimate the distribution of birth outcomes, mortality, HIV transmission and HIV-free survival at 6 weeks. RESULTS:HIV-positive women were older (mean age of 28.7 vs. 24.4 years) and presented for antenatal care earlier (mean gestational age of 23.0 weeks vs 25.3 weeks) than HIV-negative women. Prematurity was more frequent among HEI, 7.8% vs. 3.6%. There was no difference in rates of congenital anomalies between HEI (1.0%) and HIV-unexposed infants (HUI) (0.6%). Cumulative HIV transmission was 0.9% (N = 4/431) (95% CI:0.25-2.36) at birth and 1.0% (N = 6/583) (95% CI:0.38-2.23) at 6 weeks. Overall mortality, including stillbirths, was 5.2% and 6.0% by 6 weeks for HUI and HEI respectively. Among liveborn infants, 6-week HIV-free survival for HEI was 95.6% (95% CI:93.7-97.1) compared to 96.8% (95% CI:95.4-97.9) survival for HUI. CONCLUSIONS:Implementation of universal maternal ART lowers MTCT at 6 weeks of age with no differences in congenital anomalies or early mortality between HIV exposed Infants and HIV unexposed infants. However, HIV exposed infants continue to have high rates of prematurity despite improved maternal health on ART.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare health and growth outcomes in children infected with HIV, children exposed to but uninfected with HIV, and children unexposed to HIV. STUDY DESIGN:Our cohort included 3554 Tanzanian children enrolled in 2 trials of micronutrient supplementation. Among infants born to mothers infected with HIV, 264 were infected with HIV and 2088 were exposed to but uninfected at 6 weeks of age. An additional 1202 infants were unexposed to HIV. Infants were followed until 18 months of age, death, or loss to follow-up. Morbidity and growth were assessed at monthly nurse visits. RESULTS:Compared with unexposed infants, hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in infants infected with HIV and infants who were exposed to but uninfected with HIV were 28.99 (14.83-56.66) and 2.79 (1.41-5.53), respectively, after adjusting for demographic and nutritional covariates. Compared with infants unexposed to HIV, infants infected with HIV also had a significantly greater risk of all measured morbidities, while infants who were exposed to but uninfected with HIV were significantly more likely to suffer from cough, fever, unscheduled outpatient visits, and hospitalizations. Infants infected with HIV also were more likely to experience stunting, wasting, and underweight at baseline and during follow-up. Infants exposed to but uninfected with HIV were more likely to be underweight at baseline (adjusted relative risk, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.45-2.89), but on average, experienced slower declines in height-for-age z-score, weight-for-age z-score, and weight-for-height z-score as well as a lower rate of stunting over follow-up, compared with unexposed infants. CONCLUSION:In addition to preventing and treating HIV infection in infants, prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV and child health services should also target children exposed to but uninfected with HIV to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00197730 and NCT00421668.
Project description:The optimal management of infants born to HIV-positive mothers who are untreated or have detectable viral load prior to delivery remains controversial. Despite the increasing use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of neonates at high risk of HIV infection, there is little safety and pharmacokinetic data to support this approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of cART for PEP in HIV-exposed neonates.Retrospective study on 148 cART and 145 Zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy-exposed infants identified from four Canadian centres where cART for PEP has routinely been prescribed in high-risk situations. Physician-reported adverse events and clinical outcomes were extracted by chart review. Haematological and growth parameters at birth, one and six months of age were compared between cART and ZDV-exposed infants using multivariate mixed effects modelling.Non-specific signs and symptoms were reported in 10.2% of cART recipients versus none of the ZDV recipients. Treatment was discontinued prematurely in 9.5% of cART recipients versus 2.1% of ZDV recipients (p=0.01). In the multivariate model, cART recipients had lower mean haemoglobin (decrease of 2.07 g/L) over the 6-month period compared with ZDV recipients (p=0.04), but no effect was seen on absolute neutrophil count. cART recipients had lower weight and smaller head circumference at birth and one month of age compared with ZDV-exposed infants; these differences were no longer significant at six months of age.cART administered at treatment doses for PEP in neonates was generally well tolerated, though a higher incidence of non-specific signs and symptoms and early treatment discontinuation occurred among cART recipients.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is successfully used for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. To investigate safety, we compared adverse events (AE) among infants exposed to different maternal cART regimens. We reviewed 158 HIV-uninfected infants born between 1997 and 2009, using logistic regression to model grade ?1 AE and grade ?3 AE as a function of maternal cART and confounding variables (preterm, C-section, illicit drug use, race, ethnicity, infant antiretrovirals, and maternal viremia). Frequently used cART regimens included zidovudine (63%), lamivudine (80%), ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (37%), nelfinavir (26%), and atazanavir (10%). At birth, anemia occurred in 13/140 infants (9%), neutropenia in 27/107 (25%), thrombocytopenia in 5/133 (4%), and liver enzyme elevation in 21/130 (16%). Corresponding rates of AE at 4 weeks were 59/141 (42%), 54/130 (42%), 3/137 (2%), and 3/104 (3%), respectively. Serious AE (grade ? 3) exceeded 2% only for neutropenia (13% at birth; 9% at 4 weeks). Compared with infants exposed to maternal lopinavir/ritonavir, infants exposed to nelfinavir and atazanavir had a 5-fold and 4-fold higher incidence of AE at birth, respectively. In conclusion, hematologic and hepatic AE were frequent, but rarely serious. In this predominantly protease inhibitor-treated population, lopinavir/ritonavir was associated with the lowest rate of infant AE.
Project description:Antiretroviral drugs (ARV), specifically nucleoside analogs, are toxic to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Other metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation, organic acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, are dependent on normal oxidative phosphorylation but remain unexamined as potential points of ARV toxicity.We analyzed newborn screening data from New York and compared proportions of abnormal newborn metabolic screens in HIV antibody screen-positive and HIV screen-negative neonates. Subsequently, we compared acylcarnitine levels in ARV-exposed (n = 16) and ARV-unexposed (n = 14) HIV-exposed infants to assess for dysfunctional fatty and organic acid metabolism.: The rate of abnormal newborn metabolic screens in HIV screen-positive infants was higher than that in the general population (2.2% versus 1.2%; P = 0.00025), most of which were for disorders of mitochondria-related metabolism. Abnormal acylcarnitine levels occurred more frequently in ARV-exposed compared with ARV-unexposed infants (43% versus 0%; P = 0.02).A higher proportion of positive metabolic screens in HIV screen-positive neonates suggests that HIV or ARV exposure is associated with dysfunctional intermediary metabolism in newborns. Abnormal acylcarnitine levels were more frequent in ARV-exposed infants, suggesting that ARV may perturb normal fatty acid oxidation in some infants. Studies designed to validate and determine the clinical significance of these findings are warranted.
Project description:Non-AIDS- related conditions have become increasingly more prevalent in those infected with HIV, with liver disease being one of the most predominant complications. Using the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model, we identified upregulation of numerous inflammatory pathways in the liver, which only partially resolved in cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) treated macaques. Overall design: 11 adults (4 uninfected, 5 SIV-infected, 2 SIV-infected + cART treatment) and 20 infants (7 uninfected, 9 SIV-infected, 4 SIV-infected + cART treatment). We performed microarray analysis on liver samples collected from each animal during necropsy.