Spatio-temporal changes in endogenous abscisic acid contents during etiolated growth and photomorphogenesis in tomato seedlings.
ABSTRACT: The role of abscisic acid (ABA) during early development was investigated in tomato seedlings. The endogenous content of ABA in particular organs was analyzed in seedlings grown in the dark and under blue light. Our results showed that in dark-grown seedlings, the ABA accumulation was maximal in the cotyledons and elongation zone of hypocotyl, whereas under blue-light, the ABA content was distinctly reduced. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that ABA promotes the growth of etiolated seedlings and the results suggest that ABA plays an inhibitory role in de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis in tomato.
Project description:Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs) play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In our study, we analyzed for the first time the endogenous CKs content in tomato hypocotyls during skotomorphogenesis, photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation. For this purpose, two tomato genotypes were used: cv. Rutgers (wild-type; WT) and its corresponding mutant (7B-1) affected in its responses to blue light (BL). Using physiological and molecular approaches, we identified that the skotomorphogenesis is characterized by an endoreduplication-mediated cell expansion, which is inhibited upon BL exposure as seen by the accumulation of trancripts encoding CycD3, key regulators of the cell cycle. Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine) is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis. This result was supported by physiological experiments and gene expression data. We propose a common model to explain the role and the relationship between CKs, namely iP, and endoreduplication during de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis.
Project description:Plant life cycle begins with germination of seed below the ground. This is followed by seedling's development in the dark: skotomorphogenesis; and then a light-mediated growth: photomorphogenesis. After germination, hypocotyl grows rapidly to reach the sun, which involves elongation of shoot at the expense of root and cotyledons. Upon reaching ground level, seedling gets exposed to sunlight following a switch from the etiolated (skotomorphogenesis) to the de-etiolated (photomorphogenesis) stage, involving a series of molecular and physiological changes. Gymnosperms have evolved very differently and adopted diverse strategies as compared to angiosperms; with regards to response to light quality, conifers display a very mild high-irradiance response as compared to angiosperms. Absence of apical hook and synthesis of chlorophyll during skotomorphogenesis are two typical features in gymnosperms which differentiate them from angiosperms (dicots). Information regarding etiolation and de-etiolation processes are well understood in angiosperms, but these mechanisms are less explored in conifer species. It is, therefore, interesting to know how similar these processes are in conifers as compared to angiosperms. We performed a global expression analysis (RNA sequencing) on etiolated and de-etiolated seedlings of two economically important conifer species in Sweden to review the differentially expressed genes associated with the two processes. Based on the results, we propose that high levels of HY5 in conifers under DARK condition coupled with expression of few other genes associated with de-etiolation in angiosperms e.g. SPA, DET1 (lower expression under DARK) and CRY1 (higher expression under DARK), leads to partial expression of photomorphogenic genes in the DARK phenotype in conifers as displayed by absence of apical hook, opening of cotyledons and synthesis of chlorophyll.
Project description:Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings.
Project description:An important contributing factor to the success of terrestrial flowering plants in colonizing the land was the evolution of a developmental strategy, termed skotomorphogenesis, whereby postgerminative seedlings emerging from buried seed grow vigorously upward in the subterranean darkness toward the soil surface.Here we provide genetic evidence that a central component of the mechanism underlying this strategy is the collective repression of premature photomorphogenic development in dark-grown seedlings by several members of the phytochrome (phy)-interacting factor (PIF) subfamily of bHLH transcription factors (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5). Conversely, evidence presented here and elsewhere collectively indicates that a significant component of the mechanism by which light initiates photomorphogenesis upon first exposure of dark-grown seedlings to irradiation involves reversal of this repression by rapid reduction in the abundance of these PIF proteins, through degradation induced by direct interaction of the photoactivated phy molecule with the transcription factors.We conclude that bHLH transcription factors PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 act as constitutive repressors of photomorphogenesis in the dark, action that is rapidly abrogated upon light exposure by phy-induced proteolytic degradation of these PIFs, allowing the initiation of photomorphogenesis to occur.
Project description:The PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) play a central role in repressing photomorphogenesis, and phosphorylation mediates the stability of PIF proteins. Although the kinases responsible for PIF phosphorylation have been extensively studied, the phosphatases that dephosphorylate PIFs remain largely unknown. Here, we report that seedlings with mutations in FyPP1 and FyPP3, 2 genes encoding the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6), exhibited short hypocotyls and opened cotyledons in the dark, which resembled the photomorphogenic development of dark-grown pifq mutants. The hypocotyls of dark-grown sextuple mutant fypp1 fypp3 (f1 f3) pifq were shorter than those of parental mutants f1 f3 and pifq, indicating that PP6 phosphatases and PIFs function synergistically to repress photomorphogenesis in the dark. We showed that FyPPs directly interacted with PIF3 and PIF4, and PIF3 and PIF4 proteins exhibited mobility shifts in f1 f3 mutants, consistent with their hyperphosphorylation. Moreover, PIF4 was more rapidly degraded in f1 f3 mutants than in wild type after light exposure. Whole-genome transcriptomic analyses indicated that PP6 and PIFs coregulated many genes, and PP6 proteins may positively regulate PIF transcriptional activity. These data suggest that PP6 phosphatases may repress photomorphogenesis by controlling the stability and transcriptional activity of PIF proteins via regulating PIF phosphorylation.
Project description:Photomorphogenesis is controlled by multiple signaling pathways, including the light and brassinosteroid (BR) pathways. BR signaling activates the BZR1 transcription factor, which is required for suppressing photomorphogenesis in the dark. We identified a suppressor of the BR hypersensitive mutant bzr1-1D and named it bzr1-1D suppressor1-Dominant (bzs1-D). The bzs1-D mutation was caused by overexpression of a B-box zinc finger protein BZS1, which is transcriptionally repressed by BZR1. Overexpression of BZS1 causes de-etiolation in the dark, short hypocotyls in the light, reduced sensitivity to BR treatment, and repression of many BR-activated genes. Knockdown of BZS1 by co-suppression partly suppressed the short hypocotyl phenotypes of BR-deficient or insensitive mutants. These results support that BZS1 is a negative regulator of BR response. BZS1 overexpressors are hypersensitive to different wavelengths of light and loss of function of BZS1 reduces plant sensitivity to light and partly suppresses the constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (cop1) mutant in the dark, suggesting a positive role in light response. BZS1 protein accumulates at an increased level after light treatment of dark-grown BZS1-OX plants and in the cop1 mutants, and BZS1 interacts with COP1 in vitro, suggesting that light regulates BZS1 through COP1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. These results demonstrate that BZS1 mediates the crosstalk between BR and light pathways.
Project description:rs09-01_det1 - photomorphogenesis - - Identification of the genes deregulated in det1-1 when seedlings grow in light or in dark (dark increase morphological differences between det1-1 and wild-type) - Expression profile of seedlings grown in dark then exposed to light - etiolated seedlings (5days) are briefly exposed to light to induce developmental transition between skoto- and photomorphogenesis without visible change in plant morphology and differences between col0 and the mutant det1-1 grown in light or in dark Keywords: treatment variations Overall design: 6 dye-swap - CATMA arrays
Project description:rs09-01_det1 - photomorphogenesis - - Identification of the genes deregulated in det1-1 when seedlings grow in light or in dark (dark increase morphological differences between det1-1 and wild-type) - Expression profile of seedlings grown in dark then exposed to light - etiolated seedlings (5days) are briefly exposed to light to induce developmental transition between skoto- and photomorphogenesis without visible change in plant morphology and differences between col0 and the mutant det1-1 grown in light or in dark Keywords: treatment variations 6 dye-swap - CATMA arrays
Project description:Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a 1-h far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.
Project description:In eukaryotes, chromatin-based mechanisms superimpose with DNA sequence information to determine the transcriptional output of the genome. Therefore, evaluating the role of chromatin modifications in the regulation of gene expression is key to understand the contribution of chromatin state variations to development. Recent studies identified several transcriptional coactivators that contribute to selectively regulate cellular pathways by coordinating histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub) with other histone modifications. Although H2Bub is present on a large number of genes, loss of H2B monoubiquitination activity was shown to affect RNA steady levels for a small subset of genes and therefore its influence on gene expression is not well understood. In this study we assessed the impact of H2Bub on dynamic expression changes during a rapid developmental tranistion that initiates only when exposing plants to light. This revealed that H2Bub deposition is highly dynamic in a genomic context. Furthermore, plants lacking histone H2B monoubiquitination activity were impaired for rapid changes of RNA levels for a large repertoire of genes, indicating that H2Bub is important for attaining appropriate expression levels /in fine/. Finally, the detection power of the genomic approach has allowed us to define a set of genes impacted by H2Bub dynamics for rapid changes in RNA levels. The purpose of this study was to integrate the genome-wide distribution of H2Bub chromatin mark together with transcriptome profiles of wild-type and /hub1 /mutant plants (accession GSE21922) at three time points during early photomorphogenesis H2Bub epigenome in 5-day-old dark-grown seedlings, H2Bub epigenome in 5-day-old dark-grown seedlings +1h light, and H2Bub epigenome in 5-day-old dark-grown seedlings +6h light 2 biological replicates for each time point in dye-swap - ChIP-chip