Trends in Hospitalization for Diverticulitis and Diverticular Bleeding in the United States From 2000 to 2010.
ABSTRACT: Most studies of trends in diverticular disease have focused on diverticulitis or on a composite outcome of diverticulitis and bleeding. We aimed to quantify and compare the prevalence of hospitalization for diverticular bleeding and diverticulitis overall and by sex and race.We analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 through 2010. We identified adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of diverticular bleeding or diverticulitis. By using yearly US intercensal data, we calculated age-, sex-, and race-specific rates, as well as age-adjusted prevalence rates.The prevalence of hospitalizations per 100,000 persons for diverticular bleeding decreased over the 10-year period from 32.5 to 27.1 (-5.4; 95% confidence interval, -5.1 to -5.7). The prevalence of hospitalizations for diverticulitis peaked in 2008 (74.1/100,000 in 2000, 96.0/100,000 in 2008, and 91.9/100,000 in 2010). The prevalence of diverticulitis was higher in women than in men, whereas women and men had similar rates of diverticular bleeding. The prevalence of diverticular bleeding was highest in blacks (34.4/100,000 in 2010); whereas the prevalence of diverticulitis was highest in whites (75.5/100,000 in 2010).Over the past 10 years, the prevalence of hospitalizations for diverticulitis increased and then plateaued, whereas that of diverticular bleeding decreased. The prevalence according to sex and race differed for diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. These findings indicate different mechanisms of pathogenesis for these disorders.
Project description:Colorectal cancer constitutes an important burden on the healthcare system. Screening at-risk populations to reduce colorectal cancer-related morbidity and mortality has become part of good clinical practice. However, recommendations regarding subgroups of patients with diverticular disease are subject to controversy. Herein, we review the most recent literature regarding the prevalence of colorectal cancer in patients with diverticular disease, diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulitis. The recent literature does not identify diverticular disease as a long-term risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, the risk of colorectal cancer is increased in the short-term period after hospitalization related to diverticular disease. According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of colorectal cancer is 1.6% in patients with acute diverticulitis who underwent colonoscopy. The risk of having colorectal cancer after an episode of acute diverticulitis is 44-fold higher than that of an age- and gender-adjusted reference population. Despite lower among patients with uncomplicated episode, the risk of colorectal cancer remains 40-fold higher in that subpopulation than that in the reference population. To conclude, the recent literature describes an increased risk of colorectal cancer among patients with acute diverticulitis compared to the reference population. Colonoscopy is therefore recommended in patients with diverticulitis to exclude colorectal cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those in whom it is unnecessary for spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. METHODS:This study involved 132 patients in whom diverticular bleeding was diagnosed on lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. We evaluated the rate of identification of the bleeding diverticulum during endoscopy and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. RESULTS:In 26 patients (20%), bleeding diverticulum was identified during endoscopy. Extravasation or fluid collection on CT imaging was an important factor of successful identification of the bleeding source on endoscopy. Of the 104 patients in the conservative treatment group, 91 (87%) were able to be discharged after spontaneous hemostasis. Univariate analysis revealed a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis in patients without extravasation and fluid collection on CT imaging, those without adhesion of blood during endoscopy, those without diabetes, and those with a hemoglobin level ?10 g/dL. CONCLUSION:In patients with colonic diverticular bleeding, extravasation or fluid collection on CT is an important factor related to the identification of the bleeding diverticulum. Patients without characteristic CT findings had a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis after conservative treatment. BACKGROUND:Diverticular bleeding is the most frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for 20%-40% of all cases in Japan and 20%-48% of all those in the Western countries[1, 2]. The prevalence of colonic diverticula tends to increase with age; thus, the overall prevalence of diverticular bleeding is expected to increase in the future. In Japan, the Japanese Gastroenterological Association published guidelines on colonic diverticulitis in 2017; these guidelines recommend the performance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination within 24 h in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding suspected to be diverticular bleeding. It has been reported that, for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, urgent endoscopy helps avoid embolotherapy, colectomy, massive blood transfusion, and repeat bleeding[1, 4, 5]. However, it is often difficult to identify the bleeding point ; further, there are many challenging cases wherein it is difficult to decide whether urgent endoscopy should be performed in situations where there is insufficient medical staff, such as during nighttime and on holidays. Bleeding is reported to stop spontaneously with conservative treatment alone in 70% of diverticular bleeding cases[7, 8]. In particular, when determining the treatment policy for diverticular bleeding and in the case of patients at high risk of complications following endoscopy, such as older patients, those with poor performance status or cardiovascular disease, and those in whom spontaneous hemostasis can be expected, urgent endoscopy should be avoided, and elective endoscopy should be selected. Therefore, the type of cases wherein urgent endoscopy is effective and the type wherein it is unnecessary need to be clarified. Thus far, there have been very few reports of the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom spontaneous hemostasis was achieved. We aimed to assess the characteristics of patients in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those for whom it is unnecessary. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the identification rate for the responsible diverticulum in patients with diverticular bleeding and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment.
Project description:Diverticulosis of the colon is a widespread disease, and its prevalence is increasing especially in the developing world. The underlying pathological mechanisms that cause the formation of colonic diverticula remain unclear but are likely to be the result of complex interactions among age, diet, genetic factors, colonic motility, and changes in colonic structure. The large majority of patients remain asymptomatic throughout their life, one fifth of them become symptomatic (developing the so-called 'diverticular disease') while only a minority of these will develop acute diverticulitis. The factors predicting the development of symptoms remain to be identified. Again, it is generally recognized that diverticular disease occurrence is probably related to complex interactions among colonic motility, diet, lifestyle, and genetic features. Changes in intestinal microflora due to low-fiber diet and consequent low-grade inflammation are thought to be one of the mechanisms responsible for symptoms occurrence of both diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. Current therapeutic approaches with rifaximin and mesalazine to treat the symptoms seem to be promising. Antibiotic treatment is currently advised only in acute complicated diverticulitis, and no treatment has currently proven effective in preventing the recurrence of acute diverticulitis. Further studies are required in order to clarify the reasons why diverticulosis occurs and the factors triggering occurrence of symptoms. Moreover, the reasons why rifaximin and mesalazine work in symptomatic diverticular disease but not in acute diverticulitis are yet to be elucidated.
Project description:Background:Diverticular disease treatment is limited to fibres, antibiotics, and surgery. There is conflicting evidence on mesalazine benefits and harms. Aim:We systematically reviewed current evidence on benefits and harms of mesalazine versus all other treatments in people with diverticular disease. Methods:We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published to July 2018. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (disease remission/recurrence, acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, need for surgery/hospitalization, all-cause/disease-related mortality, adverse events), mean differences (MD) or standardized MD (SMD) for continuous outcomes (quality of life, symptoms score, time to recurrence/remission), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. We quantified heterogeneity by Chi2 and I2 tests. We performed subgroup analyses by disease subtype, comparator, follow-up duration, mesalazine dose, and mode of administration. Results:We identified 13 randomized trials (n=3028 participants). There was a higher likelihood of disease remission with mesalazine than controls in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (1 trial, 81 participants, RR=2.67, 95%CI=1.05-6.79), but not in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (1 trial, 123 participants, RR=1.04, 95%CI=0.81-1.34). There was a lower likelihood of disease recurrence with mesalazine than controls in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (2 trials, 216 participants, RR=0.52, 95%CI=0.28-0.97), but not in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (7 trials, 2196 participants, RR=0.90, 95%CI=0.61-1.33). There was no difference in the likelihood of developing acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease between the two groups (3 trials, 484 participants, RR=0.26, 95%CI=0.06-1.20). There was a higher global symptoms score reduction with mesalazine than controls in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (2 trials, 326 participants, SMD=-1.01, 95%CI=-1.51,-0.52) and acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (2 trials, 153 participants, SMD=-0.56, 95%CI=-0.88,-0.24). Conclusions:Mesalazine may reduce recurrences in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. There is uncertainty on the effect of mesalazine in achieving diverticular disease remission. Mesalazine may not prevent acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.
Project description:Diverticular disease is characterized by pouches (that is, diverticulae) due to weakness in the bowel wall, which can become infected and inflamed causing diverticulitis, with potentially severe complications. Here, we test 32.4 million sequence variants identified through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 15,220 Icelanders for association with diverticular disease (5,426 cases) and its more severe form diverticulitis (2,764 cases). Subsequently, 16 sequence variants are followed up in a diverticular disease sample from Denmark (5,970 cases, 3,020 controls). In the combined Icelandic and Danish data sets we observe significant association of intronic variants in ARHGAP15 (Rho GTPase-activating protein 15; rs4662344-T: P=1.9 × 10-18, odds ratio (OR)=1.23) and COLQ (collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase; rs7609897-T: P=1.5 × 10-10, OR=0.87) with diverticular disease and in FAM155A (family with sequence similarity 155A; rs67153654-A: P=3.0 × 10-11, OR=0.82) with diverticulitis. These are the first loci shown to associate with diverticular disease in a genome-wide study.
Project description:Clinical features and lifestyle factors associated with diverticulosis compared to diverticular disease (DD), either symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) or in patients who have had previous diverticulitis (PD), are unclear.The objective of this article is to compare cross-sectionally demographic and clinical features and quality of life (QoL) in diverticulosis, SUDD and PD patients.The REMAD Registry is a prospective, observational, multicentre, cohort study. Patients were categorised according to: diverticulosis; SUDD (recurrent abdominal symptoms attributed to diverticula in absence of overt inflammation) and PD (?1 previous diverticulitis).A total of 1217 patients (57.9% diverticulosis, 24.7% SUDD and 17.4% PD) were included. Compared to diverticulosis, female gender was associated to SUDD (OR 1.94; 95% CI: 1.43-2.62) and PD (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24-2.56); age???60 years was associated to PD (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.42-3.08 vs diverticulosis, OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.01-2.45 vs SUDD). PD patients showed an association with past bleeding (OR 29.29; 95% CI: 8.17-104.98 vs diverticulosis, OR 16.84; 95% CI: 3.77-75.25 vs SUDD). Compared to diverticulosis, family history for diverticula was associated to PD (OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.27-2.78). Patients with diverticulosis showed higher QoL scores, both physical (p?=?0.0001 and 0.0257) and mental (p?<?0.0001 and 0.0038), in comparison to SUDD and PD.Family history for diverticula and history of bleeding distinguish diverticulosis from DD. These clinical features should be kept in mind in the management of DD.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Gastrointestinal bleeding results in significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs in the United States. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services' payment reform programs assess quality and value based on rates of hospital readmission for patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, but they identify these patients using Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs), which include many types of gastrointestinal bleeding and do not account for the clinical heterogeneity among these patients. We aimed to characterize heterogeneity in outcomes of subgroups of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS:We performed was a cross-sectional, claims-based retrospective analysis of Medicare fee for service beneficiaries hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding in 2014 (159,000 hospitalizations). The primary outcome was unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge from the hospital (30-day readmission). Secondary outcomes included length of stay, inpatient mortality, and death within 30 days of admission to the hospital (30-day mortality). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, and Elixhauser comorbidities using logistic and Poisson regression, adjusting for clustering within hospitals. RESULTS:The 30-day readmission rate was 16.0%. Readmission rates varied among patients with different types of gastrointestinal bleeding, ranging from 13.5% for diverticular bleeding to 18.6% for small bowel bleeding. The mean length of stay was 4.2 days and 30-day mortality was 6.9% (ranging from 3.4% for diverticular bleeding to 12.1% for upper gastrointestinal bleeding not otherwise specified). When hospitalizations were stratified by MS-DRGs, the main source of variation in rates of readmission and mortality was MS-DRGs. CONCLUSIONS:In a retrospective analysis of Medicare fee for service beneficiaries hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding, we found that 16% of these patients are readmitted to the hospital. Rates of hospital readmission, length of stay, and mortality vary with type of gastrointestinal bleeding, but MS-DRGs account for the largest source of variation. Policies focused on quality and value should account for this heterogeneity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease is a common problem in Western countries. Rationale for elective surgery is to prevent recurrent complicated diverticulitis and to reduce emergency procedures. Recurrent diverticulitis occurs in about 10% after resection. The pathogenesis for recurrence is not completely understood. We studied the incidence and risk factors for recurrence and the overall morbidity and mortality of surgical therapy for diverticular disease. METHODS: Medical records of 183 consecutive patients with pathology-proven diverticulitis were eligible for evaluation. Mean duration of follow-up was 7.2 years. Number of preoperative episodes, emergency or elective surgeries, type of operation, level of anastomosis, postoperative complications, persistent postoperative pain, complications associated with colostomy reversal, and recurrent diverticulitis were noted. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative probability of recurrence. Cox regression was used to identify possible risk factors for recurrence. RESULTS: The incidence of recurrence was 8.7%, with an estimated risk of recurrence over a 15-year period of 16%. Risk factors associated with recurrence were (younger) age (p < 0.02) and the persistence of postoperative pain (p < 0.005). Persistent abdominal pain after surgery was present in 22%. Eighty percent of patients who needed emergency surgery for acute diverticulitis had no manifestation of diverticular disease prior to surgery. In addition, recurrent diverticulitis was not associated with a higher percentage of emergency procedures. CONCLUSION: Estimated risk of recurrence is high and abdominal complaints after surgical therapy for diverticulitis are frequent. Younger age and persistence of postoperative symptoms predict recurrent diverticulitis after resection. The clinical implication of these findings needs further investigation. The results of this study support the careful selection of patients for surgery for diverticulitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Although recurrent diverticular hemorrhage is common, its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. We analyzed the incidence of and risk factors for recurrent diverticular hemorrhage and whether discontinuing anticoagulation after diverticular hemorrhage is associated with ischemic stroke. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the OptumInsight Clinformatics database from 2000 through 2016. Incidence rates for initial and recurrent diverticular hemorrhage were calculated by identifying patients who had hospitalizations with a primary discharge diagnosis consistent with diverticular hemorrhage. The hazard ratios of second diverticular hemorrhage associated with anticoagulants or platelet aggregation inhibitors were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and medication use. The hazard ratio for ischemic stroke among patients who discontinued anticoagulation after diverticular hemorrhage was calculated similarly. RESULTS:In the cohort analyzed, 14,925 patients had an initial diverticular hemorrhage; 1368 of these patients had a second episode. The unstandardized incidence rates of initial and second diverticular hemorrhage were 10.9 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7-11.0) and 3625.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 3436.0-3823.0). Platelet aggregation inhibitors were associated with second episodes of diverticular hemorrhage (hazard ratio 1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.88), whereas all classes of anticoagulation agents were not associated. Among patients with a potential indication for stroke prophylaxis, those who discontinued anticoagulation after the diverticular hemorrhage had an increased hazard of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 1.93; 95% CI 1.17-3.19). CONCLUSIONS:In this retrospective cohort study, platelet aggregation inhibitors, but not anticoagulants, were associated with recurrent diverticular hemorrhage. Discontinuing anticoagulation was associated with increased hazard for ischemic stroke.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:There is little evidence that adiposity associates with diverticulitis, especially among women. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of obesity, weight change, and incidence of diverticulitis in a large cohort of women. METHODS:We conducted a prospective cohort study of 46,079 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study who were 61-89 years old and free of diverticulitis, diverticular bleeding, cancers, or inflammatory bowel disease at baseline (in 2008). We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations among risk of incident diverticulitis and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and weight change from age 18 years to the present. The primary end point was first incident diverticulitis requiring antibiotic therapy or hospitalization. RESULTS:We documented 1084 incident cases of diverticulitis over 6 years of follow-up, encompassing 248,001 person-years. After adjustment for other risk factors, women with a BMI ?35.0 kg/m2 had a hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.85) compared to women with a BMI <22.5 kg/m2. Compared to women in the lowest quintile, the multivariable hazard ratios among women in the highest quintile were 1.35 (95% CI, 1.02-1.78) for waist circumference and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.07-1.84) for waist to hip ratio; these associations were attenuated with further adjustment for BMI. Compared to women maintaining weight from age 18 years to the present, those who gained ?20 kg had a 73% increased risk of diverticulitis (95% CI, 27%-136%). CONCLUSIONS:During a 6-year follow-up period, we observed an association between obesity and risk of diverticulitis among women. Weight gain during adulthood was also associated with increased risk.