Modern molecular approaches for analyzing microbial diversity from mushroom compost ecosystem.
ABSTRACT: Biosphere is a store house of various microorganisms that may be employed to isolate and exploit microbes for environmental, pharmaceutical, agricultural and industrial applications. There is restricted data regarding the structure and dynamics of microbial communities in several ecosystems because only a little fraction of microbial diversity is accessible by culture methods. Owing to limitations of traditional enrichment methods and pure culture techniques, microbiological studies have offered a narrow portal for investigating microbial flora. The bacterial community represented by the morphological and nutritional criteria failed to provide a natural taxonomic order according to the evolutionary relationship. Genetic diversity among the isolates recovered from mushroom compost has not been widely studied. To understand genetic diversity and community composition of the mushroom compost microflora, different approaches are now followed by taxonomists, to characterize and identify isolates up to species level. Molecular microbial ecology is an emerging discipline of biology under molecular approach which can provide complex community profiles along with useful phylogenetic information. The genomic era has resulted in the development of new molecular tools and techniques for study of culturable microbial diversity including the DNA base ratio (mole% G + C), DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA microarray and reverse sample genome probing. In addition, non-culturable diversity of mushroom compost ecosystem can be characterized by employing various molecular tools which would be discussed in the present review.
Project description:Actinobacteria are widely distributed in many environments and represent the most important trigger to the occupant respiratory health. Health complaints, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis of the workers, were recorded in a mushroom compost facility (MCF). The studies on the airborne bacteria were carried out to find a possible microbiological source of these symptoms. Culture analysis of compost bioaerosols collected in different location of the MCF was performed. An assessment of the indoor microbial exposure revealed bacterial flora of bioaerosol in the mushroom compost facility represented by Bacillus, Geobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus spp., and actinobacterial strain with white aerial mycelium. The thermotolerant actinobacterial strain of the same morphology was repeatedly isolated from many locations in MCF: air, compost sample, and solid surface in production hall. On the base of complex morphological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate has been classified as Nocardiopsis alba. Dominant position of N. alba in microbial environment of the mushroom compost facility may represent an indicator microorganism in compost bioaerosol. The bioavailability of N. alba in mushroom compost facility creates potential risk for the health of workers, and the protection of respiratory tract and/or skin is strongly recommended.
Project description:Little is known about the ecology of microbial plastic degradation. In this study, we employed next generation amplicon sequencing to assess the effect of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films on the structure of bacterial and fungal communities in four mature compost piles with age ranging between 2 and 10 years. While, bacterial Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and fungi Ascomycota were most abundant across all facilities, our data indicated significant differences in compost microbiomes between compost facilities, which might be related to compost chemical parameters, age of piles and characteristics of the feedstock. In addition, a substantial shift in the interaction pattern within microbial communities from bulk and plastic-associated (PA) compost was detected. For example, cooperation between Firmicutes Bacillaceae and Thermoactinomycetaceae was detected only in PA compost. However, based on the analysis of the diversity indices and the relative abundances of microbial taxa we can conclude that the presence of plastics in compost had no significant effect on the structure of microbial community.
Project description:The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01), whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01). However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure compost plus bacterial fertilizers can immediately improve the microbial community structure and diversity of degraded cropland soils.
Project description:Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost's microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated. Herein, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a compost on tomato plant growth and its suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Foxl) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). First, growth parameters of tomato plants grown in sterile peat-based substrates including 20 and 30% sterile compost (80P/20C-ST and 70P/30C-ST) or non-sterile compost (80P/20C and 70P/30C) were evaluated in a growth room experiment. Plant height, total leaf surface, and fresh and dry weight of plants grown in the non-sterile compost mixes were increased compared to the plants grown in the sterile compost substrates, indicating the plant growth promoting activity of the compost's microorganisms. Subsequently, compost's suppressiveness against Foxl and Vd was evaluated with pathogenicity experiments on tomato plants grown in 70P/30C-ST and 70P/30C substrates. Disease intensity was significantly less in plants grown in the non-sterile compost than in those grown in the sterile compost substrate; AUDPC was 2.3- and 1.4-fold less for Foxl and Vd, respectively. Moreover, fungal quantification in planta demonstrated reduced colonization in plants grown in the non-sterile mixture. To further investigate these findings, we characterized the culturable microbiome attracted by the roots compared to the unplanted compost. Bacteria and fungi isolated from unplanted compost and the rhizosphere of plants were sequence-identified. Community-level analysis revealed differential microbial communities between the compost and the rhizosphere, suggesting a clear effect of the plant in the microbiome assembly. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were highly enriched in the rhizosphere whereas Firmicutes were strongly represented in both compartments with Bacillus being the most abundant species. Our results shed light on the composition of a microbial consortium that could protect plants against the wilt pathogens of tomato and improve plant overall health.
Project description:Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed to generate compost with the desired properties.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether and how poultry litter compost and dairy manure compost alter the microbial communities within field soils planted with spinach. In three successive years, separate experimental plots on two fields received randomly assigned compost treatments varying in animal origin: dairy manure (DMC), poultry litter (PLC), or neither (NoC). The composition and function of bacterial and fungal communities were characterized by the amplicon sequencing of marker genes and by the ecoenzyme activity, respectively. The temporal autocorrelation within and among years was adjusted by principal response curves (PRC) to analyze the effect of compost on community composition among treatments. Bacteria in the phylum Bacteriodetes, classes Flavobacteriia and Spingobacteriales (Fluviicola, Flavobacteriia, and Pedobacter), were two to four times more abundant in soils amended with PLC than DMC or NoC consistently among fields and years. Fungi in the phylum Ascomycota were relatively abundant, but their composition was field-specific and without treatment differences. The ecoenzyme data verify that the effects of PLC and DMC on soil communities are based on their microbial composition and not a response to the C source or nutrient content of the compost.
Project description:The application of fertilisers incorporated with plant residues improves nutrient availability in soils, which shifts the microbial community structure and favours plant growth. To understand the impact of wheat straw compost fertiliser on soil properties and microbial community structure, tobacco planting soils were treated with four different fertilisers using varied amounts of straw compost fertiliser and a no fertiliser control (CK). Results showed that different fertilisers affected available soil nutrient contents differently. Treatment of tobacco soil with application of combined chemical fertiliser/wheat straw compost led to improved soil chemical properties, and increased soil organic matter and available phosphorus and potassium content. Treatment with FT1 200 kg/mu straw was found to be superior in improving soil fertility. Metagenomic DNA sequencing revealed that different fertiliser treatments resulted in changes in the microbial community composition. In soil treated with FT2 300 kg/mu straw for 60 days, the predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, whereas Cyanobacteria, Basidiomycota, and Chlorophyta were found in high abundance in soil samples treated with FT1 200 kg/mu straw for 30 days. Functional annotation of metagenomic sequences revealed that genes involved in metabolic pathways were among the most abundant type. PCoA analysis clearly separated the samples containing straw compost fertiliser and chemical fertiliser. A significant correlation between soil properties and the dominant phyla was identified.
Project description:Agaricus bisporus consumes carbohydrates contained in wheat straw based compost used for commercial mushroom production. Double substituted arabinoxylan is part of the ~40% of the compost polysaccharides that are not degraded by A. bisporus during its growth and development. Genes encoding ?-1,3-l-arabinofuranosidase (AXHd3) enzymes that act on xylosyl residues doubly substituted with arabinosyl residues are absent in this mushroom forming fungus. Here, the AXHd3 encoding hgh43 gene of Humicola insolens was expressed in A. bisporus with the aim to improve its substrate utilization and mushroom yield. Transformants secreted active AXHd3 in compost as shown by the degradation of double substituted arabinoxylan oligomers in an in vitro assay. However, carbohydrate composition and degree of arabinosyl substitution of arabinoxylans were not affected in compost possibly due to inaccessibility of the doubly substituted xylosyl residues.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Composting is one of the methods utilised in recycling organic communal waste. The composting process is dependent on aerobic microbial activity and proceeds through a succession of different phases each dominated by certain microorganisms. In this study, a ligation-detection-reaction (LDR) based microarray method was adapted for species-level detection of compost microbes characteristic of each stage of the composting process. LDR utilises the specificity of the ligase enzyme to covalently join two adjacently hybridised probes. A zip-oligo is attached to the 3'-end of one probe and fluorescent label to the 5'-end of the other probe. Upon ligation, the probes are combined in the same molecule and can be detected in a specific location on a universal microarray with complementary zip-oligos enabling equivalent hybridisation conditions for all probes. The method was applied to samples from Nordic composting facilities after testing and optimisation with fungal pure cultures and environmental clones. RESULTS: Probes targeted for fungi were able to detect 0.1 fmol of target ribosomal PCR product in an artificial reaction mixture containing 100 ng competing fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) area or herring sperm DNA. The detection level was therefore approximately 0.04% of total DNA. Clone libraries were constructed from eight compost samples. The LDR microarray results were in concordance with the clone library sequencing results. In addition a control probe was used to monitor the per-spot hybridisation efficiency on the array. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the LDR microarray method is capable of sensitive and accurate species-level detection from a complex microbial community. The method can detect key species from compost samples, making it a basis for a tool for compost process monitoring in industrial facilities.
Project description:Compost amendments to soils and potting mixes are routinely applied to improve soil fertility and plant growth and health. These amendments, which contain high levels of organic matter and microbial cells, can influence microbial communities associated with plants grown in such soils. The purpose of this study was to follow the bacterial community compositions of seed and subsequent root surfaces in the presence and absence of compost in the potting mix. The bacterial community compositions of potting mixes, seed, and root surfaces sampled at three stages of plant growth were analyzed via general and newly developed Bacteroidetes-specific, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methodologies. These analyses revealed that seed surfaces were colonized primarily by populations detected in the initial potting mixes, many of which were not detected in subsequent root analyses. The most persistent bacterial populations detected in this study belonged to the genus Chryseobacterium (Bacteroidetes) and the family Oxalobacteraceae (Betaproteobacteria). The patterns of colonization by populations within these taxa differed significantly and may reflect differences in the physiology of these organisms. Overall, analyses of bacterial community composition revealed a surprising prevalence and diversity of Bacteroidetes in all treatments.