Effects of the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Secretomes Isolated from the Skin Microbiota of Atopic Children on CD4+ T Cell Activation.
ABSTRACT: Interactions between the immune system and skin bacteria are of major importance in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD), yet our understanding of them is limited. From a cohort of very young AD children (1 to 3 years old), sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens (Der p), we conducted culturomic analysis of skin microbiota, cutaneous transcript profiling and quantification of anti-Der p CD4+ T cells. This showed that the presence of S. aureus in inflamed skin of AD patients was associated with a high IgE response, increased expression of inflammatory and Th2/Th22 transcripts and the prevalence of a peripheral Th2 anti-Der p response. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) exposed to the S. aureus and S. epidermidis secretomes were found to release pro-inflammatory IFN-? and anti-inflammatory IL-10, respectively. Allogeneic moDC exposed to the S. aureus secretome also induced the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and this effect was counteracted by concurrent exposure to the S. epidermidis secretome. In addition, whereas the S. epidermidis secretome promoted the activity of regulatory T cells (Treg) in suppressing the proliferation of conventional CD4+ T cells, the Treg lost this ability in the presence of the S. aureus secretome. We therefore conclude that S. aureus may cause and promote inflammation in the skin of AD children through concomitant Th2 activation and the silencing of resident Treg cells. Commensals such as S. epidermidis may counteract these effects by inducing the release of IL-10 by skin dendritic cells.
Project description:The heterogeneous course, severity, and treatment responses among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD; eczema) highlight the complexity of this multifactorial disease. Prior studies have used traditional typing methods on cultivated isolates or sequenced a bacterial marker gene to study the skin microbial communities of AD patients. Shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis provides much greater resolution, elucidating multiple levels of microbial community assembly ranging from kingdom to species and strain-level diversification. We analyzed microbial temporal dynamics from a cohort of pediatric AD patients sampled throughout the disease course. Species-level investigation of AD flares showed greater Staphylococcus aureus predominance in patients with more severe disease and Staphylococcus epidermidis predominance in patients with less severe disease. At the strain level, metagenomic sequencing analyses demonstrated clonal S. aureus strains in more severe patients and heterogeneous S. epidermidis strain communities in all patients. To investigate strain-level biological effects of S. aureus, we topically colonized mice with human strains isolated from AD patients and controls. This cutaneous colonization model demonstrated S. aureus strain-specific differences in eliciting skin inflammation and immune signatures characteristic of AD patients. Specifically, S. aureus isolates from AD patients with more severe flares induced epidermal thickening and expansion of cutaneous T helper 2 (TH2) and TH17 cells. Integrating high-resolution sequencing, culturing, and animal models demonstrated how functional differences of staphylococcal strains may contribute to the complexity of AD disease.
Project description:Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with a TH2 immune polarity and is often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Despite recent advances in understanding Staphylococcus species infection and the impact of polar TH cytokines on the skin, the interactions between these factors in AD pathology are poorly understood. Methods: AD-related key immune biomarkers were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in human keratinocytes exposed heat-killed S. epidermidis or S. aureus with/without polar T-cell derived cytokines such as IFN-γ (TH1), IL-4/IL-13 (TH2), and IL-22 (TH22). Further analysis was performed by RNA-sequencing to define broader responses in both Staphylococcus species and polar cytokines. The similarity of gene expression patterns in AD skin lesions and stimulated keratinocytes was evaluated by gene-set variation analysis (GSVA). Results: Gene expression analysis exhibited distinct immune responses in keratinocytes depending on individual bacterial or polar cytokine exposure. Besides, numerous genes were synergistically upregulated by the combination exposure of bacteria and polar TH cytokines. Moreover, GSVA revealed that combined exposure of S. aureus and IL-4 + IL-13 exhibited significantly higher correlations with a genomic signature of AD skin lesions than their single exposure or combinations of other polar TH cytokines. Conclusions: Our findings provide novel insights into AD-related transcriptional activation and illustrate a potentially novel pathogenic function of S. aureus and IL-4/IL-13 interactions in AD. Overall design: human keratinocyte mRNA profiles exposed heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus aureus with/without polarizing T-cell derived cytokines: IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-22.
Project description:Intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus favors bacterial spread and chronic infections. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory against staphylococcal antigens. Notably, the latter could provide a missing link in our understanding of immune control of intracellular S. aureus. The analyses showed that pulsing of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) with native staphylococcal protein antigens induced release of Th2-associated cytokines and mediators linked to T regulatory cell development (G-CSF, IL-2 and IL-10) from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus revealing a state of tolerance predominantly arising from preformed memory T cells. Furthermore, G-CSF was identified as a suppressor of CD8+ T cell-derived IFN? secretion, thus confirming a tolerogenic role of this cytokine in the regulation of T cell responses to S. aureus. Nevertheless, delivery of in vitro transcribed mRNA-encoded staphylococcal antigens triggered Th1-biased responses, e.g. IFN? and TNF release from both naïve and memory T cells. Collectively, our data highlight the potential of mRNA-adjuvanted antigen presentation to enable inflammatory responses, thus overriding the existing Th2/Treg-biased memory T cell response to native S. aureus antigens.
Project description:The microbiome is a rich source of metabolites for the development of novel drugs. Butyric acid, for example, is a short-chain fatty acid fermentation metabolite of the skin probiotic bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Glycerol fermentation of S. epidermidis resulted in the production of butyric acid and effectively hindered the growth of a Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain isolated from skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) in vitro and in vivo. This approach, however, is unlikely to be therapeutically useful since butyric acid is malodorous and requires a high concentration in the mM range for growth suppression of AD S. aureus. A derivative of butyric acid, BA-NH-NH-BA, was synthesized by conjugation of two butyric acids to both ends of an -NH-O-NH- linker. BA-NH-NH-BA significantly lowered the concentration of butyric acid required to inhibit the growth of AD S. aureus. Like butyric acid, BA-NH-NH-BA functioned as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor by inducing the acetylation of Histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) in human keratinocytes. Furthermore, BA-NH-NH-BA ameliorated AD S. aureus-induced production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and remarkably reduced the colonization of AD S. aureus in mouse skin. These results describe a novel derivative of a skin microbiome fermentation metabolite that exhibits anti-inflammatory and S. aureus bactericidal activity.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by increased T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine expression. AD skin lesions are often exacerbated by Staphylococcus aureus-mediated secretion of the lytic virulence factor, alpha toxin. In the current study, we report that alpha toxin-induced cell death is greater in the skin from patients with AD compared with controls. Furthermore, we find that keratinocyte differentiation and Th2 cytokine exposure influence sensitivity to S. aureus alpha toxin-induced cell death. Differentiated keratinocytes are protected from cell death, whereas cells treated with Th2 cytokines have increased sensitivity to alpha toxin-induced lethality. Our data demonstrate that the downstream effects mediated by Th2 cytokines are dependent upon host expression of STAT6. We determine that Th2 cytokines induce biochemical changes that decrease levels of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase), an enzyme that cleaves sphingomyelin, an alpha toxin receptor. Furthermore, Th2 cytokines inhibit the production of lamellar bodies, organelles critical for epidermal barrier formation. Finally, we determine that SMase and its enzymatic product, phosphocholine, prevent Th2-mediated increases in alpha toxin-induced cell death. Therefore, our studies may help explain the increased propensity for Th2 cytokines to exacerbate S. aureus-induced skin disease, and provide a potential therapeutic target for treatment of AD.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread inflammatory skin disease with an early onset, characterized by pruritus, eczematous lesions and skin dryness. This chronic relapsing disease is believed to be primarily a result of a defective epidermal barrier function associated with genetic susceptibility, immune hyper-responsiveness of the skin and environmental factors. Although the important role of abnormal immune reactivity in the pathogenesis of AD is widely accepted, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains elusive. We found that the Treg population is expanded in a mouse model of AD, i.e. mice topically treated with vitamin D3 (VitD). Moreover, mice with AD-like symptoms exhibit increased inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)-, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4)- and Glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant receptor (GARP)-expressing Tregs in skin-draining lymph nodes. Importantly, the differentiation of Tregs into thymus-derived Tregs is favoured in our mouse model of AD. Emigrated skin-derived dendritic cells are required for Treg induction and Langerhans cells are responsible for the biased expansion of thymus-derived Tregs . Intriguingly, thymus-derived Tregs isolated from mice with AD-like symptoms exhibit a Th2 cytokine profile. Thus, AD might favour the expansion of pathogenic Tregs able to produce Th2 cytokines and to promote the disease instead of alleviating symptoms.
Project description:The host must develop tolerance to commensal microbes and protective responses to infectious pathogens, yet the mechanisms enabling a privileged relationship with commensals remain largely unknown. Skin colonization by commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis facilitates immune tolerance preferentially in neonates via induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, we demonstrate that this tolerance is not indiscriminately extended to all bacteria encountered in this early window. Rather, neonatal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus minimally enriches for antigen-specific Tregs and does not prevent skin inflammation upon later-life exposure. S. aureus ?-toxin contributes to this response by stimulating myeloid cell production of IL-1?, which limits S. aureus-specific Tregs. Loss of ?-toxin or the IL-1 receptor increases Treg enrichment, whereas topical application of IL-1? or ?-toxin diminishes tolerogenic responses to S. epidermidis. Thus, the preferential activation of a key alarmin pathway facilitates early discrimination of microbial "foe" from "friend," thereby preventing tolerance to a common skin pathogen.
Project description:Lactobacillus sakei WIKIM30 is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable food. In this study, we found that WIKIM30 promoted regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation by inducing dendritic cells with tolerogenic properties. The production of the T helper (Th) 2-associated cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 was decreased, but that of the Treg-associated cytokine IL-10 was increased in splenocytes from ovalbumin-sensitized mice treated with WIKIM30. We also investigated the inhibitory capacity of WIKIM30 on the development of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD), a Th2-dominant allergic disease in mice. Oral administration of L. sakei WIKIM30 significantly reduced AD-like skin lesions and serum immunoglobulin E and IL-4 levels while decreasing the number of CD4+ T cells and B cells and the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in peripheral lymph nodes and enhancing Treg differentiation and IL-10 secretion in mesenteric lymph nodes. In addition, WIKIM30 modulated gut microbiome profiles that were altered in AD mice, which showed increases in Arthromitus and Ralstonia and a decrease in Ruminococcus abundance. These changes were reversed by WIKIM30 treatment. Notably, the increase in Ruminococcus was highly correlated with Treg-related responses and may contribute to the alleviation of AD responses. Together, these results suggest that oral administration of L. sakei WIKIM30 modulates allergic Th2 responses enhancing Treg generation and increases the relative abundance of intestinal bacteria that are positively related to Treg generation, and therefore has therapeutic potential for the treatment of AD.
Project description:The occurrence of atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease, has been increasing steadily in children and adults in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the lactic acid bacterium Weissella cibaria WIKIM28 isolated from gatkimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable preparation made from mustard leaves, to suppress the development of AD induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in a murine model. Oral administration of W. cibaria WIKIM28 reduced AD-like skin lesions, epidermal thickening, and serum immunoglobulin E levels. Furthermore, the production of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 decreased in peripheral lymph node cells. Moreover, the intake of W. cibaria WIKIM28 increased the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and IL-10 levels in polyclonally stimulated MLN cells. In conclusion, the oral administration of W. cibaria WIKIM28 isolated from gatkimchi ameliorated AD-like symptoms by suppressing allergic Th2 responses and inducing Treg responses. These results suggest that W. cibaria WIKIM28 may be applicable as a probiotic for the prevention and amelioration of AD.
Project description:Despite continuous exposure and development of specific immunity, Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) remains one of the leading causes of severe infections worldwide. Although innate immune defense mechanisms are well understood, the role of the T cell response has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that Sa and one of its major virulence factors protein A (SpA) induce human regulatory T cells (Tregs), key players in immune tolerance. In human PBMC and MoDC/T cell cocultures CD4+CD25+CD127dim Tregs were induced upon stimulation with Sa and to a lower extent with SpA alone. Treg induction was strongly, but not exclusively, dependent on SpA, and independent of antigen presentation or T cell epitope recognition. Lastly, soluble factors in the supernatant of SpA-stimulated MoDC were sufficient to trigger Treg formation, while supernatants of MoDC/T cell cocultures containing Sa-triggered Tregs displayed T cell suppressive activity. In summary, our findings identify a new immunosuppressory function of SpA, which leads to release of soluble, Treg-inducing factors and might be relevant to establish colonization.