Draft genome sequence of a nitrate-reducing, o-phthalate degrading bacterium, Azoarcus sp. strain PA01(T).
ABSTRACT: Azoarcus sp. strain PA01(T) belongs to the genus Azoarcus, of the family Rhodocyclaceae within the class Betaproteobacteria. It is a facultatively anaerobic, mesophilic, non-motile, Gram-stain negative, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Constance, Germany. It is of interest because of its ability to degrade o-phthalate and a wide variety of aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Elucidation of the o-phthalate degradation pathway may help to improve the treatment of phthalate-containing wastes in the future. Here, we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence information and annotation. The draft genome consists of 4 contigs with 3,908,301 bp and an overall G?+?C content of 66.08 %. Out of 3,712 total genes predicted, 3,625 genes code for proteins and 87 genes for RNAs. The majority of the protein-encoding genes (83.51 %) were assigned a putative function while those remaining were annotated as hypothetical proteins.
Project description:In the past two decades, the study of oxygen-independent degradation of widely abundant aromatic compounds in anaerobic bacteria has revealed numerous unprecedented enzymatic principles. Surprisingly, the organisms, metabolites and enzymes involved in the degradation of o-phthalate (1,2-dicarboxybenzene), mainly derived from phthalate esters that are annually produced at the million ton scale, are sparsely known. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown capacity of complete phthalate degradation in established aromatic compound-degrading, denitrifying model organisms of the genera Thauera, Azoarcus and 'Aromatoleum'. Differential proteome analyses revealed phthalate-induced gene clusters involved in uptake and conversion of phthalate to the central intermediate benzoyl-CoA. Enzyme assays provided in vitro evidence for the formation of phthaloyl-CoA by a succinyl-CoA- and phthalate-specific CoA transferase, which is essential for the subsequent oxygen-sensitive decarboxylation to benzoyl-CoA. The extreme instability of the phthaloyl-CoA intermediate requires highly balanced CoA transferase and decarboxylase activities to avoid its cellular accumulation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed phthaloyl-CoA decarboxylase as a novel member of the UbiD-like, (de)carboxylase enzyme family. Homologs of the encoding gene form a phylogenetic cluster and are found in soil, freshwater and marine bacteria; an ongoing global distribution of a possibly only recently evolved degradation pathway is suggested.
Project description:Comamonas sp. strain E6 can degrade o-phthalate, terephthalate, and isophthalate via the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of E6 in order to provide insights into its mechanisms in o-phthalate catabolism and its potential use for biotechnological applications.
Project description:Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary.
Project description:Thiobacimonas sp. strain D13, newly isolated from the sediments of the southeastern Pacific, can effectively degrade phthalate ester. Here, we report the 5.22-Mbp draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability.
Project description:Recurring blooms of filamentous, red-pigmented and toxin-producing cyanobacteria <i>Planktothrix rubescens</i> have been reported in numerous deep and stratified prealpine lakes, with the exception of Lake Constance. In a 2019 and 2020 Lake Constance field campaign, we collected samples from a distinct red-pigmented biomass maximum below the chlorophyll-a maximum, which was determined using fluorescence probe measurements at depths between 18 and 20 m. Here, we report the characterization of these deep water red pigment maxima (DRM) as cyanobacterial blooms. Using 16S rRNA gene-amplicon sequencing, we found evidence that the blooms were, indeed, contributed by <i>Planktothrix</i> spp., although phycoerythrin-rich <i>Synechococcus</i> taxa constituted most of the biomass (>96% relative read abundance) of the cyanobacterial DRM community. Through UPLC-MS/MS, we also detected toxic microcystins (MCs) in the DRM in the individual sampling days at concentrations of ≤1.5 ng/L. Subsequently, we reevaluated the fluorescence probe measurements collected over the past decade and found that, in the summer, DRM have been present in Lake Constance, at least since 2009. Our study highlights the need for a continuous monitoring program also targeting the cyanobacterial DRM in Lake Constance, and for future studies on the competition of the different cyanobacterial taxa. Future studies will address the potential community composition changes in response to the climate change driven physiochemical and biological parameters of the lake.
Project description:Stable isotope probing (SIP) is a cultivation-free methodology that provides information about the identity of microorganisms participating in assimilatory processes in complex communities. In this study, a Herminiimonas-related bacterium was identified as the dominant member of a denitrifying microcosm fed [(13)C]toluene. The genome of the uncultivated toluene-degrading bacterium was obtained by applying pyrosequencing to the heavy DNA fraction. The draft genome comprised ~3.8 Mb, in 131 assembled contigs. Metabolic reconstruction of aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene, benzoate, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, and cyclohexane carboxylate) degradation indicated that the bacterium might specialize in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. This characteristic is novel for the order Burkholderiales within the class Betaproteobacteria. Under aerobic conditions, the benzoate oxidation gene cluster (BOX) system is likely involved in the degradation of benzoate via benzoyl coenzyme A. Many putative genes for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were closely related to those in the Rhodocyclaceae (particularly Aromatoleum aromaticum EbN1) with respect to organization and sequence similarity. Putative mobile genetic elements associated with these catabolic genes were highly abundant, suggesting gene acquisition by Herminiimonas via horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:The genus Azoarcus includes nitrogen-fixing, grass-associated strains as well as denitrying toluene degraders. In order to identify and group members of the genus Azoarcus, phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) is proposed. 16S rRNA-targeted PCR using specific primers to exclude amplification in the majority of other members of the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria was combined with direct sequencing of the PCR products. Tree inference from comparisons of 446-bp rDNA fragments yielded similar results for the three known Azoarcus spp. sequences and for analysis of the complete 16S rDNA sequence. These three species formed a phylogenetically coherent group with representatives of two other Azoarcus species which were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing in this study. This group was related to Rhodocyclus purpureus and Thauera selenatis. New isolates and also sequences of so far uncultured bacteria from roots of Kallar grass were assigned to the genus Azoarcus as well. Also, strains degrading monoaromatic hydrocarbons anaerobically in the presence of nitrate clustered within this genus, albeit not with grass-associated isolates. All representative members of the five species harboring rhizospheric bacteria were able to form N2O from nitrate and showed anaerobic growth on malic acid with nitrate but not on toluene. In order to visualize different Azoarcus spp. by whole-cell in situ hybridizations, we generated 16S rRNA-targeted, fluorescent probes by in vitro transcription directly from PCR products which spanned the variable region V2. Hybridization was species specific for Azoarcus communis and Azoarcus indigens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Project description:Phylogenetic analyses after reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA of nitrogen-fixing, grass-associated Azoarcus strains confirmed their affiliation to the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Strains representing three different species formed a phylogenetically coherent unit related to Rhodocyclus purpureus, with actual percent similarities among the three sequences ranging from 93.1 to 97.3%. Within variable regions V2 and V5, we found stretches of sequences considerably conserved within the genus Azoarcus but differing from most other gram-negative bacteria, with the specificity being enhanced when different regions were combined. Genus-specific primers selected from both regions amplified fragments from all but one Azoarcus species in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) but not from any reference strain tested. Primers of lesser specificity generated fragments from members of all five Azoarcus species as well as from some reference strains. Those unspecific amplifications could be differentiated by oligonucleotide hybridization, detecting only fragments generated from Azoarcus strains except strain 6a3, which represents the same group which could not be detected by genus-specific PCR. Thus we propose the application of PCR amplification with 16S rRNA-targeted, genus-specific primers in combination with hybridization of a 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide to PCR-generated fragments as diagnostic tests; this allows an initial screening for presence of members of the genus Azoarcus.