Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic [11C]Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo.
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring fatty acid (FA) metabolism with partial volume (PV) and spill-over (SP) corrections using dynamic [(11)C]palmitate positron emission tomographic (PET) images of mouse heart in vivo. Twenty-minute dynamic [(11)C]palmitate PET scans of four 18- to 20-week-old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus F-120 PET scanner. A model-corrected blood input function, by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1-k5) are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic [(11)C]palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a four-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO), myocardial FA esterification, myocardial FA use, and myocardial FA uptake. The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03 ± 43.83 nmol/min/g. This compares well to the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmol/g/min and 400 nmol/min/g. FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic [(11)C]palmitate PET in a four-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model was validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In vitro data suggest that changes in myocardial substrate metabolism may contribute to impaired myocardial function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of the present study was to study in a rat model of early DCM, in vivo changes in myocardial substrate metabolism and their association with myocardial function.<h4>Methods</h4>Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats underwent echocardiography followed by [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET) under fasting, and [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET under hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions. Isolated cardiomyocytes were used to determine isometric force development.<h4>Results</h4>PET data showed a 66% decrease in insulin-mediated myocardial glucose utilisation and a 41% increase in fatty acid (FA) oxidation in ZDF vs. ZL rats (both p < 0.05). Echocardiography showed diastolic and systolic dysfunction in ZDF vs. ZL rats, which was paralleled by a significantly decreased maximal force (68%) and maximal rate of force redevelopment (69%) of single cardiomyocytes. Myocardial functional changes were significantly associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity and decreased myocardial glucose utilisation. ZDF hearts showed a 68% decrease in glucose transporter-4 mRNA expression (p < 0.05), a 22% decrease in glucose transporter-4 protein expression (p = 0.10), unchanged levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 protein expression, a 57% decreased phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase alpha1/2 (p < 0.05) and a 2.4-fold increased abundance of the FA transporter CD36 to the sarcolemma (p < 0.01) vs. ZL hearts, which are compatible with changes in substrate metabolism. In ZDF vs. ZL hearts a 2.4-fold reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt was found (p < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Using PET and echocardiography, we found increases in myocardial FA oxidation with a concomitant decrease of insulin-mediated myocardial glucose utilisation in early DCM. In addition, the latter was associated with impaired myocardial function. These in vivo data expand previous in vitro findings showing that early alterations in myocardial substrate metabolism contribute to myocardial dysfunction.
Project description:Human studies indicate augmented myocardial lipid metabolism in females, and that sex and obesity interact to predict myocardial fatty acid oxidation and storage. Altered lipid dynamics precede cardiomyopathies, and many studies now address high fat diets. Conversely, caloric restriction (CR), is the most studied model for longevity and stress resistance, including protection against myocardial ischemia. However, no information exists on the effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on triacylglyceride (TAG) content and dynamics in the heart. This study explored the effects of CR, sex and age on TAG dynamics in mouse hearts. Male and female SVJ129 mice were fed either normal (ND) or CR diet for 3 or 10 months. In 5-month-old mice, CR similarly decreased cardiac TAG in males (ND: 25.5±4.5 nmol/mg protein; CR: 12.6±2.7, P<0.05) and females (ND: 30.1±4.4; CR: 13.7±1.2) (no significant differences in TAG content were seen between sexes). CR reduced the contribution of exogenous palmitate to oxidative metabolism in males and females, by 15% and 11% respectively, versus ND, without affecting cardiac workload. CR also induced a larger reduction in TAG turnover in male (68%) than female hearts (38%). Interestingly, in 5 month old male mice, CR reproduced the lower TAG turnover rates of middle-aged males (ND 13-month-old male=423±76 nmol/mg protein/min). Thus, long term CR reduces TAG pool dynamics. Despite reduced content, hearts of female mice subjected to CR retained a more dynamic TAG pool than males, while males respond with greater metabolic remodeling of cardiac lipid dynamics.
Project description:According to the current paradigm, fatty acid (FA) utilization is increased in the diabetic heart. Since plasma levels of competing substrates such as ketone bodies are increased during diabetes, the effect of those substrates on cardiac FA handling was explored. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from control and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats and incubated with normal (80 microM) and elevated (160 microM) palmitate concentrations in the absence or presence of ketone bodies, including acetoacetate (AcAc). Comparing control cardiomyocytes under normal conditions (80 microM, no AcAc) with diabetic cardiomyocytes (160 microM, 3 mM AcAc) showed that palmitate uptake was increased from 35.2 +/- 4.8 to 60.2 +/- 14.0 nmol x 3 min(-1) x g wet weight(-1) respectively. Under these conditions, palmitate oxidation rates were comparable (58.9 +/- 23.6 versus 53.2 +/- 18.5 nmol x 30 min(-1) x g wet weight(-1)). However, in the absence of AcAc, palmitate oxidation was significantly enhanced in diabetic cardiomyocytes, indicating that ketone bodies are able to suppress cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes. The concomitantly increased FA uptake in diabetic cells, mainly due to the elevated extracellular FA levels, may be responsible for the accumulation of FA and triacylglycerol, as observed in the diabetic heart in situ.
Project description:Intramyocardial triglyceride (TG) turnover is reduced in pressure-overloaded, failing hearts, limiting the availability of this rich source of long-chain fatty acids for mitochondrial ?-oxidation and nuclear receptor activation. This study explored 2 major dietary fats, palmitate and oleate, in supporting endogenous TG dynamics and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation in sham-operated (SHAM) and hypertrophied (transverse aortic constriction [TAC]) rat hearts.Isolated SHAM and TAC hearts were provided media containing carbohydrate with either (13)C-palmitate or (13)C-oleate for dynamic (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and end point liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of TG dynamics. With palmitate, TAC hearts contained 48% less TG versus SHAM (P=0.0003), whereas oleate maintained elevated TG in TAC, similar to SHAM. TG turnover in TAC was greatly reduced with palmitate (TAC, 46.7±12.2 nmol/g dry weight per min; SHAM, 84.3±4.9; P=0.0212), as was ?-oxidation of TG. Oleate elevated TG turnover in both TAC (140.4±11.2) and SHAM (143.9±15.6), restoring TG oxidation in TAC. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? target gene transcripts were reduced by 70% in TAC with palmitate, whereas oleate induced normal transcript levels. Additionally, mRNA levels for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-coactivator-1? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-coactivator-1? in TAC hearts were maintained by oleate. With these metabolic effects, oleate also supported a 25% improvement in contractility over palmitate with TAC (P=0.0202).The findings link reduced intracellular lipid storage dynamics to impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? signaling and contractility in diseased hearts, consistent with a rate-dependent lipolytic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. In decompensated hearts, oleate may serve as a beneficial energy substrate versus palmitate by upregulating TG dynamics and nuclear receptor signaling.
Project description:Mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) oxidation deficiencies represent a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases in humans caused by defects in mitochondrial FA beta-oxidation (mFAO). A general characteristic of all mFAO disorders is hypoketotic hypoglycemia resulting from the enhanced reliance on glucose oxidation and the inability to synthesize ketone bodies from FAs. Patients with a defect in the oxidation of long-chain FAs are at risk to develop cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormalities including cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias, which may progress into early death, as well as rhabdomyolysis and exercise intolerance. The diagnosis of mFAO-deficient patients has greatly been helped by revolutionary developments in the field of tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and/or urine of candidate patients. Indeed, acylcarnitines have turned out to be excellent biomarkers; not only do they provide information whether a certain patient is affected by a mFAO deficiency, but the acylcarnitine profile itself usually immediately points to which enzyme is likely deficient. Another important aspect of acylcarnitine analysis by tandem MS is that this technique allows high-throughput analysis, which explains why screening for mFAO deficiencies has now been introduced in many newborn screening programs worldwide. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge about mFAO deficiencies, with particular emphasis on recent developments in the area of pathophysiology and treatment.
Project description:KEY POINTS:Hearts from type 2 diabetic animals display perturbations in excitation-contraction coupling, impairing myocyte contractility and delaying relaxation, along with altered substrate consumption patterns. Under high glucose and ?-adrenergic stimulation conditions, palmitate can, at least in part, offset left ventricle (LV) dysfunction in hearts from diabetic mice, improving contractility and relaxation while restoring coronary perfusion pressure. Fluxome calculations of central catabolism in diabetic hearts show that, in the presence of palmitate, there is a metabolic remodelling involving tricarboxylic acid cycle, polyol and pentose phosphate pathways, leading to improved redox balance in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments. Under high glucose and increased energy demand, the metabolic/fluxomic redirection leading to restored redox balance imparted by palmitate helps explain maintained LV function and may contribute to designing novel therapeutic approaches to prevent cardiac dysfunction in diabetic patients. ABSTRACT:Type-2 diabetes (T2DM) leads to reduced myocardial performance, and eventually heart failure. Excessive accumulation of lipids and glucose is central to T2DM cardiomyopathy. Previous data showed that palmitate (Palm) or glutathione preserved heart mitochondrial energy/redox balance under excess glucose, rescuing ?-adrenergic-stimulated cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. However, the mechanisms underlying the accompanying improved contractile performance have been largely ignored. Herein we explore in intact heart under substrate excess the metabolic remodelling associated with cardiac function in diabetic db/db mice subjected to stress given by ?-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol and high glucose compared to their non-diabetic controls (+/+, WT) under euglycaemic conditions. When perfused with Palm, T2DM hearts exhibited improved contractility/relaxation compared to WT, accompanied by extensive metabolic remodelling as demonstrated by metabolomics-fluxomics combined with bioinformatics and computational modelling. The T2DM heart metabolome showed significant differences in the abundance of metabolites in pathways related to glucose, lipids and redox metabolism. Using a validated computational model of heart's central catabolism, comprising glucose and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, we estimated that fluxes through glucose degradation pathways are ?2-fold lower in heart from T2DM vs. WT under all conditions studied. Palm addition elicits improvement of the redox status via enhanced ?-oxidation and decreased glucose uptake, leading to flux-redirection away from redox-consuming pathways (e.g. polyol) while maintaining the flux through redox-generating pathways together with glucose-FA 'shared fuelling' of oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, available FAs such as Palm may help improve function via enhanced redox balance in T2DM hearts during peaks of hyperglycaemia and increased workload.
Project description:Previous studies have suggested that the heart may be capable of limited repair and regeneration in response to a focal injury while other studies indicate that the mammalian heart has no regenerative capacity. To further explore this issue, we performed a series of superficial and transmural myocardial injuries in C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ adult mice. At defined time intervals following the respective injury (Days 3, 14, 30 and 60) we examined cardiac function using echocardiography, morphology, FACS cell sorting for BrdU positive cells and molecular signature using microarray analysis. We observed complete restoration of myocardial function in the superficial MRL cryoinjured heart and significantly less scar formation as compared to the injured hearts of C57BL/6 mice. Following a severe transmural myocardial injury, the MRL mouse has increased survival and decreased ventricular remodeling compared to the C57BL/6 mouse but without evidence of significant regeneration. The cytoprotective program observed in the severely injured MRL heart is in part due to increased vasculogenesis and decreased apoptosis that limits the extension of the injury. We conclude that C57BL/6 and MRL injured hearts have evidence of limited myocardial regeneration, in response to superficial injury, but the improved function and survival observed in the MRL mouse heart following severe injury is not due to significant regenerative processes. Mouse hearts from C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ strains were injured with LAD ligation and harvested at 3, 30 and 60 days after treatement.
Project description:Diabetic hearts are subject to more extensive ischemia/reperfusion (ISC/REP) damage. This study examined the efficiency of citric acid cycle (CAC) flux and the transfer of cytosolic reducing equivalents into the mitochondria for oxidative support of cardiac work following ISC/REP in hearts of c57bl/6 (NORM) and type 2 diabetic, db/db mouse hearts. Flux through the CAC and malate-aspartate shuttle (MA) were monitored via dynamic (13)C NMR of isolated hearts perfused with (13)C palmitate+glucose. MA flux was lower in db/db than NORM. Oxoglutarate malate carrier (OMC) was elevated in the db/db heart, suggesting a compensatory response to low NADHc. Baseline CAC flux per unit work (rate-pressure-product, RPP) was similar between NORM and db/db, but ISC/REP reduced the efficiency of CAC flux/RPP by 20% in db/db. ISC/REP also increased UCP3 transcription, indicating potential for greater uncoupling. Therefore, ISC/REP induces inefficient carbon utilization through the CAC in hearts of diabetic mice due to the combined inefficiencies in NADHc transfer per OMC content and increased uncoupling via UCP3. Ischemia and reperfusion exacerbated pre-existing mitochondrial defects and metabolic limitations in the cytosol of diabetic hearts. These limitations and defects render diabetic hearts more susceptible to inefficient carbon fuel utilization for oxidative energy metabolism.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Lipid overload-induced heart dysfunction is characterized by cardiomyocyte death, myocardial remodeling, and compromised contractility, but the impact of excessive lipid supply on cardiac function remains poorly understood.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the regulation and function of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) in lipid overload-induced cardiomyocyte death and heart dysfunction.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) developed signs of obesity and type II diabetes mellitus, including hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension. HFD for 18 weeks also induced heart hypertrophy, fibrosis, myocardial insulin resistance, and cardiomyocyte death. HFD stimulated mitochondrial fission in mouse hearts. Furthermore, HFD increased the protein level, phosphorylation (at the activating serine 616 sites), oligomerization, mitochondrial translocation, and GTPase activity of Drp1 in mouse hearts, indicating that Drp1 was activated. Monkeys fed a diet high in fat and cholesterol for 2.5 years also exhibited myocardial damage and Drp1 activation in the heart. Interestingly, HFD decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized) levels and increased Drp1 acetylation in the heart. In adult cardiomyocytes, palmitate increased Drp1 acetylation, phosphorylation, and protein levels, and these increases were abolished by restoration of the decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized) level. Proteomics analysis and in vitro screening revealed that Drp1 acetylation at lysine 642 (K642) was increased by HFD in mouse hearts and by palmitate incubation in cardiomyocytes. The nonacetylated Drp1 mutation (K642R) attenuated palmitate-induced Drp1 activation, its interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel 1, mitochondrial fission, contractile dysfunction, and cardiomyocyte death.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings uncover a novel mechanism that contributes to lipid overload-induced heart hypertrophy and dysfunction. Excessive lipid supply created an intracellular environment that facilitated Drp1 acetylation, which, in turn, increased its activity and mitochondrial translocation, resulting in cardiomyocyte dysfunction and death. Thus, Drp1 may be a critical mediator of lipid overload-induced heart dysfunction as well as a potential target for therapy.
Project description:Continuous contractile activity of the heart is essential and the required energy is mostly provided by fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Myocardial lipid accumulation can lead to pathological responses, however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The role of myoglobin in dioxygen binding in cardiomyocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle has widely been appreciated. Our recent work established myoglobin as a protector of cardiac function in hypoxia and disease states. We here unravel a novel role of cardiac myoglobin in governing FA metabolism to ensure the physiological energy production through ?-oxidation, preventing myocardial lipid accumulation and preserving cardiac functions. In vivo<sup>1</sup>H magnetic resonance spectroscopy unveils a 3-fold higher deposition of lipids in mouse hearts lacking myoglobin, which was associated with depressed cardiac function compared to wild-type hearts as assessed by echocardiography. Mass spectrometry reveals a marked increase in tissue triglycerides with preferential incorporation of palmitic and oleic acids. Phospholipid levels as well as the metabolome, transcriptome and proteome related to FA metabolism tend to be unaffected by myoglobin ablation. Our results reveal a physiological role of myoglobin in FA metabolism with the lipid accumulation-suppressing effects of myoglobin preventing cardiac lipotoxicity.