The Mycoplasma hyorhinis p37 Protein Rapidly Induces Genes in Fibroblasts Associated with Inflammation and Cancer.
ABSTRACT: The p37 protein at the surface of Mycoplasma hyorhinis cells forms part of a high-affinity transport system and has been found associated with animal and human cancers. Here we show in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, p37 rapidly induces the expression of genes implicated in inflammation and cancer progression. This gene activation was principally via the Tlr4 receptor. Activity was lost from p37 when the C-terminal 20 amino acids were removed or the four amino acids specific for the hydrogen bonding of thiamine pyrophosphate had been replaced by valine. Blocking the IL6 receptor or inhibiting STAT3 signalling resulted in increased p37-induced gene expression. Since cancer associated fibroblasts support growth, invasion and metastasis via their ability to regulate tumour-related inflammation, the rapid induction in fibroblasts of pro-inflammatory genes by p37 might be expected to influence cancer development.
Project description:The Mycoplasma hyorhinis protein p37 has been implicated in tumorigenic transformation for more than 20 years. Though there are many speculations as to its function, based solely on sequence homology, the issue has remained unresolved. Presented here is the 1.6-A-resolution refined crystal structure of M. hyorhinis p37, renamed the extracytoplasmic thiamine-binding lipoprotein (Cypl). The structure shows thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and two calcium ions are bound to Cypl and give the first insights into possible functions of the Cypl-like family of proteins. Sequence alignments of Cypl-like proteins between several different species of mycoplasma show that the thiamine-binding site is likely conserved and structural alignments reveal the similarity of Cypl to various binding proteins. While the experimentally determined function of Cypl remains unknown, the structure shows that the protein is a TPP-binding protein, opening up many avenues for future mechanistic studies and making Cypl a possible target for combating mycoplasma infections and tumorigenic transformation.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyorhinis is an important pathogen of swine that can often occur as a respiratory coinfection with viral pathogens, but can also cause arthritis and polyserositis in infected animals. To date, no assay is available to assess the serologic response to M. hyorhinis vaccines, to our knowledge. We used recombinantly expressed M. hyorhinis p37 protein to monitor the magnitude of the IgG response in vaccinated animals. The assay was able to distinguish animals vaccinated with M. hyorhinis from those vaccinated with the other important Mycoplasma species: M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyosynoviae. When formulated with an ideal adjuvant, inactivated vaccines designed to protect animals against M. hyorhinis induced a measurable and dose-dependent antibody response against the p37 protein. Additionally, the protein appears to be highly conserved between strains of M. hyorhinis isolated in the United States. The specificity of the assay as well as the conservation and immunogenicity of the p37 protein make it an ideal candidate antigen for use in measuring the immune response against M. hyorhinis after vaccination in weaned pigs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) is the etiologic agent of lameness and polyserositis in swine. P37 is a membrane protein of Mhr that may be an important immunogen and is a potential target for diagnostic development. However, there is little information concerning Mhr P37 protein epitopes. A precise analysis of the P37 protein epitopes should extend our understanding of the antigenic composition of the P37 protein and the humoral immune responses to Mhr infection. Investigating the epitopes of Mhr P37 will help to establish a detection method for Mhr in tissue and provide an effective tool for detecting Mhr infection. RESULTS:Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) confirmed that the expressed P37 protein was recognized by Mhr-positive porcine and mouse sera. Furthermore, the P37 protein was purified using affinity chromatography and used to immunize mice for hybridoma cell fusion. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) found to be positive for Mhr were detected in infected lung tissue. A panel of truncated P37 proteins was used to identify the minimal B cell linear epitopes of the protein based on these mAbs. The core epitope was determined to be 206KIKKAWNDKDWNTFRNF222. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified 17 critical amino acids that determine the epitope of the P37 protein of Mhr. This study identified mAbs that could provide useful tools for investigating the Mhr P37 antigenic core epitope (amino acids 206-222) and detecting Mhr-specific antigens in infected tissue.
Project description:Mycoplasma infection in human and its contamination in cell cultures are worldwide problems. The drugs currently available for preventing or treating mycoplasma infection suffer from low sensitivity, strong resistance and high toxicity. Our previous work showed that Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) infection was mediated by the interaction between p37 of M. hyorhinis and Annexin A2 (ANXA2) of host cells, however the translational value of this mechanism was unknown. Herein, we synthesized the N-terminal of ANXA2 polypeptide (A2PP) and found that A2PP could decrease the infection of M. hyorhinis to gastric cancer cells and block M. hyorhinis infection-induced cell migration. Furthermore, we found that A2PP could reduce M. hyorhinis contamination of passage cells. Moreover, compared with the commercial antibiotics commonly used in cell culture to prevent M. hyorhinis infection, A2PP demonstrated a more effectiveness but a low toxicity on cell growth. Thus, our study for the first time revealed A2PP's potential for the treatment and prevention of M. hyorhinis infection.
Project description:A real-time TaqMan PCR assay based on the gene encoding the protein p37 was developed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Its specificity was validated with 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains (28 field strains and one reference strain) and other mycoplasma species or with other microorganisms commonly found in pigs. The estimated detection limit of this qPCR assay was 125 microorganism equivalents/?l. The same 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains and four previously fully sequenced strains were typed by two portable typing methods, the sequencing of the p37 gene and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The first method revealed 18 distinct nucleotide sequences and insufficient discriminatory power (0.934). The MLST scheme was developed with the sequenced genomes of the M. hyorhinis strains HUB-1, GDL-1, MCLD, and SK76 and based on the genes dnaA, rpoB, gyrB, gltX, adk, and gmk. In total, 2,304 bp of sequence was analyzed for each strain. MLST was capable of subdividing the 33 strains into 29 distinct sequence types. The discriminatory power of the method was >0.95, which is the threshold value for interpreting typing results with confidence (D=0.989). Population analysis showed that recombination in M. hyorhinis occurs and that strains are diverse but with a certain clonality (one unique clonal complex was identified). The new qPCR assay and the robust MLST scheme are available for the acquisition of new knowledge on M. hyorhinis epidemiology. A web-accessible database has been set up for the M. hyorhinis MLST scheme at http://pubmlst.org/mhyorhinis/.
Project description:Mycoplasma infection has been reported to be associated with cancer migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition as well as the resistance to nucleoside analogues chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that the sensitivity of hepatocarcinoma cells to Cisplatin, Gemcitabine and Mitoxantrone was increased by mycoplasma elimination. Similar to the effect of anti-mycoplasma agent, interrupting the interaction between Mycoplasma hyorhinis membrane protein P37 and Annexin A2 of host cells using the N-terminal of ANXA2 polypeptide enhanced the sensitivity of HCC97L cells to Gemcitabine and Mitoxantrone. Meanwhile, we did not observe any changes in expression or distribution of multidrug resistance associated transporters, ATP-Binding Cassette protein B1, C1 and G2, on the removal of mycoplasma. These results suggest that mycoplasma induces a resistance to multiple drugs in hepatocarcinoma cells which required the interaction of P37 and Annexin A2. The pathway downstream this interaction needs to be explored.
Project description:Many studies have shown that the mycoplasmal membrane protein p37 enhances cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Previously, we generated 6 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the mycoplasmal protein p37 and showed the presence of mycoplasma-infected circulating tumor cells in the blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by using CA27, one of the six MAbs. When mycoplasmas were incubated with cancer cells in the presence of CA27, mycoplasma infection was completely inhibited, suggesting that CA27 is a neutralizing antibody inhibiting mycoplasma infection. To examine the neutralizing epitope of CA27, we generated a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins in which p37 was partly deleted. To express p37-coding sequences in E.coli, mycoplasmal TGA codons were substituted with TGG in the p37 deletion mutant genes. GST-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitope targeted by CA27. Western blots showed that CA27 bound to the residues 216-246 on the middle part of the p37 protein while it did not bind to the residues 183-219 and 216-240. Fine mapping showed that CA27 was able to bind to the residues 226-246, but its binding activity was relatively weakened as compared to that to the residues 216-246, suggesting that the residues 226-246 is essential for optimal binding activity of CA27. Interestingly, the treatment of the purified GST-tagged epitopes with urea showed that CA27 binding to the epitope was sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant but urea-sensitive. The same 226-246 residues were also recognized by two other anti-p37 MAbs, suggesting that the epitope is immunodominant. The identification of the novel neutralizing epitope may provide new insight into the interaction between the p37 protein and host receptors.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyorhinis is generally considered a swine pathogen yet is most commonly found infecting laboratory cell lines. An increasing body of evidence suggests that chronic infections with M. hyorhinis may cause oncogenic transformation. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of M. hyorhinis strain HUB-1.
Project description:Mycoplasma hyorhinis is known as one of the most prevalent contaminants of mammalian cell and tissue cultures worldwide. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the fastidious M. hyorhinis strain DBS 1050.
Project description:Chronic infection of M. hyorhinis is postulated to be associated with cancer cell migration and invasion. To explore the mechanisms of M. hyorhinis-promoted invasiveness, we performed Affymetrix genechip (HuGene-1_0-st) analysis to examine differential gene expression profiles between non-infected and infected gastric cancer cells. We used microarrays to detail global programme of gene expression and identified distinct classes of upregulated genes after M. hyorhinis infection of gastric cancer cell lines. noninfected or M. hyorhinis-infected gastric cancer cells were utilized for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.