Draft Genome Sequences of Two New Zealand Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Isolates, ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080.
ABSTRACT: Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of crucifers. We report here the draft genome sequences of isolates ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080 from New Zealand. These sequences will facilitate the identification of race-specific factors in X. campestris pv. campestris.
Project description:Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani and X. campestris pv. campestris are the causal agents of bacterial spot and black rot of crucifers (Brassicaceae), respectively. Both pathogens are threats in the cultivation of cruciferous crops such as cabbage. Here, we sequenced a strain of each of these pathogens.
Project description:Black rot of crucifers, (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) is the principal yield-limiting and destructive pathogen of cruciferous crop worldwide. In order to validate a bio-based control alternative for this disease, whey, lime sulfur, biofertilizer, Bordeaux mixture or raw milk were applied to kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) plants. The disease control was achieved by most of the tested products. Milk-based products (raw milk and whey) and biofertilizer reduced the severity by 44 and 56% in the field. Antioxidants, crude fibber, crude protein and lipid contents and kale yield were verified in the five treatments on the leaves with and without X. campestris pv. campestris inoculation. In the absence of the pathogen (non-inoculated), lime sulfur and Bordeaux mixture improved plant nutritional value compared to organic treatments, nevertheless milk-based products and biofertilizer improved the evaluated variables more than the control. However, on leaves inoculated with X. campestris pv. campestris raw milk increased antioxidant activity, crude protein and fiber contents, whereas biofertilizer increased kale yield, lipid and antioxidant contents. Milk-based products and biofertilizer were further evaluated in greenhouse trials to determinate the activity of defense-related enzymes and lignin content. Biofertilizer treatment resulted in increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase, catalase, peroxidase activities and lignin content. Hence, the application of milk-based products and biofertilizer are promising to control black rot of crucifers and also improves food quality by boosting nutritional values and antioxidant activity.
Project description:Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causes black rot, a serious disease of crucifers. Xanthomonads encode a siderophore biosynthesis and uptake gene cluster xss (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) involved in the production of a vibrioferrin-type siderophore. However, little is known about the role of the siderophore in the iron uptake and virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris. In this study, we show that X. campestris pv. campestris produces an ?-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore (named xanthoferrin), which is required for growth under low-iron conditions and for optimum virulence. A mutation in the siderophore synthesis xssA gene causes deficiency in siderophore production and growth under low-iron conditions. In contrast, the siderophore utilization ?xsuA mutant is able to produce siderophore, but exhibits a defect in the utilization of the siderophore-iron complex. Our radiolabelled iron uptake studies confirm that the ?xssA and ?xsuA mutants exhibit defects in ferric iron (Fe<sup>3+</sup> ) uptake. The ?xssA mutant is able to utilize and transport the exogenous xanthoferrin-Fe<sup>3+</sup> complex; in contrast, the siderophore utilization or uptake mutant ?xsuA exhibits defects in siderophore uptake. Expression analysis of the xss operon using a chromosomal gusA fusion indicates that the xss operon is expressed during in planta growth and under low-iron conditions. Furthermore, exogenous iron supplementation in cabbage leaves rescues the in planta growth deficiency of ?xssA and ?xsuA mutants. Our study reveals that the siderophore xanthoferrin is an important virulence factor of X. campestris pv. campestris which promotes in planta growth by the sequestration of Fe<sup>3+</sup> .
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gram-negative Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is the pathogenic bacterium that causes black rot disease in crucifers. The virulence determinants of this bacterium include extracellular enzymes, exopolysaccharides, and biofilm formation. Here, one transposon mutant of X. campestris pv. campestris strain 17 that affects biofilm formation was isolated, and subsequent analyses led to the identification of the lolA gene, which encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein chaperone. RESULTS:The lolA mutant exhibited significant reductions in bacterial attachment, extracellular enzyme production, virulence, and tolerance in the presence of myriad membrane-perturbing agents. These phenotypic changes of the mutant could be complemented to the wild-type level through the intact lolA gene. Proteomic analysis revealed that 109 proteins were differentially expressed after lolA mutation. These differentially expressed proteins were categorized in various functional groups and were mainly associated with the membrane component, were involved in transport, and contained receptor activity. Through reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, deletion of lolA was determined to have caused significantly reduced expression of genes that encode the major extracellular enzymes, the biofilm-related proteins, and the virulence-related proteins. The RT-qPCR analysis also indicated that the expression of several genes that encode putative outer membrane lipoproteins and TonB-dependent receptors was reduced after lolA mutation. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report to define the lolA gene as a virulence factor and to contribute to the functional understanding of, and provide new information concerning, the role of lolA in Xanthomonas. Furthermore, the results of this study provide and extend new insights into the function of lolA in bacteria.
Project description:We performed a transcriptomic analysis of the necrotrophic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris exposed to two different isothiocyanates (allyl-isothiocyanate and indol-3-carbinol), searching for mechanisms of adaptation and detoxification of these chemicals. Overall design: Three comparisons were performed: allyl-isothiocyanate vs control, indol-3-carbinol vs control and allyl-isothiocyanate vs indol-3-carbinol. Two repetitions of each treatment were performed.
Project description:An annotated high-quality draft genome sequence for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris race 1 strain Xca5 (originally described as X. campestris pv. armoraciae), the causal agent of black rot on Brassicaceae plants, has been determined. This genome sequence is a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the campestris pathovar.
Project description:Bacterial ?-galactosidase is involved in lactose metabolism and acts as a prevalent reporter enzyme used in studying the activities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the pathogen of black rot disease in crucifers. ?-Galactosidase activity can be detected in Xcc culture, which makes Escherichia coli LacZ unable to be used as a reporter enzyme in Xcc. To systemically understand the ?-galactosidase in Xcc and construct a ?-galactosidase -deficient strain for promoter activity analysis using LacZ as a reporter, we here analyzed the putative ?-galactosidases in Xcc 8004. As glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 2 (GH2) and 35 (GH35) family enzymes were reported to have beta-galactosidase activities, we studied all of them encoded by Xcc 8004. When expressed in E. coli, only two of the enzymes, XC1214 and XC2985, were found to have ?-galactosidase activity. When deleted from the Xcc 8004 genome, only the XC1214 mutant had no ?-galactosidase activity, and other GH2 and GH35 gene deletions resulted in no significant reduction in ?-galactosidase activity. Therefore, XC1214 is the main ?-galactosidase in Xcc 8004. Notably, we have constructed a ?-galactosidase-free strain that can be employed in gene traps using LacZ as a reporter in Xcc. The results reported herein should facilitate the development of high-capacity screening assays that utilize the LacZ reporter system in Xcc.
Project description:Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is an epiphytic bacterium that can become a vascular pathogen responsible for black rot disease of crucifers. To adapt gene expression in response to ever-changing habitats, phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved signal transduction regulatory pathways, such as extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ? factors. The alternative sigma factor ?(E), encoded by rpoE, is crucial for envelope stress response and plays a role in the pathogenicity of many bacterial species. Here, we combine different approaches to investigate the role and mechanism of ?(E)-dependent activation in X. campestris pv. campestris. We show that the rpoE gene is organized as a single transcription unit with the anti-? gene rseA and the protease gene mucD and that rpoE transcription is autoregulated. rseA and mucD transcription is also controlled by a highly conserved ?(E)-dependent promoter within the ?(E) gene sequence. The ?(E)-mediated stress response is required for stationary-phase survival, resistance to cadmium, and adaptation to membrane-perturbing stresses (elevated temperature and ethanol). Using microarray technology, we started to define the ?(E) regulon of X. campestris pv. campestris. These genes encode proteins belonging to different classes, including periplasmic or membrane proteins, biosynthetic enzymes, classical heat shock proteins, and the heat stress ? factor ?(H). The consensus sequence for the predicted ?(E)-regulated promoter elements is GGAACTN(15-17)GTCNNA. Determination of the rpoH transcription start site revealed that rpoH was directly regulated by ?(E) under both normal and heat stress conditions. Finally, ?(E) activity is regulated by the putative regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) proteases RseP and DegS, as previously described in many other bacteria. However, our data suggest that RseP and DegS are not only dedicated to RseA cleavage and that the proteolytic cascade of RseA could involve other proteases.
Project description:Cyclic di-GMP [(bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate)] is an almost ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria that is implicated in the regulation of a range of functions that include developmental transitions, aggregative behaviour, adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence. Comparatively little is known about the mechanism(s) by which cyclic di-GMP exerts these various regulatory effects. PilZ has been identified as a cyclic di-GMP binding protein domain; proteins with this domain are involved in regulation of specific cellular processes, including the virulence of animal pathogens. Here we have examined the role of PilZ domain proteins in virulence and the regulation of virulence factor synthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot of crucifers. The Xcc genome encodes four proteins (XC0965, XC2249, XC2317 and XC3221) that have a PilZ domain. Mutation of XC0965, XC2249 and XC3221 led to a significant reduction of virulence in Chinese radish. Mutation of XC2249 and XC3221 led to a reduction in motility whereas mutation of XC2249 and XC0965 affected extracellular enzyme production. All mutant strains were unaffected in biofilm formation in vitro. The reduction of virulence following mutation of XC3221 could not be wholly attributed to an effect on motility as mutation of pilA, which abolishes motility, has a lesser effect on virulence.