A DNA Mini-Barcoding System for Authentication of Processed Fish Products.
ABSTRACT: Species substitution is a form of seafood fraud for the purpose of economic gain. DNA barcoding utilizes species-specific DNA sequence information for specimen identification. Previous work has established the usability of short DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-for identification of specimens harboring degraded DNA. This study aims at establishing a DNA mini-barcoding system for all fish species commonly used in processed fish products in North America. Six mini-barcode primer pairs targeting short (127-314?bp) fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) DNA barcode region were developed by examining over 8,000 DNA barcodes from species in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Seafood List. The mini-barcode primer pairs were then tested against 44 processed fish products representing a range of species and product types. Of the 44 products, 41 (93.2%) could be identified at the species or genus level. The greatest mini-barcoding success rate found with an individual primer pair was 88.6% compared to 20.5% success rate achieved by the full-length DNA barcode primers. Overall, this study presents a mini-barcoding system that can be used to identify a wide range of fish species in commercial products and may be utilized in high throughput DNA sequencing for authentication of heavily processed fish products.
Project description:Background:Processed seafood products are not readily identifiable based on physical characteristics, which leaves the industry vulnerable to high levels of product mislabelling (globally estimated at 5-30% mislabelled). This is both a food safety issue and a consumer protection issue as cheaper species could be substituted for more expensive species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a valuable tool for authentication of fish products. We worked with high school students to perform a market survey and subsequent species assessment via DNA barcoding to investigate the accuracy of fish product names used by retailers in Sydney, Australia. Methods:Sixty-eight fish samples, sold under 50 different common names, were purchased anonymously from two retailers in Sydney. Each product name was recorded and reconciled with the Australian Fish Names Standard (AFNS). Samples were DNA barcoded and resulting sequences were deposited in the online Barcode of Life Data system using the simplified Student Data Portal interface. Results:Forty percent of the fish names did not comply with the AFNS, however, half of these were either spelling errors or vendors supplied more information than the standard requires. The other half of the non-compliant samples were given common names not listed on the AFNS. Despite this lack of standardization, DNA barcode data confirmed the retailers' identifications for 93% of samples and 90% of species sampled. Discussion:The level of mislabelling we report for Sydney retailers (7% of samples or 10% of species) compares favorably with the global rates of 5-30%, but unfavorably with the only previous DNA barcode fish authentication study for Australia, which found no confirmed mislabelling in Hobart. Our study sampled mostly Australian produce, only two retailers and no restaurants. Results of our limited sample suggest that although many Sydney fish retailers attempt to implement the voluntary fish name standards, the standards are inadequate. As Australia imports 75% of its seafood, and in other countries restaurants generally show lower levels of compliance than retailers, broader surveys are needed before generalizing these results. DNA barcoding is a powerful yet simple method supported by accessible online analytical tools. Incorporation of fish barcoding into high school science classes provided students with valuable firsthand experience in scientific research and drew together different strands of the NSW curriculum relating to genetics and sustainability. Given the techniques, equipment, and reagents are now readily accessible, we expect to see greater uptake of DNA barcoding technology by high schools, citizen scientists and consumer groups in Australia in future. However, there remains much scope for further development of DNA barcode diagnostics (both data and analytical methods) for commercial fish species.
Project description:Herbal products play an important role globally in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. However, some specific groups of herbal products are easily adulterated by confused materials on the market, which seriously reduces the products’ quality. Universal conventional DNA barcodes would function poorly since the processed herbal products generally suffer from varying degrees of DNA degradation and DNA mixing during processing or manufacturing. For quality control purposes, an accurate and effective method should be provided for species identification of these herbal products. Here, we provided a strategy of developing the specific mini-barcode using Senna as an example, and by coupling with the metabarcoding technique, it realized the qualitative and quantitative identification of processed herbal products. The plastomes of Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link were newly assembled, and the hypervariable coding-regions were identified by comparing their genomes. Then, the specific mini-barcodes were developed based on the identified hypervariable regions. Finally, we applied the DNA metabarcoding technique to the developed mini-barcodes. Results showed that the lengths of plastomes of S. obtusifolia and S. occidentalis were 162,426 and 159,993 bp, respectively. Four hypervariable coding-regions ycf1, rpl23, petL, and matK were identified. Two specific mini-barcodes were successfully developed from matK, and the mini-barcode of primer 647F-847R was proved to be able to qualitatively and quantitatively identify these two processed Senna seeds. Overall, our study established a valuable way to develop the specific mini-barcode, which may provide a new idea for the quality control of processed herbal products.
Project description:There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias). Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins"). Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples).
Project description:The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently adopted DNA barcoding for the purpose of determining the species identity of commercial seafood products. This effort has revealed instances of incongruence between current scientifically accepted taxon names and those utilized by the seafood industry in product labelling. One such case is that of "Portunushaanii", a name utilized by the seafood industry to label commercial products under the market name "red swimming crab." However, carcinologists currently regard P.haanii as synonym of Portunusgladiator Fabricius, 1798, which itself is the subject of debate over whether it is a secondary homonym of Cancer gladiator Fabricius, 1793. Further complicating matters, DNA barcode sequences from commercial products match GenBank sequences identified as Portunuspseudoargentatus Stephenson, 1961. Here the complicated taxonomic history of the Portunusgladiator complex is reviewed and a resolution proposed based on combined morphological descriptions and molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is demonstrated that, given the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the current elevation of Monomia Gistel, 1848, to full genus rank, its type species, Portunusgladiator Fabricius, 1798, should be treated as a valid and available taxon name. It is also shown, upon examination and comparison of types and topotypic material that Monomiahaanii (Stimpson, 1858) is a distinct taxon from M.gladiator, and Portunuspseudoargentatus Stephenson, 1961, is a junior subjective synonym of M.haanii (Stimpson, 1858). Furthermore, it is shown that crab meat sold in the US currently labeled as "Portunushaanii" and/or "red swimming crab" is in fact M.haanii using comparative analysis of DNA barcode sequences between museum-vouchered reference specimens, whole crabs provided directly by a seafood importer, and processed commercial products purchased at retail.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The goal of DNA barcoding is to develop a species-specific sequence library for all eukaryotes. A 650 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene has been used successfully for species-level identification in several animal groups. It may be difficult in practice, however, to retrieve a 650 bp fragment from archival specimens, (because of DNA degradation) or from environmental samples (where universal primers are needed). RESULTS: We used a bioinformatics analysis using all CO1 barcode sequences from GenBank and calculated the probability of having species-specific barcodes for varied size fragments. This analysis established the potential of much smaller fragments, mini-barcodes, for identifying unknown specimens. We then developed a universal primer set for the amplification of mini-barcodes. We further successfully tested the utility of this primer set on a comprehensive set of taxa from all major eukaryotic groups as well as archival specimens. CONCLUSION: In this study we address the important issue of minimum amount of sequence information required for identifying species in DNA barcoding. We establish a novel approach based on a much shorter barcode sequence and demonstrate its effectiveness in archival specimens. This approach will significantly broaden the application of DNA barcoding in biodiversity studies.
Project description:The substitution and mislabeling is facilitated by the processing of fish products. We employed a DNA barcoding to authenticate fillets labeled as "dourada" (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii), and "piramutaba" (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii) marketed in the Brazil. A 615 bp of the Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from 305 fillets and subsequently identified to species level by querying public databases and sequences of reference species. The results revealed a global mean substitution rate of 17%. The highest substitution rate was detected in "dourada" (26%), the most valuable species, followed by "piramutaba" (9%). The most cases of substitutions were by species of lower commercial value, suggesting fraud aimed at increased profits. Therefore, we suggest the improvement of food-labeling regulation, continued inspection, as well as the adoption of the DNA barcode for the molecular authentication of processed fish to prevent substitution of these products in Brazil.
Project description:The development of an efficient seafood traceability framework is crucial for the management of sustainable fisheries and the monitoring of potential substitution fraud across the food chain. Recent studies have shown the potential of DNA barcoding methods in this framework, with most of the efforts focusing on using mitochondrial targets such as the <i>cytochrome oxidase 1</i> and <i>cytochrome b</i> genes. In this article, we show the identification of novel targets in the nuclear genome, and their associated primers, to be used for the efficient identification of flatfishes of the <i>Pleuronectidae</i> family. In addition, different <i>in silico</i> methods are described to generate a dataset of barcode reference sequences from the ever-growing wealth of publicly available sequence information, replacing, where possible, labour-intensive laboratory work. The short amplicon lengths render the analysis of these new barcode target regions ideally suited to next-generation sequencing techniques, allowing characterisation of multiple fish species in mixed and processed samples. Their location in the nucleus also improves currently used methods by allowing the identification of hybrid individuals.
Project description:Background The dry body of the Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko) is the source of a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, it is therefore listed as a Class II protected animal species in China. Due to increasing market demand and a declining supply of the species, a considerable number of adulterants have emerged in the market. Thus, it is necessary to establish an accurate and rapid method of identification for distinguishing G. gecko from its adulterants and for separating it from highly processed products. Methods A total of 274 COI sequences were analyzed by using MEGA 5.0 software. Several specific primers were designed to amplify mini-barcode regions and identify G. gecko from its counterfeits and products. Results 274 COI sequences of G. gecko and 15 adulterants species were analyzed. G. gecko could be distinguished from its adulterants through BLAST analysis, intra- and inter-specific distance analyses, and an NJ tree based on COI sequences. Two pairs of specific primers designed for this study, COISF2/COISR2 and COISF3/COISR3, amplified 200- and 133-bp fragments of the COI region, respectively, both of which were suitable for the identification of G. gecko and its adulterants. Furthermore, COISF3/COISR3 detected G. gecko in 15 batches of products. Conclusion Therefore, the specific DNA mini-barcoding method developed here may be a powerful tool for the identification of G. gecko and counterfeits, and may also be used to distinguish G. gecko from its highly processed by-products.
Project description:Even though ladybirds are well known as economically important biological control agents, an integrative framework of DNA barcoding research was not available for the family so far. We designed and present a set of efficient mini-barcoding primers to recover full DNA barcoding sequences for Coccinellidae, even for specimens collected 40 years ago. Based on these mini-barcoding primers, we obtained 104 full DNA barcode sequences for 104 species of Coccinellidae, in which 101 barcodes were newly reported for the first time. We also downloaded 870 COI barcode sequences (658?bp) from GenBank and BOLD database, belonging to 108 species within 46 genera, to assess the optimum genetic distance threshold and compare four methods of species delimitation (GMYC, bPTP, BIN and ABGD) to determine the most accurate approach for the family. The results suggested the existence of a 'barcode gap' and that 3% is likely an appropriate genetic distance threshold to delimit species of Coccinellidae using DNA barcodes. Species delimitation analyses confirm ABGD as an accurate and efficient approach, more suitable than the other three methods. Our research provides an integrative framework for DNA barcoding and descriptions of new taxa in Coccinellidae. Our results enrich DNA barcoding public reference libraries, including data for Chinese coccinellids. This will facilitate taxonomic identification and biodiversity monitoring of ladybirds using metabarcoding.
Project description:Peru is one of the world's leading fishing nations and its seafood industry relies on the trade of a vast variety of aquatic resources, playing a key role in the country's socio-economic development. DNA barcoding has become of paramount importance for systematics, conservation, and seafood traceability, complementing or even surpassing conventional identification methods when target organisms show similar morphology during the early life stages, have recently diverged, or have undergone processing. Aiming to increase our knowledge of the species diversity available across the Peruvian supply chain (from fish landing sites to markets and restaurants), we applied full and mini-barcoding approaches targeting three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S, and 12S) and the control region to identify samples purchased at retailers from six departments along the north-central Peruvian coast. DNA barcodes from 131 samples were assigned to 55 species (plus five genus-level taxa) comprising 47 families, 24 orders, and six classes including Actinopterygii (45.03%), Chondrichthyes (36.64%), Bivalvia (6.87%), Cephalopoda (6.11%), Malacostraca (3.82%), and Gastropoda (1.53%). The identified samples included commercially important pelagic (anchovy, bonito, dolphinfish) and demersal (hake, smooth-hound, Peruvian rock seabass, croaker) fish species. Our results unveiled the marketing of protected and threatened species such as whale shark, Atlantic white marlin, smooth hammerhead (some specimens collected during closed season), shortfin mako, and pelagic thresher sharks. A total of 35 samples (26.72%) were mislabeled, including tilapia labeled as wild marine fish, dolphinfish and hake labeled as grouper, and different shark species sold as "smooth-hounds". The present study highlights the necessity of implementing traceability and monitoring programs along the entire seafood supply chain using molecular tools to enhance sustainability efforts and ensure consumer choice.