The novel influenza A virus protein PA-X and its naturally deleted variant show different enzymatic properties in comparison to the viral endonuclease PA.
ABSTRACT: The PA protein of Influenza A virus (IAV) encoded by segment 3 acts as a specialized RNA endonuclease in the transcription of the viral genome. The same genomic segment encodes for a second shorter protein, termed PA-X, with the first 191 N-terminal aminoacids (aa) identical to PA, but with a completely different C-ter domain of 61 aa, due to a ribosomal frameshifting. In addition, it has been shown that several IAV isolates encode for a naturally truncated PA-X variant, PAX?C20, missing the last 20 aa. The biochemical properties of PA-X and PAX?C20 have been poorly investigated so far. Here, we have carried out an enzymatic characterization of PA-X and its naturally deleted form, in comparison with PA from the human IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Our results showed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that PA-X possesses an endonucleolytic activity. Both PA and PA-X preferentially cut single stranded RNA regions, but with some differences. In addition, we showed that PAX?C20 has severely reduced nuclease activity. These results point to a previously undetected role of the last C-ter 20 aa for the catalytic activity of PA-X and support distinct roles for these proteins in the viral life cycle.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are a significant human pathogen that cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Avian waterfowl are the natural reservoir of IAVs, but a wide range of species can serve as hosts. Most IAV strains are adapted to one host species and avian strains of IAV replicate poorly in most mammalian hosts. Importantly, IAV polymerases from avian strains function poorly in mammalian cells but host adaptive mutations can restore activity. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus acquired multiple mutations in the PA gene that activated polymerase activity in mammalian cells, even in the absence of previously identified host adaptive mutations in other polymerase genes. These mutations in PA localize within different regions of the protein suggesting multiple mechanisms exist to activate polymerase activity. Additionally, an immunomodulatory protein, PA-X, is expressed from the PA gene segment. PA-X expression is conserved amongst many IAV strains but activity varies between viruses specific for different hosts, suggesting that PA-X also plays a role in host adaptation. Here, we review the role of PA in the emergence of currently circulating H1N1pdm09 viruses and the most recent studies of host adaptive mutations in the PA gene that modulate polymerase activity and PA-X function.
Project description:The genome of influenza A virus (IAV) comprises eight RNA segments (vRNA) which are transcribed and replicated by the heterotrimeric IAV RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). RdRp consists of three subunits (PA, PB1 and PB2) and binds both the highly conserved 3'- and 5'-ends of the vRNA segment. The IAV RdRp is an important antiviral target, but its structural mechanism has remained largely elusive to date. By applying a polyprotein strategy, we produced RdRp complexes and define a minimal human IAV RdRp core complex. We show that PA-PB1 forms a stable heterodimeric submodule that can strongly interact with 5'-vRNA. In contrast, 3'-vRNA recognition critically depends on the PB2 N-terminal domain. Moreover, we demonstrate that PA-PB1 forms a stable and stoichiometric complex with host nuclear import factor RanBP5 that can be modelled using SAXS and we show that the PA-PB1-RanPB5 complex is no longer capable of 5'-vRNA binding. Our results provide further evidence for a step-wise assembly of IAV structural components, regulated by nuclear transport mechanisms and host factor binding.
Project description:The PA-X protein, arising from ribosomal frameshift during PA translation, was recently discovered in influenza A virus (IAV). The C-terminal domain 'X' of PA-X proteins in IAVs can be classified as full-length (61 aa) or truncated (41 aa). In the main, avian influenza viruses express full-length PA-X proteins, whilst 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses harbour truncated PA proteins. The truncated form lacks aa 232-252 of the full-length PA-X protein. The significance of PA-X length in virus function remains unclear. To address this issue, we constructed a set of contemporary influenza viruses (pH1N1, avian H5N1 and H9N2) with full and truncated PA-X by reverse genetics to compare their replication and host pathogenicity. All full-length PA-X viruses in human A549 cells conferred 10- to 100-fold increase in viral replication and 5-8% increase in apoptosis relative to corresponding truncated PA-X viruses. Full-length PA-X viruses were more virulent and caused more severe inflammatory responses in mice. Furthermore, aa 233-252 at the C terminus of PA-X strongly suppressed co-transfected gene expression by ? 50%, suggesting that these terminal 20 aa could play a role in enhancing viral replication and contribute to virulence.
Project description:The life cycle of influenza A virus (IAV) is modulated by various cellular host factors. Although previous studies indicated that IAV infection is controlled by HDAC6, the deacetylase involved in the regulation of PA remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC6 acts as a negative regulator of IAV infection by destabilizing PA. HDAC6 binds to and deacetylates PA, thereby promoting the proteasomal degradation of PA. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, Lys(664) of PA can be deacetylated by HDAC6, and the residue is crucial for PA protein stability. The deacetylase activity of HDAC6 is required for anti-IAV activity, because IAV infection was enhanced due to elevated IAV RNA polymerase activity upon HDAC6 depletion and an HDAC6 deacetylase dead mutant (HDAC6-DM; H216A, H611A). Finally, we also demonstrate that overexpression of HDAC6 suppresses IAV RNA polymerase activity, but HDAC6-DM does not. Taken together, our findings provide initial evidence that HDAC6 plays a negative role in IAV RNA polymerase activity by deacetylating PA and thus restricts IAV RNA transcription and replication.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to threaten global public health due to drug resistance and the emergence of frequently mutated strains. Thus, it is critical to find new strategies to control IAV infection. Here, we discover one host protein, HDAC6, that can inhibit viral RNA polymerase activity by deacetylating PA and thus suppresses virus RNA replication and transcription. Previously, it was reported that IAV can utilize the HDAC6-dependent aggresome formation mechanism to promote virus uncoating, but HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of α-tubulin inhibits viral protein trafficking at late stages of the virus life cycle. These findings together will contribute to a better understanding of the role of HDAC6 in regulating IAV infection. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of HDAC6 at various periods of viral infection may illuminate novel strategies for developing antiviral drugs.
Project description:PA-N155 and PA-N182 proteins were translated from the 11th and 13th start codon AUG of the RNA polymerase acidic protein (PA) mRNA of H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), which plays an important role in viral replication. Little is known about the interactions between PA-N155 and PA-N182 and the host proteins. This study investigated the interaction landscape of PA-N155 and PA-N182 of H5N1 IAV in chicken cells while their interacting complexes were captured by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 491 (PA-N155) and 302 (PA-N182) interacting proteins were identified. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses showed that proteins of the two interactomes were enriched in RNA processing, viral processing and protein transport, and proteins related to signaling pathways of proteasome, ribosome, and aminoacy1-tRNA biosynthesis were significantly enriched, suggesting their potential roles in H5N1 IAV infection. Comparative analysis of the interactome of PA, PA-N155, and PA-N182 identified UBA52 as a conserved host factor that interacted with all three viral proteins. UBA52 is a fusion protein consisting of ubiquitin at the N terminus and ribosomal protein L40 at the C terminus. Knockdown of UBA52 significantly decreased the titer of H5N1 IAV in chicken cells and was accompanied with attenuated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our analyses of the influenza-host protein interactomes identified UBA52 as a PA interaction protein for virus replication.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Consequently, to successfully replicate in interferon (IFN)-competent systems, IAV has to counteract host antiviral activities, mainly the production of IFN and the activities of IFN-induced host proteins that inhibit virus replication. The IAV multifunctional proteins PA-X and NS1 are virulence factors that modulate the innate immune response and virus pathogenicity. Notably, these two viral proteins have synergistic effects in the inhibition of host protein synthesis in infected cells, although using different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the control of innate immune responses by the IAV NS1 and PA-X proteins is subject to a balance that can determine virus pathogenesis and fitness, and recent evidence shows co-evolution of these proteins in seasonal viruses, indicating that they should be monitored for enhanced virulence. Importantly, inhibition of host gene expression by the influenza NS1 and/or PA-X proteins could be explored to develop improved live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by modulating the ability of the virus to counteract antiviral host responses. Likewise, both viral proteins represent a reasonable target for the development of new antivirals for the control of IAV infections. In this review, we summarize the role of IAV NS1 and PA-X in controlling the antiviral response during viral infection.
Project description:PA-X is a newly discovered protein that decreases the virulence of the 1918 H1N1 virus in a mouse model. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype in avian species is totally unknown. By generating two PA-X-deficient viruses and evaluating their virulence in different animal models, we show here that PA-X diminishes the virulence of the HPAIV H5N1 strain A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) in mice, chickens, and ducks. Expression of PA-X dampens polymerase activity and virus replication both in vitro and in vivo. Using microarray analysis, we found that PA-X blunts the global host response in chicken lungs, markedly downregulating genes associated with the inflammatory and cell death responses. Correspondingly, a decreased cytokine response was recapitulated in multiple organs of chickens and ducks infected with the wild-type virus relative to those infected with the PA-X-deficient virus. In addition, the PA-X protein exhibits antiapoptotic activity in chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts. Thus, our results demonstrated that PA-X acts as a negative virulence regulator and decreases virulence by inhibiting viral replication and the host innate immune response. Therefore, we here define the role of PA-X in the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAIV, furthering our understanding of the intricate pathogenesis of influenza A virus.Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose a huge threat to global public health. Eight gene segments of the IAV genome encode as many as 17 proteins, including 8 main viral proteins and 9 accessory proteins. The presence of these accessory proteins may further complicate the pathogenesis of IAV. PA-X is a newly identified protein in segment 3 that acts to decrease the virulence of the 1918 H1N1 virus in mice by modulating host gene expression. Our study extends these functions of PA-X to H5N1 HPAIV. We demonstrated that loss of PA-X expression increases the virulence and replication of an H5N1 virus in mice and avian species and alters the host innate immune and cell death responses. Our report is the first to delineate the role of the novel PA-X protein in the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses in avian species and promotes our understanding of H5N1 HPAIV.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) inhibit host gene expression by a process known as host shutoff. Host shutoff limits host innate immune responses and may also redirect the translation apparatus to the production of viral proteins. Multiple IAV proteins regulate host shutoff, including PA-X, a ribonuclease that remains incompletely characterized. We report that PA-X selectively targets host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribed mRNAs, while sparing products of Pol I and Pol III. Interestingly, we show that PA-X can also target Pol II-transcribed RNAs in the nucleus, including non-coding RNAs that are not destined to be translated, and reporter transcripts with RNA hairpin structures that block ribosome loading. Transcript degradation likely occurs in the nucleus, as PA-X is enriched in the nucleus and its nuclear localization correlates with reduction in target RNA levels. Complete degradation of host mRNAs following PA-X-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage is dependent on the host 5'->3'-exonuclease Xrn1. IAV mRNAs are structurally similar to host mRNAs, but are synthesized and modified at the 3' end by the action of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. Infection of cells with wild-type IAV or a recombinant PA-X-deficient virus revealed that IAV mRNAs resist PA-X-mediated degradation during infection. At the same time, loss of PA-X resulted in changes in the synthesis of select viral mRNAs and a decrease in viral protein accumulation. Collectively, these results significantly advance our understanding of IAV host shutoff, and suggest that the PA-X causes selective degradation of host mRNAs by discriminating some aspect of Pol II-dependent RNA biogenesis in the nucleus.
Project description:Accumulating data have identified the important roles of PA protein in replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus (IAV). Identification of host factors that interact with the PA protein may accelerate our understanding of IAV pathogenesis. In this study, using immunoprecipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 278 human cellular proteins that might interact with PA of H5N1 IAV. Gene Ontology annotation revealed that the identified proteins are highly associated with viral translation and replication. Further KEGG pathway analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with translation, infectious disease, and signal transduction. In addition, Diseases and Functions analysis suggested that these cellular proteins are highly related with Organismal Injury and Abnormalities and Cell Death and Survival. Moreover, two cellular proteins (nucleolin and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 1) identified both in this study and others were further validated to interact with PA using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays. Therefore, this study presented the interactome data of H5N1 IAV PA protein in human cells which may provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the potential molecular functions of PA in regulating the lifecycle of IAV in human cells.
Project description:m6A and YTHDF1, YTHDF2, YTHDF3 mapping of IAV RNA with PAR-CLIP and pA-m6A-seq Overall design: In this GEO submission we include the PAR-CLIP data sets for IAV-PR8 in 293T cells, and pA-m6A-seq in 293T cells