Marine alkaloid Monanchocidin a overcomes drug resistance by induction of autophagy and lysosomal membrane permeabilization.
ABSTRACT: Monanchocidin A (MonA) is a novel alkaloid recently isolated from the marine sponge Monanchora pulchra. The compound reveals cytotoxic activity in genitourinary cancers including cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant germ cell tumor (GCT) cell lines, hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate carcinoma cell lines and different bladder carcinoma cell lines. In contrast, non-malignant cells were significantly less sensitive. MonA is highly synergistic with cisplatin in GCT cells. Induction of autophagy at lower and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) at higher concentrations were identified as the dominating modes of action. Cytotoxicity and protein degradation could be inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy. LMP was confirmed by loss of acridine orange staining of lysosoms and by release of cathepsin B. In conclusion, MonA exerts cytotoxic activity by mechanisms different from "classical" apoptosis, and could be a promising new compound to overcome resistance to standard therapies in genitourinary malignancies.
Project description:The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is known to play critical roles in a wide range of cellular processes: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and embryonic development. Importantly, dysregulation of this pathway is tightly associated with pathogenesis in most human cancers. Therefore, the Wnt/?-catenin pathway has emerged as a promising target in anticancer drug screening programs. In the present study, we have isolated three previously unreported metabolites from an undescribed sponge, a species of <i>Monanchora</i> (Order Poecilosclerida, Family <i>Crambidae</i>), closely related to the northeastern Pacific species <i>Monanchora pulchra</i>, collected from deep waters off the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Through an assortment of NMR, MS, ECD, computational chemical shifts calculation, and DP4, chemical structures of these metabolites have been characterized as spirocyclic ring-containing sesterterpenoid (<b>1</b>) and cholestane-type steroidal analogues (<b>2</b> and <b>3</b>). These compounds exhibited the inhibition of ?-catenin response transcription (CRT) through the promotion of ?-catenin degradation, which was in part implicated in the antiproliferative activity against two CRT-positive colon cancer cell lines.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancies in young men. Although high cure rates can be achieved, metastases, resistance to cisplatin-based therapy and late toxicities still represent a lethal threat, arguing for the need of new therapeutic options. In this study, we analysed the potential of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors palbociclib and ribociclib (PaRi) as molecular drugs to treat cisplatin-resistant and -sensitive paediatric and adult GCTs.<h4>Methods</h4>Ten GCT cell lines, including cisplatin-resistant subclones and non-malignant controls, were treated with PaRi and screened for changes in viability (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (XTT) assay), apoptosis rates (flow cytometry, caspase assay), the cell cycle (flow cytometry), the transcriptome (RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and on protein level (western blot). Expression profiling was performed on paediatric and adult GCT tissues (expression microarrays, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, 'The Cancer Genome Atlas' database).<h4>Results</h4>We demonstrate that adult GCTs highly express CDK4, while paediatric GCTs strongly express CDK6 instead. Thus, both GCT types are potentially treatable by PaRi. GCTs presented as highly sensitive towards PaRi, which caused a decrease in viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Although GCTs mainly arrested in the G1/G0 phase, some embryonal carcinoma cell lines were able to bypass the G1/S checkpoint and progressed to the G2/M phase. We found that upregulation of CDK3 and downregulation of many mitosis regulation factors, like the HAUS genes, might be responsible for bypassing the G1/S checkpoint and termination of mitosis, respectively. We postulate that GCT cells do not tolerate these alterations in the cell cycle and eventually induce apoptosis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study highlights PaRi as therapeutic options for cisplatin-resistant and -sensitive paediatric and adult GCTs.
Project description:Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common malignancies in young men. Most patients with GCT can be cured with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, even in metastatic disease. In case of therapy resistance, prognosis is usually poor. We investigated the potential of N-cadherin inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. We analyzed the GCT cell lines NCCIT, NTERA-2, TCam-2, and the cisplatin-resistant sublines NCCIT-R and NTERA-2R. Effects of a blocking antibody or siRNA against N-cadherin on proliferation, migration, and invasion were investigated. Mouse xenografts of GCT cell lines were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for N-cadherin expression. All investigated GCT cell lines were found to express N-cadherin protein in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of N-cadherin in vitro leads to a significant inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion. N-cadherin-downregulation leads to a significantly higher level of pERK. N-cadherin-inhibition resulted in significantly higher rates of apoptotic cells in caspase-3 staining. Expression of N-cadherin is preserved in cisplatin-resistant GCT cells, pointing to an important physiological role in cell survival. N-cadherin-downregulation results in a significant decrease of proliferation, migration, and invasion and stimulates apoptosis in cisplatin-naive and resistant GCT cell lines. Therefore, targeting N-cadherin may be a promising therapeutic approach, particularly in cisplatin-resistant, therapy refractory and metastatic GCT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Germ cell tumours (GCTs) represent a highly curable malignity as they respond well to cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, a small proportion of GCT patients relapse or do not respond to therapy. As this might be caused by an increased capacity to repair CDDP-induced DNA damage, identification of DNA repair biomarkers predicting inadequate or aberrant response to CDDP, and thus poor prognosis for GCT patients, poses a challenge. The objective of this study is to examine the expression levels of the key nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, XPA, ERCC1 and XPF, in GCT patients and cell lines. METHODS:Two hundred seven GCT patients' specimens with sufficient follow-up clinical-pathological data and pairwise combinations of CDDP-resistant and -sensitive GCT cell lines were included. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the ERCC1, XPF and XPA protein expression levels in GCT patients' specimen and Western blot and qRT-PCR examined the protein and mRNA expression levels in GCT cell lines. RESULTS:GCT patients with low XPA expression had significantly better overall survival than patients with high expression (hazard ratio?=?0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-1.23, p?=?0.0228). In addition, XPA expression was increased in the non-seminomatous histological subtype, IGCCCG poor prognosis group, increasing S stage, as well as the presence of lung, liver and non-pulmonary visceral metastases. Importantly, a correlation between inadequate or aberrant CDDP response and XPA expression found in GCT patients was also seen in GCT cell lines. CONCLUSIONS:XPA expression is an additional independent prognostic biomarker for stratifying GCT patients, allowing for improvements in decision-making on treatment for those at high risk of refractoriness or relapse. In addition, it could represent a novel therapeutic target in GCTs.
Project description:Purpose Owing to its exquisite chemotherapy sensitivity, most patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs) are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, up to 30% of patients with advanced GCT exhibit cisplatin resistance, which requires intensive salvage treatment, and have a 50% risk of cancer-related death. To identify a genetic basis for cisplatin resistance, we performed whole-exome and targeted sequencing of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant GCTs. Methods Men with GCT who received a cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen and had available tumor tissue were eligible to participate in this study. Whole-exome sequencing or targeted exon-capture-based sequencing was performed on 180 tumors. Patients were categorized as cisplatin sensitive or cisplatin resistant by using a combination of postchemotherapy parameters, including serum tumor marker levels, radiology, and pathology at surgical resection of residual disease. Results TP53 alterations were present exclusively in cisplatin-resistant tumors and were particularly prevalent among primary mediastinal nonseminomas (72%). TP53 pathway alterations including MDM2 amplifications were more common among patients with adverse clinical features, categorized as poor risk according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) model. Despite this association, TP53 and MDM2 alterations predicted adverse prognosis independent of the IGCCCG model. Actionable alterations, including novel RAC1 mutations, were detected in 55% of cisplatin-resistant GCTs. Conclusion In GCT, TP53 and MDM2 alterations were associated with cisplatin resistance and inferior outcomes, independent of the IGCCCG model. The finding of frequent TP53 alterations among mediastinal primary nonseminomas may explain the more frequent chemoresistance observed with this tumor subtype. A substantial portion of cisplatin-resistant GCTs harbor actionable alterations, which might respond to targeted therapies. Genomic profiling of patients with advanced GCT could improve current risk stratification and identify novel therapeutic approaches for patients with cisplatin-resistant disease.
Project description:MonA is a subunit of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is important for vacuole passing and autophagy processes in eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized the function of MonA, an orthologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon1, in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and a toxigenic fungus A. flavus. In A. nidulans, the absence of AnimonA led to decreased fungal growth, reduced asexual reproduction, and defective cleistothecia production. In addition, AnimonA deletion mutants exhibited decreased spore viability, had reduced trehalose contents in conidia, and were sensitive to thermal stress. In A. flavus, deletion of AflmonA caused decreased fungal growth and defective production of asexual spores and sclerotia structures. Moreover, the absence of monA affected vacuole morphology in both species. Taken together, these results indicate that MonA plays conserved roles in controlling fungal growth, development and vacuole morphology in A. nidulans and A. flavus.
Project description:Cisplatin-based treatment is the standard of care therapy for urothelial carcinomas. However, complex cisplatin resistance mechanisms limit the success of this approach. Both apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to this resistance. Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite from various bacteria, exerts different biological activities including the modulation of these two cellular stress response pathways. We analyzed the effect of prodigiosin on protein levels of different autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant urothelial carcinoma cells (UCCs). Furthermore, we investigated the effect on cell viability of prodigiosin alone or in combination with cisplatin. We made use of four different pairs of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant UCCs. We found that prodigiosin blocked autophagy in UCCs and re-sensitized cisplatin-resistant cells to apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, we found that prodigiosin is a potent anticancer agent with nanomolar IC<sub>50</sub> values in all tested UCCs. In combination studies, we observed that prodigiosin sensitized both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant urothelial carcinoma cell lines to cisplatin treatment with synergistic effects in most tested cell lines. These effects of prodigiosin are at least partially mediated by altering lysosomal function, since we detected reduced activities of cathepsin B and L. We propose that prodigiosin is a promising candidate for the therapy of cisplatin-resistant urothelial carcinomas, either as a single agent or in combinatory therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are considered to be highly curable; however, there are major differences in the outcomes related to histology and anatomical localization. GCTs originating from the testis are, overall, sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy, whereas GCTs originating from the mediastinum show a worse response, which remains largely unexplained. Here, we address the differences among GCTs from two different anatomical locations (testicular versus mediastinal/extragonadal), with a specific focus on the role of the P53 pathway. It was recently shown that GCTs with <i>TP53</i> mutations most often localize to the mediastinum. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, <i>TP53</i> knock-out lines were generated in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant clones of the representative 2102Ep cell line (wild-type <i>TP53</i> testicular GCT) and NCCIT cell line (hemizygously mutated <i>TP53</i>, mutant <i>TP53</i> mediastinal GCT). The full knock-out of <i>TP53</i> in 2102Ep and resistant NCCIT resulted in an increase in cisplatin resistance, suggesting a contributing role for P53, even in NCCIT, in which P53 had been reported to be non-functional. In conclusion, these results suggest that <i>TP53</i> mutations contribute to the cisplatin-resistant phenotype of mediastinal GCTs and, therefore, are a potential candidate for targeted treatment. This knowledge provides a novel model system to elucidate the underlying mechanism of clinical behavior and possible alternative treatment of the <i>TP53</i> mutant and mediastinal GCTs.
Project description:Novel treatment options are needed for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients, particularly important for those showing or developing cisplatin resistance, the major cause of cancer-related deaths. As TGCTs pathobiology is highly related to epigenetic (de)regulation, epidrugs are potentially effective therapies. Hence, we sought to explore, for the first time, the effect of the two most recently FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors (HDACis), belinostat and panobinostat, in (T)GCT cell lines including those resistant to cisplatin. In silico results were validated in 261 patient samples and differential expression of HDACs was also observed across cell lines. Belinostat and panobinostat reduced cell viability in both cisplatin-sensitive cells (NCCIT-P, 2102Ep-P, and NT2-P) and, importantly, also in matched cisplatin-resistant subclones (NCCIT-R, 2102Ep-R, and NT2-R), with IC50s in the low nanomolar range for all cell lines. Treatment of NCCIT-R with both drugs increased acetylation, induced cell cycle arrest, reduced proliferation, decreased Ki67 index, and increased p21, while increasing cell death by apoptosis, with upregulation of cleaved caspase 3. These findings support the effectiveness of HDACis for treating TGCT patients in general, including those developing cisplatin resistance. Future studies should explore them as single or combination agents.
Project description:Despite high cure rates, about 20% of patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCTs) fail cisplatin-based chemotherapy. High levels of DNA methylation have been identified in GCTs and linked to cisplatin resistance. Here, we examined the effects of DNA hypomethylating 5-azacitidine (5-aza) on two embryonal carcinoma cell lines (NCCIT, 2102Ep) and their cisplatin-resistant isogenic derivatives. Effects on cell viability and cisplatin sensitivity were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion method. Western blotting was used to examine induction of apoptosis 5-aza and results were validated by flow cytometry. Single agent treatment with 5-aza strongly impacted viability and induced apoptosis at low nanomolar concentrations, both in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cell lines. 5-aza exerted an immediate apoptotic response, followed by a prolonged inhibitory effect on cell viability and cell-cycle progression. Sequential treatment with 5-aza and cisplatin reduced cellular survival of the cisplatin-resistant sublines already at nanomolar concentrations, suggesting a partial restoration of cisplatin sensitivity by the compound. 5-aza demonstrated anti-tumor activity as a single agent at low nanomolar concentrations in GCT cells, irrespective of cisplatin-sensitivity. 5-aza may also have the potential at least to partially restore cisplatin-sensitivity in non-seminoma cells, supporting the hypothesis that combining DNA demethylating agents with cisplatin-based chemotherapy may be a valid therapeutic approach in patients with refractory GCTs.