Klotho Regulates 14-3-3? Monomerization and Binding to the ASK1 Signaling Complex in Response to Oxidative Stress.
ABSTRACT: The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) signaling complex is a key regulator of p38 MAPK activity, a major modulator of stress-associated with aging disorders. We recently reported that the ratio of free ASK1 to the complex-bound ASK1 is significantly decreased in Klotho-responsive manner and that Klotho-deficient tissues have elevated levels of free ASK1 which coincides with increased oxidative stress. Here, we tested the hypothesis that: 1) covalent interactions exist among three identified proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex; 2) in normal unstressed cells the ASK1, 14-3-3? and thioredoxin (Trx) proteins simultaneously engage in a tripartite complex formation; 3) Klotho's stabilizing effect on the complex relied solely on 14-3-3? expression and its apparent phosphorylation and dimerization changes. To verify the hypothesis, we performed 14-3-3? siRNA knock-down experiments in conjunction with cell-based assays to measure ASK1-client protein interactions in the presence and absence of Klotho, and with or without an oxidant such as rotenone. Our results show that Klotho activity induces posttranslational modifications in the complex targeting 14-3-3? monomer/dimer changes to effectively protect against ASK1 oxidation and dissociation. This is the first observation implicating all three proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex in close proximity.
Project description:Klotho transgenic mice exhibit resistance to oxidative stress as measured by their urinal levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, albeit this anti-oxidant defense mechanism has not been locally investigated in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38 MAPK pathway regulates stress levels in the brain of these mice and showed that: 1) the ratio of free ASK1 to thioredoxin (Trx)-bound ASK1 is relatively lower in the transgenic brain whereas the reverse is true for the Klotho knockout mice; 2) the reduced p38 activation level in the transgene corresponds to higher level of ASK1-bound Trx, while the KO mice showed elevated p38 activation and lower level of-bound Trx; and 3) that 14-3-3? is hyper phosphorylated (Ser-58) in the transgene which correlated with increased monomer forms. In addition, we evaluated the in vivo robustness of the protection by challenging the brains of Klotho transgenic mice with a neurotoxin, MPTP and analyzed for residual neuron numbers and integrity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results show that Klotho overexpression significantly protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative damage, partly by modulating p38 MAPK activation level. Our data highlight the importance of ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway in the brain and identify Klotho as a possible anti-oxidant effector.
Project description:TNF-alpha activates ASK1 in part by dissociating 14-3-3 from apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). In the present study, we identified a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) as an ASK1-interacting protein (AIP1). AIP1 binds to the C-terminal domain of ASK1 via a lysine-rich cluster within the N-terminal C2 domain. AIP1 exists in a closed form through an intramolecular interaction between the N-terminus and the C-terminus, and TNF-alpha induces unfolding of AIP1 leading to association of AIP1 with ASK1. Thus, the N-terminus of AIP1 containing the C2 and GAP domains constitutively binds to ASK1 and facilitates the release of 14-3-3 from ASK1. In contrast to 14-3-3, AIP1 binds preferentially to dephosphorylated ASK1. Recruited AIP1 enhances ASK1-induced JNK activation, and the ASK1 binding and the GAP activity of AIP1 are critical for AIP1-enhanced ASK1 activation. Furthermore, TNF-induced ASK1/JNK activation is significantly blunted in cells where AIP1 is knocked down by RNA interference. These data suggest that AIP1 mediates TNF-alpha-induced ASK1 activation by facilitating dissociation of inhibitor 14-3-3 from ASK1, a novel mechanism by which TNF-alpha activates ASK1.
Project description:Oxidant stress is a ubiquitous stressor with negative impacts on multiple cell types. ASK1 is a central mediator of oxidant injury, but while mechanisms of its inhibition, such as sequestration by 14-3-3 proteins and thioredoxin, have been identified, mechanisms of activation have remained obscure and the signaling pathways regulating this are not clear. Here, we report that phosphorylation of 14-3-3zeta at serine 58 (S58) is dynamically regulated in the cell and that the phosphorylation status of S58 is a critical factor regulating oxidant stress-induced cell death. Phosphorylation of S58 releases ASK1 from 14-3-3zeta, and ASK1 then activates stress-activated protein kinases, leading to cell death. While several members of the mammalian sterile 20 (Mst) family of kinases can phosphorylate S58 when overexpressed, we identify Ste20/oxidant stress response kinase 1 (SOK-1), an Mst family member known to be activated by oxidant stress, as a central endogenous regulator of S58 phosphorylation and thereby of ASK1-mediated cell death. Our findings identify a novel pathway that regulates ASK1 activation and oxidant stress-induced cell death.
Project description:The anticancer agent 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(methylamino)carbonyl]hydrazine (laromustine), upon decomposition in situ, yields methyl isocyanate and the chloroethylating species 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE). 90CE has been shown to kill tumor cells via a proposed mechanism that involves interstrand DNA cross-linking. However, the role of methyl isocyanate in the antineoplastic function of laromustine has not been delineated. Herein, we show that 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-[(methylamino)carbonyl]hydrazine (101MDCE), an analog of laromustine that generates only methyl isocyanate, activates ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling in endothelial cells (EC). We have previously shown that ASK1 forms a complex with reduced thioredoxin (Trx1) in resting EC, and that the Cys residues in ASK1 and Trx1 are critical for their interaction. 101MDCE dissociated ASK1 from Trx1, but not from the phosphoserine-binding inhibitor 14-3-3, in whole cells and in cell lysates, consistent with the known ability of methyl isocyanate to carbamoylate free thiol groups of proteins. 101MDCE had no effect on the kinase activity of purified ASK1, JNK, or the catalytic activity of Trx1. However, 101MDCE, but not 90CE, significantly decreased the activity of Trx reductase-1 (TrxR1). We conclude that methyl isocyanate induces dissociation of ASK1 from Trx1 either directly by carbamoylating the critical Cys groups in the ASK1-Trx1 complex or indirectly by inhibiting TrxR1. Furthermore, 101MDCE (but not 90CE) induced EC death through a non-apoptotic (necroptotic) pathway leading to inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro. Our study has identified methyl isocyanates may contribute to the anticancer activity in part by interfering with tumor angiogenesis.
Project description:Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, also known as MAP3K5), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, regulates diverse physiological processes. The activity of ASK1 is triggered by various stress stimuli and is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and diabetes. ASK1 forms a high molecular mass complex whose activity is, under non-stress conditions, suppressed through interaction with thioredoxin and the scaffolding protein 14-3-3. The 14-3-3 protein binds to the phosphorylated Ser-966 motif downstream of the ASK1 kinase domain. The role of 14-3-3 in the inhibition of ASK1 has yet to be elucidated. In this study we performed structural analysis of the complex between the ASK1 kinase domain phosphorylated at Ser-966 (pASK1-CD) and the 14-3-3? protein. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements and chemical cross-linking revealed that the pASK1-CD·14-3-3? complex is dynamic and conformationally heterogeneous. In addition, structural analysis coupled with the results of phosphorus NMR and time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence measurements suggest that 14-3-3? interacts with the kinase domain of ASK1 in close proximity to its active site, thus indicating this interaction might block its accessibility and/or affect its conformation.
Project description:Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) plays an essential role in stress and immune response and has been linked to the development of several diseases. Here, we present the structure of the human ASK1 catalytic domain in complex with staurosporine. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and crystallographic analysis showed that ASK1 forms a tight dimer (K(d) approximately 0.2 microM) interacting in a head-to-tail fashion. We found that the ASK1 phosphorylation motifs differ from known ASK1 phosphorylation sites but correspond well to autophosphorylation sites identified by mass spectrometry. Reporter gene assays showed that all three identified in vitro autophosphorylation sites (Thr813, Thr838, Thr842) regulate ASK1 signaling, but site-directed mutants showed catalytic activities similar to wild-type ASK1, suggesting a regulatory mechanism independent of ASK1 kinase activity. The determined high-resolution structure of ASK1 and identified ATP mimetic inhibitors will provide a first starting point for the further development of selective inhibitors.
Project description:Diabetes significantly induces cognitive dysfunction. Neuronal apoptosis is the main cause of diabetes-induced cognitive decline (DICD). Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are remarkably activated by diabetes. The role and relationship of ASK1-JNK1/2 signaling and ER stress in DICD have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we used db/db mice as the DICD animal model and confirmed that db/db mice displayed cognitive decline with inferior learning and memory function. Diabetes significantly induced morphological and structural changes, excessive neuronal apoptosis, A?1 - 42 large deposition, and synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus. Mechanistic studies found that diabetes significantly triggered ASK1-JNK1/2 signaling activation and increased ER stress in the hippocampus. Moreover, diabetes enhanced the formation of the IRE1?-TRAF2-ASK1 complex, which promotes the crosstalk of ER stress and the ASK1-JNK1/2 pathway during DICD. Furthermore, 4-PBA treatment blocked high glucose (HG)-induced ASK1-JNK1/2 signaling activation, and excessive apoptosis in vitro. Inhibiting ASK1 via siRNA remarkably ameliorated the HG-induced increase in p-IRE1? and associated apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting that ASK1 is essential for the assembly and function of the proapoptotic kinase activity of the IRE1? signalosome. In summary, ER stress and ASK1-JNK1/2 signaling play causal roles in DICD development, which has crosstalk through the formation of the IRE1?-TRAF2-ASK1 complex.
Project description:Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is implicated in modulation of cellular processes including gene transcription. The role of PRMTs in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways has remained obscure, however. We now show that PRMT1 methylates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) at arginine residues 78 and 80 and thereby negatively regulates ASK1 signaling. PRMT1-mediated ASK1 methylation attenuated the H(2)O(2)-induced stimulation of ASK1, with this inhibitory effect of PRMT1 being abolished by replacement of arginines 78 and 80 of ASK1 with lysine. Furthermore, depletion of PRMT1 expression by RNA interference potentiated H(2)O(2)-induced stimulation of ASK1. PRMT1-mediated ASK1 methylation promoted the interaction between ASK1 and its negative regulator thioredoxin, whereas it abrogated the association of ASK1 with its positive regulator TRAF2. Moreover, PRMT1 depletion potentiated paclitaxel-induced ASK1 activation and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Together, our results indicate that arginine methylation of ASK1 by PRMT1 contributes to the regulation of stress-induced signaling that controls a variety of cellular events including apoptosis.
Project description:The aging suppressor gene Klotho encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein. Klotho-deficient mice exhibit a variety of aging-like phenotypes, many of which are similar to those observed in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23)-deficient mice. To test the possibility that Klotho and FGF23 may function in a common signal transduction pathway(s), we investigated whether Klotho is involved in FGF signaling. Here we show that Klotho protein directly binds to multiple FGF receptors (FGFRs). The Klotho-FGFR complex binds to FGF23 with higher affinity than FGFR or Klotho alone. In addition, Klotho significantly enhanced the ability of FGF23 to induce phosphorylation of FGF receptor substrate and ERK in various types of cells. Thus, Klotho functions as a cofactor essential for activation of FGF signaling by FGF23.
Project description:The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is caused by many disease-relevant conditions, inducing conserved signaling events collectively known as the unfolded protein response. When ER stress is excessive or prolonged, cell death (usually occurring by apoptosis) is triggered. We undertook a chemical biology approach for investigating mechanisms of ER stress-induced cell death. Using a cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify compounds that rescued a neuronal cell line from thapsigargin-induced cell death, we identified benzodiazepinones that selectively inhibit cell death caused by inducers of ER stress (thapsigargin and tunicamycin) but not by inducers of extrinsic (tumor necrosis factor) or intrinsic (mitochondrial) cell death pathways. The compounds displayed activity in several cell lines and primary cultured neurons. Mechanism of action studies revealed that these compounds inhibit ER stress-induced activation of p38 MAPK and kinases responsible for c-Jun phosphorylation. Active benzodiazepinones suppressed cell death at the level of apoptotic signal kinase-1 (ASK1) within the IRE1 pathway but without directly inhibiting the kinase activity of ASK1 or >400 other kinases tested. Rather, active compounds enhanced phosphorylation of serine 967 of ASK1, promoting ASK1 binding to 14-3-3, an event associated with suppression of ASK1 function. Reducing ASK1 protein expression using small interfering RNA also protected cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis, confirming the importance of this protein kinase. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an essential role for ASK1 in cell death induced by ER stress. The compounds identified may prove useful for revealing endogenous mechanisms that regulate inhibitory phosphorylation of ASK1.