Agreement Between Responses From Community-Dwelling Persons With Stroke and Their Proxies on the NIH Neurological Quality of Life (Neuro-QoL) Short Forms.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To examine agreement between patient and proxy responses on the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QoL) instruments after stroke. DESIGN:Cross-sectional observational substudy of the longitudinal, multisite, multicondition Neuro-QoL validation study. SETTING:In-person, interview-guided, patient-reported outcomes. PARTICIPANTS:Convenience sample of dyads (N=86) of community-dwelling persons with stroke and their proxy respondents. INTERVENTIONS:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Dyads concurrently completed short forms of 8 or 9 items for the 13 Neuro-QoL adult domains using the patient-proxy perspective. Agreement was examined at the scale-level with difference scores, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), effect size statistics, and Bland-Altman plots, and at the item-level with kappa coefficients. RESULTS:We found no mean differences between patients and proxies on the Applied Cognition-General Concerns, Depression, Satisfaction With Social Roles and Activities, Stigma, and Upper Extremity Function (Fine Motor, activities of daily living) short forms. Patients rated themselves more favorably on the Applied Cognition-Executive Function, Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, Lower Extremity Function (Mobility), Positive Affect and Well-Being, Anxiety, Emotional and Behavioral Dyscontrol, and Fatigue short forms. The largest mean patient-proxy difference observed was 3 T-score points on the Lower Extremity Function (Mobility). ICCs ranged from .34 to .59. However, limits of agreement showed dyad differences exceeding ±20 T-score points, and item-level agreement ranged from not significant to weighted kappa=.34. CONCLUSIONS:Proxy responses on Neuro-QoL short forms can complement responses of moderate- to high-functioning community-dwelling persons with stroke and augment group-level analyses, but do not substitute for individual patient ratings. Validation is needed for other stroke populations.
Project description:To provide a clinically useful means of interpreting change for individual patients on the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QoL) adult short forms (SFs) by applying a classical test theory concept for interpreting individual change.Secondary analysis of existing data.Community.Persons with neurologic conditions including stroke, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease residing in community settings.Not applicable.Neuro-QoL SFs for Applied Cognition-General Concerns, Applied Cognition-Executive Function, Applied Cognition-Combined, Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, Satisfaction With Social Roles and Activities, Positive Affect and Well-Being, Depression, Stigma, Upper Extremity Function (Fine Motor, Activities of Daily Living), Lower Extremity Function (Mobility), Anxiety, Sleep Disturbance, Fatigue, and Emotional and Behavioral Dyscontrol. We estimated conditional minimal detectable change (cMDC) indices from the pooled SEs adjusted for a 95% confidence interval using the average of the SEs for any given pair of scores multiplied by the z score, or ([SE(Score1) + SE(Score2)]/2) * (1.96) * (SQRT(2)).The cMDC indices are generally smallest in the midrange of all scales, ranging from 3.6 to 11.2 T-score points, and higher on the outer quartiles ranging from 3.7 to 21.6 T-score points. The lowest midrange cMDCs were for Satisfaction With Social Roles and Activities (3.6-4.7 T-score points), and the largest were for Sleep Disturbance (9.4-11.2 T-score points).Change indices can help clinicians and investigators identify differences for individual patients or subjects that are large enough to motivate treatment change. cMDCs can reduce misclassification of magnitudes of change that are near the margins of error across the range of the Neuro-QoL SFs.
Project description:We investigated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with TIA and minor ischemic stroke (MIS) using Neuro-QOL, a validated, patient-reported outcome measurement system.Consecutive patients with TIA or MIS who had (1) modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 or 1 at baseline, (2) initial NIH Stroke Scale score of ?5, (3) no acute reperfusion treatment, and (4) 3-month follow-up, were recruited. Recurrent stroke, disability by mRS and Barthel Index, and Neuro-QOL scores in 5 prespecified domains were prospectively recorded. We assessed the proportion of patients with impaired HRQOL, defined as T scores more than 0.5 SD worse than the general population average, and identified predictors of impaired HRQOL using logistic regression.Among 332 patients who met study criteria (mean age 65.7 years, 52.4% male), 47 (14.2%) had recurrent stroke within 90 days and 41 (12.3%) were disabled (mRS >1 or Barthel Index <95) at 3 months. Any HRQOL impairment was noted in 119 patients (35.8%). In multivariate analysis, age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.04), initial NIH Stroke Scale score (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.17-1.64), recurrent stroke (adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.06-4.13), and proxy reporting (adjusted OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.54-10.10) were independent predictors of impaired HRQOL at 3 months.Impairment in HRQOL is common at 3 months after MIS and TIA. Predictors of impaired HRQOL include age, index stroke severity, and recurrent stroke. Future studies should include HRQOL measures in outcome assessment, as these may be more sensitive to mild deficits than traditional disability scales.
Project description:Background:Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures have been shown to be effective for tracking treatment outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, collecting PROs as part of the clinical standard of care can be time-consuming and examination of their validity for use in an MS sample has been limited. Objective:To determine the discriminant validity of the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QoL™) short forms in a real-world MS clinic population. Design/Methods:Neuro-QoL is a series of questionnaires for tracking physical function, emotional/cognitive health, and social abilities in clinical populations. Neuro-QoL data from 902 MS patients were analyzed for psychometric properties and factor structure. Results:Neuro-QoL demonstrated acceptable reliability in the moderate-to-good ranges. Moderate support for convergent validity was observed with other measures of MS quality of life, disease severity, and symptoms. However, results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested poor model fit for most of the 12 domains tested. Conclusions:These findings support the utility of some of the Neuro-QoL questionnaires in evaluating MS-related PROs. However, additional research may help abridge and strengthen these measures for use in this population.
Project description:PURPOSE:Neuro-QOL provides a clinically relevant and psychometrically robust health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessment tool for both adults and children with common neurological disorders. We now report the psychometric results for the adult tools. METHODS:An extensive research, survey and consensus process was used to produce a list of 5 priority adult neurological conditions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and ALS). We identified relevant health related quality of life (HRQL) domains through multiple methods and data sources including a comprehensive review of the literature and literature search, expert interviews and surveys and patient and caregiver focus groups. The final domain framework consisted of 17 domains of Physical, Mental and Social health. There were five phases of item development: (1) identification of 3,482 extant items, (2) item classification and selection, (3) item review and revision, (4) cognitive interviews with 63 patients to assess their understanding of individual items and (5) field testing of 432 representative items. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were drawn from the US general population and clinical settings, and included both English and Spanish speaking subjects (N = 3,246). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the dimensionality of unidimensional domains. Where the domain structure was previously unknown, the dataset was split and first analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and then CFA. Samejima's graded response model (GRM) was used to calculate IRT parameters. We further evaluated differential item functioning (DIF) on gender, education and age. RESULTS:Thirteen unidimensional calibrated item banks consisting of 297 items were developed. All of the tested item banks had high reliability and few or no locally dependent items. The range of item slopes and thresholds with good information are reported for each of the item banks. The banks can support CAT and the development of short forms. CONCLUSION:The Neuro-QOL measurement system provides item banks and short forms that enable PRO measurement in neurological research, minimizes patient burden and can be used to create multiple instrument types minimizing standard error. The 17 adult measures include 13 calibrated item banks, 3 item pools available for calibration work by others, and 1 stand-alone scale (index). The Neuro-QOL instruments provide a "common metric" of representative concepts for use across patient groups in different studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The use of self-report measurements in clinical settings is increasing. However, in patients with limitations that interfere with reliable self-assessment such as cognitive impairment or mood disturbances, as may be the case in multiple sclerosis (MS), data collection might be problematic. In these situations, information obtained from proxy respondents (e.g. partners) may replace self-ratings. The aim of this study was to examine the value of proxy ratings at separate points in time and to assess patient-proxy agreement on possible changes in disease impact of MS. METHODS: Fifty-six MS patients and their partners completed the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) at baseline and follow-up, two years later. Patient-proxy agreement was assessed at both time points by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), exact and global agreement and the mean directional differences between groups. Agreement of change over time was assessed by calculating ICCs between change scores. In parallel, global ratings of both patients and proxy respondents of the extent to which the patient had improved or deteriorated over the past two years were collected to validate possible changes on the MSIS-29. RESULTS: At both time points, agreement on the physical scale was higher than agreement on the psychological scale (ICCs at baseline were 0.81 for the physical scale and 0.72 for the psychological scale; at follow-up, the ICC values were 0.86 and 0.65 respectively). At follow-up, statistically significant mean differences between patients and proxies were noted for the physical scale (-4.8 +/- 12.7, p = 0.006) and the psychological scale (-8.9 +/- 18.8, p = 0.001). Agreement between change scores on the MSIS-29 was fair (ICC < 0.60). Our analyses suggest that the validity of measuring changes over time might be better for proxy respondents compared to patients. CONCLUSION: Proxy respondents could act as a reliable source of information in cross-sectional studies. Moreover, results suggested that agreement on change over time might be better for proxy respondents compared to patients. Although this remarkable finding should be interpreted cautiously because of several limitations of the study, it does plead for further investigation of this important topic.
Project description:Ascertaining self-reported information about the risk for pre-stroke obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the acute stroke period is challenging as many stroke patients have deficits that hinder communication. We examined agreement between stroke patients without communication limitations and family members (proxy) in the pre-stroke risk for OSA.Patient-proxy pairs (n=42) were interviewed independently as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project from May 2010 to April 2011. The Berlin questionnaire was used to measure a high risk for OSA defined as the presence of at least two of the following conditions: (1) snoring behaviors/witnessed apneas, (2) daytime sleepiness, and (3) hypertension or obesity. Patient-proxy agreement was assessed using a ? coefficient.Forty-three percent of patients self-identified as being at high risk for sleep apnea, and 45% of proxies identified patients as high risk. Patient-proxy agreement for high risk for pre-stroke OSA was fair (?=0.28) with better agreement for spouses and children proxies (?=0.38) than for other family members. Agreement also was fair for most individual questions.Spouse and child proxy use of the Berlin questionnaire may be an option to assess a patient's pre-stroke likelihood of sleep apnea. Whereas prospective studies of incident stroke in patients with and without objectively confirmed sleep apnea would require formidable resources, our results suggest that an alternative strategy may involve proxy use of the Berlin questionnaire in a retrospective study design.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To assess the quality of life of people with dementia, measures are required for self-rating by the person with dementia, and for proxy rating by others. The Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease scale (QoL-AD) is available in two versions, QoL-AD-SR (self-rating) and QoL-AD-PR (proxy rating). The aim of our study was to analyse the inter-rater agreement between self- and proxy ratings, in terms of both the total score and the items, including an analysis specific to care setting, and to identify factors associated with this agreement.<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional QoL-AD data from the 7th Framework European RightTimePlaceCare study were analysed. A total of 1330 cases were included: n?=?854 receiving home care and n?=?476 receiving institutional long-term nursing care. The proxy raters were informal carers (home care) and best-informed professional carers (institutional long-term nursing care). Inter-rater agreement was investigated using Bland-Altman plots for the QoL-AD total score and by weighted kappa statistics for single items. Associations were investigated by regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The overall QoL-AD assessment of those with dementia revealed a mean value of 33.2 points, and the proxy ratings revealed a mean value of 29.8 points. The Bland-Altman plots revealed a poor agreement between self- and proxy ratings for the overall sample and for both care settings. With one exception (item 'Marriage' weighted kappa 0.26), the weighted kappa values for the single QoL-AD items were below 0.20, indicating poor agreement. Home care setting, dementia-related behavioural and psychological symptoms, and the functional status of the person with dementia, along with the caregiver burden, were associated with the level of agreement. Only the home care setting was associated with an increase larger than the predefined acceptable difference between self- and proxy ratings.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Proxy quality of life ratings from professional and informal carers appear to be lower than the self-ratings of those with dementia. QoL-AD-SR and QoL-AD-PR are therefore not interchangeable, as the inter-rater agreement differs distinctly. Thus, a proxy rating should be judged as a complementary perspective for a self-assessment of quality of life by those with dementia, rather than as a valid substitute.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the routine use of a measure of quality of life (QoL) in care homes and assess its psychometric properties when used by care staff. DESIGN:A cross-sectional two-phase study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Data were collected from care staff in seven care homes in East Sussex, England. METHOD:Phase I: The ability of care staff from two care homes to use the DEMQOL-Proxy without interviewer administration was assessed using agreement analysis between a self-administered and interviewer-administered version of the instrument. Based on these findings, DEMQOL-Proxy was adapted into a new version, DEMQOL-CH, for use as a self-administered instrument in care homes. We assessed agreement between the new DEMQOL-CH and DEMQOL-Proxy to ensure DEMQOL-CH was used correctly. Phase II: A preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of DEMQOL-CH when used routinely was completed in a further five care homes. RESULTS:Phase I: Nineteen care staff from two care homes completed QoL measurements for residents. Systematic error was identified when staff self-completed the DEMQOL-Proxy without an interviewer. We modified the DEMOoL-Proxy to create DEMQOL-CH; this reduced the error, producing a version that could be used more accurately by care staff. Phase II: Eleven care staff from five care homes rated resident QoL routinely. DEMQOL-CH showed acceptable psychometric properties with satisfactory reliability and validity and a clear factor structure. CONCLUSIONS:The research presents positive preliminary data on the acceptability, feasibility and performance of routine QoL measurement in care homes using an adapted version of DEMQOL-Proxy, the DEMQOL-CH. Results provide evidence to support the concept that routine measurement of QoL may be possible in care homes. Research is needed to refine and test the methodology and instrument further and to explore the potential for benefits to residents, staff and care homes in larger and more representative populations.
Project description:A key objective of advance care planning (ACP) is improving surrogates' knowledge of patients' treatment goals. Little is known about whether ACP outside of a trial accomplishes this. The objective was to examine patient and surrogate reports of ACP engagement and associations with surrogate knowledge of goals.Cohort study SETTING: Primary care in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.350 community-dwelling veterans age ?55 years and the individual they would choose to make medical decisions on their behalf, interviewed separately.Treatment goals were assessed by veterans' ratings of 3 health states: severe physical disability, cognitive disability, and pain, as an acceptable or unacceptable result of treatment for severe illness. Surrogates had knowledge if they correctly predicted all 3 responses. Veterans and surrogates were asked about living will and health care proxy completion and communication about life-sustaining treatment and quality versus quantity of life (QOL).Over 40% of dyads agreed that the veteran had not completed a living will or health care proxy and that there was no QOL communication. For each activity, sizeable proportions (18-34%) disagreed about participation. In dyads who agreed QOL communication had occurred, 30% of surrogates had knowledge, compared to 21% in dyads who agreed communication had not occurred and 15% in dyads who disagreed (P = .01). This relationship persisted in multivariable analysis. Agreement about other ACP activities was not associated with knowledge.Disagreement about ACP participation was common. Agreement about communication regarding QOL was modestly associated with surrogate knowledge of treatment goals. Eliciting surrogates' perspectives is critical to ACP. Even dyads who agree about participation may need additional support for successful engagement.