Invisible Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nanotube at Visible Frequency.
ABSTRACT: Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes.
Project description:Harnessing artificial optical magnetism has previously required complex two- and three-dimensional structures, such as nanoparticle arrays and split-ring metamaterials. By contrast, planar structures, and in particular dielectric/metal multilayer metamaterials, have been generally considered non-magnetic. Although the hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of these systems have been extensively investigated, their assumed non-magnetic response limits their performance to transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. We propose and experimentally validate a mechanism for artificial magnetism in planar multilayer metamaterials. We also demonstrate that the magnetic properties of high-index dielectric/metal hyperbolic metamaterials can be anisotropic, leading to magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in certain frequency regimes. We show that such systems can support transverse electric polarized interface-bound waves, analogous to their TM counterparts, surface plasmon polaritons. Our results open a route for tailoring optical artificial magnetism in lithography-free layered systems and enable us to generalize the plasmonic and hyperbolic properties to encompass both linear polarizations.
Project description:While metal is the most common conducting constituent element in the fabrication of metamaterials, graphene provides another useful building block, that is, a truly two-dimensional conducting sheet whose conductivity can be controlled by doping. Here we report the experimental realization of a multilayer structure of alternating graphene and Al2O3 layers, a structure similar to the metal-dielectric multilayers commonly used in creating visible wavelength hyperbolic metamaterials. Chemical vapour deposited graphene rather than exfoliated or epitaxial graphene is used, because layer transfer methods are easily applied in fabrication. We employ a method of doping to increase the layer conductivity, and our analysis shows that the doped chemical vapour deposited graphene has good optical properties in the mid-infrared range. We therefore design the metamaterial for mid-infrared operation; our characterization with an infrared ellipsometer demonstrates that the metamaterial experiences an optical topological transition from elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion at a wavelength of 4.5??m.
Project description:Hyperbolic metamaterials are optical materials characterized by highly anisotropic effective permittivity tensor components having opposite signs along orthogonal directions. The techniques currently employed for characterizing the optical properties of hyperbolic metamaterials are limited in their capability for robust extraction of the complex permittivity tensor. Here we demonstrate how an ellipsometry technique based on total internal reflection can be leveraged to extract the permittivity of hyperbolic metamaterials with improved robustness and accuracy. By enhancing the interaction of light with the metamaterial stacks, improved ellipsometric sensitivity for subsequent permittivity extraction is obtained. The technique does not require any modification of the hyperbolic metamaterial sample or sophisticated ellipsometry set-up, and could therefore serve as a reliable and easy-to-adopt technique for characterization of a broad class of anisotropic metamaterials.
Project description:Epsilon-Near-Zero materials exhibit a transition in the real part of the dielectric permittivity from positive to negative value as a function of wavelength. Here we study metal-dielectric layered metamaterials in the homogenised regime (each layer has strongly subwavelength thickness) with zero real part of the permittivity in the near-infrared region. By optically pumping the metamaterial we experimentally show that close to the Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) wavelength the permittivity exhibits a marked transition from metallic (negative permittivity) to dielectric (positive permittivity) as a function of the optical power. Remarkably, this transition is linear as a function of pump power and occurs on time scales of the order of the 100 fs pump pulse that need not be tuned to a specific wavelength. The linearity of the permittivity increase allows us to express the response of the metamaterial in terms of a standard third order optical nonlinearity: this shows a clear inversion of the roles of the real and imaginary parts in crossing the ENZ wavelength, further supporting an optically induced change in the physical behaviour of the metamaterial.
Project description:Hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate exotic optical properties that are poised to find applications in subdiffraction imaging and hyperlenses. Key challenges remain for practical applications, such as high energy losses and lack of hyperbolic properties in shorter wavelengths. In this work, a new oxide-metal (ZnO-Au) hybrid-material system in the vertically aligned nanocomposite thin-film form has been demonstrated with very promising in-plane two-phase ordering using a one-step growth method. Au nanopillars grow epitaxially in the ZnO matrix, and the pillar morphology, orientation, and quasi-hexagonal in-plane ordering are found to be effectively tuned by the growth parameters. Strong surface plasmon resonance has been observed in the hybrid system in the UV-vis range, and highly anisotropic dielectric properties have resulted with much broader and tunable hyperbolic wavelength regimes. The observed strain-driven two-phase in-plane ordering and its novel tunable hyperbolic metamaterial properties all demonstrate strong potential for future oxide-metal hybrid-material design toward future integrated hybrid photonics.
Project description:Ultra-compact, densely integrated optical components manufactured on a CMOS-foundry platform are highly desirable for optical information processing and electronic-photonic co-integration. However, the large spatial extent of evanescent waves arising from nanoscale confinement, ubiquitous in silicon photonic devices, causes significant cross-talk and scattering loss. Here, we demonstrate that anisotropic all-dielectric metamaterials open a new degree of freedom in total internal reflection to shorten the decay length of evanescent waves. We experimentally show the reduction of cross-talk by greater than 30 times and the bending loss by greater than 3 times in densely integrated, ultra-compact photonic circuit blocks. Our prototype all-dielectric metamaterial-waveguide achieves a low propagation loss of approximately 3.7±1.0 dB/cm, comparable to those of silicon strip waveguides. Our approach marks a departure from interference-based confinement as in photonic crystals or slot waveguides, which utilize nanoscale field enhancement. Its ability to suppress evanescent waves without substantially increasing the propagation loss shall pave the way for all-dielectric metamaterial-based dense integration.
Project description:Compared to artificially structured hyperbolic metamaterials, whose performance is limited by the finite size of the metallic components, the sparse number of naturally hyperbolic materials recently discovered are promising candidates for the next generation of hyperbolic materials. Using first-principles calculations, we extend the number of known naturally hyperbolic materials to the broad class of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The diverse electronic properties of the transition metal dichalcogenides result in a large variation of the hyperbolic frequency regimes ranging from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet. Combined with the emerging field of van der Waals heterostructuring, we demonstrate how the hyperbolic properties can be further controlled by stacking different two-dimensional crystals opening new perspectives for atomic-scale design of photonic metamaterials. As an application, we identify candidates for Purcell factor control of emission from diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers.Natural hyperbolic materials retain the peculiar optical properties of traditional metamaterials whilst not requiring artificial structuring. Here, the authors perform a theoretical screening of a large class of natural materials with hyperbolic dispersion among the family of layered transition metal dichalcogenides.
Project description:Photonic crystals (PCs) have emerged as one of the most widely used platforms for controlling light-matter interaction in solid-state systems. They rely on Bragg scattering from wavelength-sized periodic modulation in the dielectric environment for manipulating the electromagnetic field. A complementary approach to manipulate light-matter interaction is offered by artificial media known as metamaterials that rely on the average response of deep-subwavelength unit cells. Here we demonstrate a class of artificial photonic media termed "photonic hypercrystals" (PHCs) that combine the large broadband photonic density of states provided by hyperbolic metamaterials with the light-scattering efficiency of PCs. Enhanced radiative rate (20×) and light outcoupling (100×) from PHCs embedded with quantum dots is observed. Such designer photonic media with complete control over the optical properties provide a platform for broadband control of light-matter interaction.
Project description:Although all-dielectric metamaterials offer a low-loss alternative to current metal-based metamaterials to manipulate light at the nanoscale and may have important applications, very few have been reported to date owing to the current nanofabrication technologies. We develop a new "nano-solid-fluid assembly" method using 15-nm TiO2 nanoparticles as building blocks to fabricate the first three-dimensional (3D) all-dielectric metamaterial at visible frequencies. Because of its optical transparency, high refractive index, and deep-subwavelength structures, this 3D all-dielectric metamaterial-based solid immersion lens (mSIL) can produce a sharp image with a super-resolution of at least 45 nm under a white-light optical microscope, significantly exceeding the classical diffraction limit and previous near-field imaging techniques. Theoretical analysis reveals that electric field enhancement can be formed between contacting TiO2 nanoparticles, which causes effective confinement and propagation of visible light at the deep-subwavelength scale. This endows the mSIL with unusual abilities to illuminate object surfaces with large-area nanoscale near-field evanescent spots and to collect and convert the evanescent information into propagating waves. Our all-dielectric metamaterial design strategy demonstrates the potential to develop low-loss nanophotonic devices at visible frequencies.
Project description:Because of the strong inherent resonances, the giant optical activity obtained via chiral metamaterials generally suffers from high dispersion, which has been a big stumbling block to broadband applications. In this paper, we propose a type of planar chiral metamaterial consisting of interconnected metal helix slat structures with four-fold symmetry, which exhibits nonresonant Drude-like response and can therefore avoid the highly dispersive optical activity resulting from resonances. It shows that the well-designed chiral metamaterial can achieve nondispersive and pure optical activity with high transmittance in a broadband frequency range. And the optical activity of multi-layer chiral metamaterials is proportional to the layer numbers of single-layer chiral metamaterial. Most remarkably, the broadband behaviors of nondispersive optical activity and high transmission are insensitive to the incident angles of electromagnetic waves and permittivity of dielectric substrate, thereby enabling more flexibility in polarization manipulation.