Naltrexone Facilitates Learning and Delays Extinction by Increasing AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Membrane Insertion.
ABSTRACT: The opioid antagonists naloxone/naltrexone are involved in improving learning and memory, but their cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effect of naloxone/naltrexone on hippocampal ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, a molecular substrate of learning and memory, as a probable mechanism for the antagonists activity.To measure naloxone/naltrexone-regulated AMPAR trafficking, pHluorin-GluA1 imaging and biochemical analyses were performed on primary hippocampal neurons. To establish the in vivo role of GluA1-Serine 845 (S845) phosphorylation on the behavioral effect induced by inhibition of the endogenous ?-opioid receptor (MOR) by naltrexone, MOR knockout, and GluA1-S845A mutant (in which Ser(845) was mutated to Ala) mice were tested in a water maze after chronic naltrexone administration. Behavioral responses and GluA1 levels in the hippocampal postsynaptic density in wild-type and GluA1-S845A mutant mice were compared using western blot analysis.In vitro prolonged naloxone/naltrexone exposure significantly increased synaptic and extrasynaptic GluA1 membrane expression as well as GluA1-S845 phosphorylation. In the MOR knockout and GluA1-S845A mutant mice, naltrexone did not improve learning, which suggests that naltrexone acts via inhibition of endogenous MOR action and alteration of GluA1 phosphorylation. Naltrexone-treated wild-type mice had significantly increased phosphorylated GluA1-S845 and GluA1 levels in their hippocampal postsynaptic density on the third day of acquisition, which is the time when naltrexone significantly improved learning.The beneficial effect of naltrexone on spatial learning and memory under normal conditions appears to be the result of increasing GluA1-S845 phosphorylation-dependent AMPAR trafficking. These results can be further explored in a mouse model of memory loss.
Project description:Cognitive performance in people varies according to time-of-day, with memory retrieval declining in the late afternoon-early evening. However, functional roles of local brain circadian clocks in memory performance remains unclear. Here, we show that hippocampal clock controlled by the circadian-dependent transcription factor BMAL1 regulates time-of-day retrieval profile. Inducible transgenic dominant negative BMAL1 (dnBMAL1) expression in mouse forebrain or hippocampus disrupted retrieval of hippocampal memories at Zeitgeber Time 8-12, independently of retention delay, encoding time and Zeitgeber entrainment cue. This altered retrieval profile was associated with downregulation of hippocampal Dopamine-cAMP signaling in dnBMAL1 mice. These changes included decreases in Dopamine Receptors (D1-R and D5-R) and GluA1-S845 phosphorylation by PKA. Consistently, pharmacological activation of cAMP-signals or D1/5Rs rescued impaired retrieval in dnBMAL1 mice. Importantly, GluA1 S845A knock-in mice showed similar retrieval deficits with dnBMAL1 mice. Our findings suggest mechanisms underlying regulation of retrieval by hippocampal clock through D1/5R-cAMP-PKA-mediated GluA1 phosphorylation.
Project description:It has been proposed that the AMPAR phosphorylation regulates trafficking and channel activity, thereby playing an important role in synaptic plasticity. However, the actual stoichiometry of phosphorylation, information critical to understand the role of phosphorylation, is not known because of the lack of appropriate techniques for measurement. Here, using Phos-tag SDS-PAGE, we estimated the proportion of phosphorylated AMPAR subunit GluA1. The level of phosphorylated GluA1 at S831 and S845, two major sites implicated in AMPAR regulation, is almost negligible. Less than 1% of GluA1 is phosphorylated at S831 and less than 0.1% at S845. Considering the number of AMPAR at each synapse, the majority of synapses do not contain any phosphorylated AMPAR. Also, we did not see evidence of GluA1 dually phosphorylated at S831 and S845. Neuronal stimulation and learning increased phosphorylation, but the proportion was still low. Our results impel us to reconsider the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Activity-dependent changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS have been shown to depend on the regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs). In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that reversible phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1, also referred to as GluA1 or GluR-A) plays a role in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We previously reported that regulation of serines (S) 831 and 845 on the GluR1 subunit may play a critical role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1. Specifically, gene knockin mice lacking both S831 and S845 phosphorylation sites ("double phosphomutants"), where both serine residues were replaced by alanines (A), showed a faster decaying LTP and a deficit in LTD. To determine which of the two phosphorylation sites was responsible for the phenotype, we have now generated two lines of gene knockin mice: one that specifically lacks S831 (S831A mutants) and another that lacks only S845 (S845A mutants). We found that S831A mutants display normal LTP and LTD, whereas S845A mutants show a specific deficit in LTD. Taken together with our previous results from the "double phosphomutants," our data suggest that either S831 or S845 alone may support LTP, whereas the S845 site is critical for LTD expression.
Project description:Sensory experience, and the lack thereof, can alter the function of excitatory synapses in the primary sensory cortices. Recent evidence suggests that changes in sensory experience can regulate the synaptic level of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a process have not been determined. We found that binocular visual deprivation, which is a well-established in vivo model to produce multiplicative synaptic scaling in visual cortex of juvenile rodents, is accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPAR GluR1 (or GluA1) subunit at the serine 845 (S845) site and the appearance of CP-AMPARs at synapses. To address the role of GluR1-S845 in visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity, we used mice lacking key phosphorylation sites on the GluR1 subunit. We found that mice specifically lacking the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), which is a substrate of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), show abnormal basal excitatory synaptic transmission and lack visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We also found evidence that increasing GluR1-S845 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to produce normal multiplicative synaptic scaling. Our study provides concrete evidence that a GluR1 dependent mechanism, especially S845 phosphorylation, is a necessary pre-requisite step for in vivo homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
Project description:AMPA receptor (AMPAR) channel properties and function are regulated by its subunit composition and phosphorylation. Certain types of neural activity can recruit Ca(2+)-permeable (CP) AMPARs, such as GluR1 homomers, to synapses likely via lateral diffusion from extrasynaptic sites. Here we show that GluR1-S845 phosphorylation can alter the subunit composition of perisynaptic AMPARs by providing stability to GluR1 homomers. Using mice specifically lacking phosphorylation of the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), we demonstrate that this site is necessary for maintaining CP-AMPARs. Specifically, in the GluR1-S845A mutants, CP-AMPARs were absent from perisynaptic locations mainly due to lysosomal degradation. This regulation was mimicked by acute desphosphorylation of the GluR1-S845 site in wild-type mice by NMDA application. Furthermore, long-term depression (LTD) was associated with a reduction in perisynaptic CP-AMPAR levels. Our findings suggest that GluR1-S845 is necessary for maintaining CP-AMPARs on the surface, especially at perisynaptic sites, and suggest that the regulation of these receptors is involved in synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Human mutations of the Na<sup>+</sup>-activated K<sup>+</sup> channel Slack (KCNT1) are associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Accordingly, Slack knockout mice (Slack<sup>-/-</sup>) exhibit cognitive flexibility deficits in distinct behavioral tasks. So far, however, the underlying causes as well as the role of Slack in hippocampus-dependent memory functions remain enigmatic. We now report that infant (P6-P14) Slack<sup>-/-</sup> lack both hippocampal LTD and LTP, likely due to impaired NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling. Postsynaptic GluN2B levels are reduced in infant Slack<sup>-/-</sup>, evidenced by lower amplitudes of NMDAR-meditated excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Low GluN2B affected NMDAR-mediated Ca<sup>2+</sup>-influx, rendering cultured hippocampal Slack<sup>-/-</sup>neurons highly insensitive to the GluN2B-specific inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA1 at S845, which is involved in AMPAR endocytosis during homeostatic and neuromodulator-regulated plasticity, is reduced after chemical LTD (cLTD) in infant Slack<sup>-/-</sup>. We additionally detect a lack of mGluR-induced LTD in infant Slack<sup>-/-</sup>, possibly caused by upregulation of the recycling endosome-associated small GTPase Rab4 which might accelerate AMPAR recycling from early endosomes. Interestingly, LTP and mGluR LTD, but not LTD and S845 dephosphorylation after cLTD are restored in adult Slack<sup>-/-</sup>. This together with normalized expression levels of GluN2B and Rab4 hints to developmental "restoration" of LTP expression despite Slack ablation, whereas in infant and adult brain, NMDAR-dependent LTD induction depends on this channel. Based on the present findings, NMDAR and vesicular transport might represent novel targets for the therapy of intellectual disability associated with Slack mutations. Consequently, careful modulation of hippocampal Slack activity should also improve learning abilities.
Project description:Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency that results from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or the initiation of mechanisms that lead to abnormally prolonged seizures. Although the failure of inhibitory mechanisms during SE is well understood, the seizure-initiating mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested whether hippocampal ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated transmission was enhanced during SE and assessed the underlying molecular mechanism. In animals in self-sustaining limbic SE the amplitudes of the miniature, spontaneous, and AMPA-evoked excitatory currents recorded from the CA1 pyramidal neurons were larger than those recorded in the controls. The evoked EPSCs rectified inwardly. In these animals, the surface expression of GluA1 subunit-containing AMPARs was increased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. The phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit on S831 and S845 residues was reduced in animals in SE. In contrast, the GluA1 subunit surface expression and AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission of dentate granule cells (DGCs) was not altered. Treating animals in SE with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 or with diazaepam blocked the increased surface expression of the GluA1 subunits. NMDAR blockade also prevented the dephosphorylation of the S845 residue but not that of S831. Targeting NMDARs and AMPARs may provide novel strategies to treat benzodiazepine-refractory SE.
Project description:High-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic diseases cause detrimental effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory through molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HFD increases palmitic acid deposition in the hippocampus and induces hippocampal insulin resistance leading to FoxO3a-mediated overexpression of the palmitoyltransferase zDHHC3. The excess of palmitic acid along with higher zDHHC3 levels causes hyper-palmitoylation of AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluA1, hindering its activity-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, AMPAR current amplitudes and, more importantly, their potentiation underlying synaptic plasticity were inhibited, as well as hippocampal-dependent memory. Hippocampus-specific silencing of Zdhhc3 and, interestingly enough, intranasal injection of the palmitoyltransferase inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate, counteract GluA1 hyper-palmitoylation and restore synaptic plasticity and memory in HFD mice. Our data reveal a key role of FoxO3a/Zdhhc3/GluA1 axis in the HFD-dependent impairment of cognitive function and identify a novel mechanism underlying the cross talk between metabolic and cognitive disorders.
Project description:The role of CaMKII in learning-induced activation and trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is well established. However, the link between the phosphorylation state of CaMKII and the agonist-triggered proteasomal degradation of AMPARs during memory consolidation remains unknown. Here we describe a novel CaMKII-dependent mechanism by which a learning-induced increase in AMPAR levels is stabilized for consolidation of associative long-term memory. Six hours after classical conditioning the levels of both autophosphorylated pT305-CaMKII and GluA1 type AMPAR subunits are significantly elevated in the ganglia containing the learning circuits of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. CaMKIINtide treatment significantly reduces the learning-induced elevation of both pT305-CaMKII and GluA1 levels and impairs associative long-term memory. Inhibition of proteasomal activity offsets the deleterious effects of CaMKIINtide on both GluA1 levels and long-term memory. These findings suggest that increased levels of pT305-CaMKII play a role in AMPAR-dependent memory consolidation by reducing proteasomal degradation of GluA1 receptor subunits.
Project description:Bidirectional synaptic plasticity occurs locally at individual synapses during long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), or globally during homeostatic scaling. LTP, LTD, and homeostatic scaling alter synaptic strength through changes in postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), suggesting the existence of overlapping molecular mechanisms. Phosphorylation controls AMPAR trafficking during LTP/LTD. We addressed the role of AMPAR phosphorylation during homeostatic scaling. We observed bidirectional changes of the levels of phosphorylated GluA1 S845 during scaling, resulting from a loss of protein kinase A (PKA) from synapses during scaling down and enhanced activity of PKA in synapses during scaling up. Increased phosphorylation of S845 drove scaling up, while a knockin mutation of S845, or knockdown of the scaffold AKAP5, blocked scaling up. Finally, we show that AMPARs scale differentially based on their phosphorylation status at S845. These results show that rearrangement in PKA signaling controls AMPAR phosphorylation and surface targeting during homeostatic plasticity.