Inflammation in joint injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a variable feature of osteoarthritis (OA), associated with joint symptoms and progression of disease. Signs of inflammation can be observed in joint fluids and tissues from patients with joint injuries at risk for development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Furthermore, inflammatory mechanisms are hypothesized to contribute to the risk of OA development and progression after injury. Animal models of PTOA have been instrumental in understanding factors and mechanisms involved in chronic progressive cartilage degradation observed after a predisposing injury. Specific aspects of inflammation observed in humans, including cytokine and chemokine production, synovial reaction, cellular infiltration and inflammatory pathway activation, are also observed in models of PTOA. Many of these models are now being utilized to understand the impact of post-injury inflammatory response on PTOA development and progression, including risk of progressive cartilage degeneration and development of chronic symptoms post-injury. As evidenced from these models, a vigorous inflammatory response occurs very early after joint injury but is then sustained at a lower level at the later phases. This early inflammatory response contributes to the development of PTOA features including cartilage erosion and is potentially modifiable, but specific mediators may also play a role in tissue repair. Although the optimal approach and timing of anti-inflammatory interventions after joint injury are yet to be determined, this body of work should provide hope for the future of disease modification tin PTOA.
Project description:Primary osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with aging, while post-traumatic OA (PTOA) is associated with mechanical injury and inflammation. It is not clear whether the two types of osteoarthritis share common mechanisms. We found that miR-146a, a microRNA-associated with inflammation, is activated by cyclic load in the physiological range but suppressed by mechanical overload in human articular chondrocytes. Furthermore, miR-146a expression is decreased in the OA lesions of human articular cartilage. To understand the role of miR-146a in osteoarthritis, we systemically characterized mice in which miR-146a is either deficient in whole body or overexpressed in chondrogenic cells specifically. miR-146a-deficient mice develop early onset of OA characterized by cartilage degeneration, synovitis, and osteophytes. Conversely, miR-146a chondrogenic overexpressing mice are resistant to aging-associated OA. Loss of miR-146a exacerbates articular cartilage degeneration during PTOA, while chondrogenic overexpression of miR-146a inhibits PTOA. Thus, miR-146a inhibits both OA and PTOA in mice, suggesting a common protective mechanism initiated by miR-146a. miR-146a suppresses IL-1? of catabolic factors, and we provide evidence that miR-146a directly inhibits Notch1 expression. Therefore, such inhibition of Notch1 may explain suppression of inflammatory mediators by miR-146a. Chondrogenic overexpression of miR-146a or intra-articular administration of a Notch1 inhibitor alleviates IL-1?-induced catabolism and rescues joint degeneration in miR-146a-deficient mice, suggesting that miR-146a is sufficient to protect OA pathogenesis by inhibiting Notch signaling in the joint. Thus, miR-146a may be used to counter both aging-associated OA and mechanical injury-/inflammation-induced PTOA.
Project description:Aging and injury are two major risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Yet, very little is known about how aging and injury interact and contribute to OA pathogenesis. In the present study, we examined age- and injury-related molecular changes in mouse knee joints that could contribute to OA. Using RNA-seq, first we profiled the knee joint transcriptome of 10-week-old, 62-week-old, and 95-week-old mice and found that the expression of several inflammatory-response related genes increased as a result of aging, whereas the expression of several genes involved in cartilage metabolism decreased with age. To determine how aging impacts post-traumatic arthritis (PTOA) development, the right knee joints of 10-week-old and 62-week-old mice were injured using a non-invasive tibial compression injury model and injury-induced structural and molecular changes were assessed. At six-week post-injury, 62-week-old mice displayed significantly more cartilage degeneration and osteophyte formation compared with young mice. Although both age groups elicited similar transcriptional responses to injury, 62-week-old mice had higher activation of inflammatory cytokines than 10-week-old mice, whereas cartilage/bone metabolism genes had higher expression in 10-week-old mice, suggesting that the differential expression of these genes might contribute to the differences in PTOA severity observed between these age groups.
Project description:Non-resolved persistent macrophage-mediated synovial inflammation is considered as one of the main drivers of both the establishment and progression of obesity-associated osteoarthritis (OA). Herein, we used clodronate-loaded liposomes (CL) to locally deplete macrophages in the synovial joints to examine the role of macrophages in the progression of obesity-induced OA. Furthermore, resolvin D1 (RvD1), a unique family of pro-resolving lipid mediator derived from the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, have shown marked potency in changing the pro-inflammatory behaviour of the macrophages. We sought to determine whether RvD1 administration ameliorates obesity-induced OA by resolving macrophage-mediated synovitis. Therapeutic properties of RvD1 and macrophage depletion (CL) were tested for its ability to slow post-traumatic OA (PTOA) in obese mice models. PTOA was induced in C57Bl/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) by surgically destabilising the meniscus. Firstly, CL treatment showed beneficial effects in reducing synovitis and cartilage destruction in obese mice with PTOA. In vitro treatment with RvD1 decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory markers in CD14+ human macrophages. Furthermore, intra-articular treatment with RvD1 diminishes the progression of OA in the knee joint from mice as follows: (a) decreases macrophages infiltration in synovium, (b) reduces the number of pro-inflammatory macrophages in synovium and (c) improves the severity of synovitis and cartilage degradation. Thus, our results provide new evidence for the potential targeting of macrophages in the treatment of obesity-induced OA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dietary fatty acid (FA) content has been shown to influence the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in obesity. We used the fat-1 transgenic mouse to examine the hypothesis that endogenous reduction of ?-6 to ?-3 FA ratio, under the same dietary conditions, would mitigate metabolic inflammation and the pathogenesis of PTOA in obese male and female mice. METHODS:Male and female fat-1 and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet or an ?-6 FA-rich high-fat diet and underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to induce PTOA. OA severity, synovitis, and osteophyte formation were determined histologically, while biomarker and lipidomic analyses were performed to evaluate levels of adipokines, insulin, pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, and FAs in serum and joint synovial fluid. Multivariable models were performed to elucidate the associations of dietary, metabolic, and mechanical factors with PTOA. RESULTS:We found that elevated serum levels of ?-3 FAs in fat-1 mice as compared to wild-type controls fed the same diet resulted in reduced OA and synovitis in a sex- and diet-dependent manner, despite comparable body weights. The fat-1 mice showed trends toward decreased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines. Multivariable analysis for variables predicting OA severity in mice resulted in correlations with serum FA levels, but not with body weight. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides further evidence that circulating FA composition and systemic metabolic inflammation, rather than body weight, may be the major risk factor for obesity-associated OA. We also demonstrate the potential genetic use of ?-3 FA desaturase in mitigating PTOA in obese patients following injury.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind PTOA development following ACL injury, we profiled ACL injury-induced transcriptional changes in knee joints of three mouse strains with varying susceptibility to OA: STR/ort (highly susceptible), C57BL/6J (moderately susceptible) and super-healer MRL/MpJ (not susceptible). Right knee joints of the mice were injured using a non-invasive tibial compression injury model and global gene expression was quantified before and at 1-day, 1-week, and 2-weeks post-injury using RNA-seq. Following injury, injured and uninjured joints of STR/ort and injured C57BL/6J joints displayed significant cartilage degeneration while MRL/MpJ had little cartilage damage. Gene expression analysis suggested that prolonged inflammation and elevated catabolic activity in STR/ort injured joints, compared to the other two strains may be responsible for the severe PTOA phenotype observed in this strain. MRL/MpJ had the lowest expression values for several inflammatory cytokines and catabolic enzymes activated in response to ACL injury. Furthermore, we identified several genes highly expressed in MRL/MpJ compared to the other two strains including B4galnt2 and Tpsab1 which may contribute to enhanced healing in the MRL/MpJ. Overall, this study has increased our knowledge of early molecular changes associated with PTOA development.
Project description:Joint injuries are highly associated with cell death and development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). The present study focused on necroptosis as a possible modality of chondrocyte death after cartilage trauma and its relevance in OA disease in general. For this purpose, apoptosis- and necroptosis-associated markers were determined in highly degenerated (ICRS ≥ 3) as well as macroscopically intact cartilage tissue (ICRS ≤ 1) by means of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Moreover, influence of blunt trauma and/or stimulation with cycloheximide (CHX), TNF-a, and caspase-inhibitor zVAD were investigated in cartilage explants (ICRS ≤ 1). Further characterization of necroptosis was performed in isolated chondrocytes. We found that gene expression levels of RIPK3 (4.2-fold, P < 0.0001) and MLKL (2.7-fold, P < 0.0001) were elevated in highly degenerated cartilage tissue, which was confirmed by IHC staining. After ex vivo trauma and/or CHX/TNF stimulation, addition of zVAD further enhanced expression of necroptosis-related markers as well as release of PGE2 and nitric oxide, which was in line with increased cell death and subsequent release of intracellular HMGB1 and dsDNA in CHX/TNF stimulated chondrocytes. However, trauma and/or chemically induced cell death and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators could be largely attenuated by RIPK1-inhibitor necrostatin 1 or antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Overall, the study provided clear evidence of necroptotic cell death in OA disease. Moreover, a possible link between cartilage injury and necroptotic processes was found, depending on oxidative stress and cytokine release. These results contribute to further understanding of cell death in PTOA and development of novel therapeutic approaches.