Molecular characterization of IgA- and/or IgG-switched chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.
ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region (V) genes expressed by IgM chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells display little or no somatic mutations. However, preliminary findings have shown that Ig V genes of IgA and IgG CLLs may be somatically mutated, suggesting that isotype-switched CLLs may represent a "subtype" of the disease. To investigate the degree and nature of somatic mutations and the role of antigen (Ag) in the clonal selection and expansion of isotype-switched CLLs, and to determine whether specific oncogene or tumor suppressor gene mutations are associated with isotype-switched CLLs, we analyzed the expressed Ig VH gene, bcl-1 and bcl-2 proto-oncogene, and p53 tumor suppressor gene configurations of 3 IgA-, 1 IgG-, and 1 IgA/ IgG-expressing CLLs. These isotype-switched CLL B cells expressed surface HLA-DR, CD19, CD23, and CD5, and displayed no alterations of the bcl-1 and bcl-2 oncogenes and the p53 tumor-suppressor gene. The cDNA VH-D-JH gene sequence was joined with that of the C alpha gene in the B cells of the three IgA CLLs, and with that of the C gamma gene in the IgG CLL B cells. In the IgA/IgG-coexpressing CLL B cells, identical VH-D-JH cDNA sequences were spliced to either C alpha or C gamma genes. In all five CLLs, the pattern of C mu DNA probe hybridization to the digested genomic DNAs was consistent with deletion of the C mu exon from the rearranged Ig gene locus, suggesting that these CLL B cells had undergone DNA switch recombination. In one IgA CLL, the expressed VH gene was unmutated. In all other class-switched CLLs, the Ig VH segment gene was mutated, but the point mutations were not associated with intraclonal diversification. In one IgA and in the IgA/IgG-coexpressing CLL, the nature and distribution of the mutations were consistent with Ag selection. These findings suggest that IgA- and/or IgG-expressing CLLs represent, in their VH gene structure, transformants of B cells at different stages of ontogeny. They also suggest that Ag may play a role in the clonal selection of some of these isotype-switched leukemic cells, but bcl-1 and bcl-2 oncogene rearrangements and p53 tumor suppressor gene mutation are not associated with the pathogenesis of isotype-switched CLLs.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) usually involves the expansion of a clone of CD5+ B cells synthesizing IgM antibodies. These B cells appear to be blocked at the antigen receptor-expressing stage of B cell differentiation and are thought not to undergo an isotype class switch to IgG or IgA production. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest, however, that in some instances terminal differentiation and isotype switching can occur. To test the hypothesis that in vivo isotype class switching occurs in IgM+ B-type CLL cells, we analyzed the PBMC of 19 CLL patients for the presence of transcripts encoding the rearranged CLL V(H)DJ(H) associated with either gamma or alpha H chains. The molecular data indicate that approximately 50% of B-CLL patients have amplifications of IgM+ B cells that undergo an isotype class switch. Switching to IgA appears to occur more often than to IgG; also, switching can involve different IgG subclasses in individual patients. In many instances, these CLL-related gamma and alpha transcripts are much more plentiful than those of normal B cells that produce the same isotype. These switched transcripts do not reveal evidence for the accumulation of significant numbers of new V(H) gene mutations. The cellular data indicate that B cells with lesser amounts of surface membrane IgD and higher IgM/IgD ratios are more likely to undergo this switching process. Furthermore, B cells expressing IgG and IgA of the same idiotype or V(H) family and the same CDR3 length as those of the CLL IgM+ clone can be identified in the blood of patients studied using multiparameter immunofluorescence analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that not all members of a B-CLL clone are frozen at the surface membrane Ig-expressing stage of B cell maturation, and that some members can switch to the production of non-IgM isotypes. The occurrence of switching without the accumulation of V gene mutations indicates that the processes of differentiation and diversification are not linked.
Project description:To analyze the modalities of clonal expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, we sequenced at multiple time points the V(D)J genes expressed by CD5+IgM+CLL B cells in three patients. All three V(D)J gene sequences were found to be point mutated. The mutation frequency in the Ig VH (3.96 x 10(-2) and 2.41 x 10(-2) change/bp) and Vkappa and Vlambda (6.67 x 10(-2) and 1.74 x 10(-2) change/bp) genes of two CLLs (1.19 and 1.32, respectively) was similar, and higher than that in the corresponding gene segments of the third CLL (1.69; 3.4 x 10(-3) and 6.67 x 10(-3) change/bp). In all three CLLs, there was no preferential representation of nucleotide changes yielding amino acid replacement (R mutations), nor was there any preferential segregation of R mutations within the Ig V gene complementarity-determining regions. In all three CLLs, the somatic mutations were all identical in multiple Ig VHDJH transcripts at any given time point, and were all conserved at multiple time points throughout a 2-yr period. The lack of concentration of R mutations in the complementarity-determining regions and the lack of intraclonal heterogeneity suggest that Ag may no longer be able to play a significant role in the clonal expansion of these cells. This conclusion would be strengthened further by the germline configuration of the bcl-1 and bcl-2 proto-oncogenes that are translocated in neoplastic B cells that display significant traces of intraclonal diversification and Ag-dependent selection, such as B-prolymphocytic leukemia and low grade follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of CD5-expressing B lymphocytes. Most studies have found that these leukemic CD5+ B cells, like their normal counterparts, use immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region genes that exhibit minimal, if any, somatic diversity. These and other observations have suggested that CD5+ B cells may be incapable of generating Ig V gene diversity, and therefore may not be able to develop higher affinity binding sites that could be selected by antigen. However, most of the studies of CLL and normal CD5+ B cells have focused on IgM-producing cells. Since somatic mutations are most often seen in B cells that have undergone an isotype class switch, we analyzed the Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable region genes of seven IgG+CD5+ CLL B cells to determine if somatic diversification and antigen selection had occurred. The data derived provide evidence for skewed use, somatic diversification, and antigenic selection of the Ig V region genes. Nonrandom use of both H and L chain V region genes was manifested by an overrepresentation of VH4 and VKI family genes and the underrepresentation of the JH4 gene segment. Furthermore, VH4 gene use was restricted to only two family members (4.21 and 4.18). In four of the seven cases, the VH and VL genes displayed > or = 5% difference from the most homologous known germline counterparts. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses performed in two of these patients demonstrated that their unique VH CDR2 and adjacent sequences were not present in their germline DNA. In addition, a significant level of diversity was seen in the rearranged DJH segments and at the VL-JL junctions of every patient that occurred both at the time of recombination and subsequently. The localization of replacement changes to complementarity determining regions of some patients suggested that antigen selection had occurred. Furthermore, the mutations identified in the VH and VL genes of each individual patient were strikingly similar, both in number and location. Collectively, the data indicate that a subset of CD5+ CLL B cells can display Ig V region gene mutations. In addition, they are consistent with the notions that in some cases antigen selection of these mutations may have occurred, and that antigen stimulation may be a promoting factor in the evolution of certain CLL clones.
Project description:Single cell sequencing for analysis gene of gene transcription and Ig repertoires of isotype-switched IgG-expressing memory B cells for paired analysis with Ig repertoires in the same cells. Aim of the study was to explore heterogeneity of isotype-switched memory B cells within and between spleen and bone marrow compartments.
Project description:Hypogammaglobulinemia is the most frequently observed immune defect in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although CLL patients usually have low serum levels of all isotypes (IgG, IgM and IgA), standard immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations for replacement therapy administrated to these patients contain more than 95% of IgG. Pentaglobin is an Ig preparation of intravenous application (IVIg) enriched with IgM and IgA (IVIgGMA), with the potential benefit to restore the Ig levels of all isotypes. Because IVIg preparations at high doses have well-documented anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, we aimed to evaluate the capacity of Pentaglobin and a standard IVIg preparation to affect leukemic and T cells from CLL patients. In contrast to standard IVIg, we found that IVIgGMA did not modify T cell activation and had a lower inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation. Regarding the activation of leukemic B cells through BCR, it was similarly reduced by both IVIgGMA and IVIgG. None of these IVIg preparations modified spontaneous apoptosis of T or leukemic B cells. However, the addition of IVIgGMA on in vitro cultures decreased the apoptosis of T cells induced by the BCL-2 inhibitor, venetoclax. Importantly, IVIgGMA did not impair venetoclax-induced apoptosis of leukemic B cells. Overall, our results add new data on the effects of different preparations of IVIg in CLL, and show that the IgM/IgA enriched preparation not only affects relevant mechanisms involved in CLL pathogenesis but also has a particular profile of immunomodulatory effects on T cells that deserves further investigation.
Project description:Although the changes that occur in Ig V region genes during a B lymphocyte's response to antigen usually result from point mutations, nucleotide insertion and deletion also alter gene sequence. We identified nucleotide insertions and deletions (3 to 12 bp) at a frequency of 1.34%, in Ig V gene cDNA from B lymphocytes residing in the synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Because the added or lost nucleotides occurred in multiples of 3, they maintained the original reading frame and coded a potentially intact receptor. These V gene modifications were generated somatically, because they were identified in the original cDNA by HCDR3-specific polymerase chain reaction and were not found in other B cells using the same VH genes. Insertions and deletions were detected only in IgG+ and IgA+ transcripts, which exhibited 3 times more point mutations than IgM+ transcripts. In addition, they were usually found in the complementarity determining region, typical targets of somatic mutation. The occurrence of insertion/ deletion in isotype-switched cDNA with higher numbers of V gene mutations that localized to hot spots for V gene mutation suggests that these diversification events were related to the somatic hypermutation process. In support of this, an AGY hot spot motif and a short stretch of DNA similar in sequence to the inserted or deleted segments could be found next to the insertions/deletions, suggesting that these modifications arose from DNA duplication following DNA stand breaks. Thus, nucleotide insertion/deletion can lead to B-cell receptor diversification in B lymphocytes that clonally expand in synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Project description:From paired blood and spleen samples from three adult donors, we performed high-throughput VH sequencing of human B cell subsets defined by IgD and CD27 expression: IgD(+)CD27(+) ("marginal zone [MZ]"), IgD(-)CD27(+) ("memory," including IgM ["IgM-only"], IgG and IgA) and IgD(-)CD27(-) cells ("double-negative," including IgM, IgG, and IgA). A total of 91,294 unique sequences clustered in 42,670 clones, revealing major clonal expansions in each of these subsets. Among these clones, we further analyzed those shared sequences from different subsets or tissues for VH gene mutation, H-CDR3-length, and VH/JH usage, comparing these different characteristics with all sequences from their subset of origin for which these parameters constitute a distinct signature. The IgM-only repertoire profile differed notably from that of MZ B cells by a higher mutation frequency and lower VH4 and higher JH6 gene usage. Strikingly, IgM sequences from clones shared between the MZ and the memory IgG/IgA compartments showed a mutation and repertoire profile of IgM-only and not of MZ B cells. Similarly, all IgM clonal relationships (among MZ, IgM-only, and double-negative compartments) involved sequences with the characteristics of IgM-only B cells. Finally, clonal relationships between tissues suggested distinct recirculation characteristics between MZ and switched B cells. The "IgM-only" subset (including cells with its repertoire signature but higher IgD or lower CD27 expression levels) thus appear as the only subset showing precursor-product relationships with CD27(+) switched memory B cells, indicating that they represent germinal center-derived IgM memory B cells and that IgM memory and MZ B cells constitute two distinct entities.
Project description:Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies are rare primary immunodeficiencies, characterized by a lack of switched isotype (IgG, IgA, or IgE) production, variably associated with abnormal somatic hypermutation (SHM). Deficiencies in CD40 ligand, CD40, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and uracil-N-glycosylase may account for this syndrome. We previously described another Ig CSR deficiency condition, characterized by a defect in CSR downstream of the generation of double-stranded DNA breaks in switch (S) mu regions. Further analysis performed with the cells of five affected patients showed that the Ig CSR deficiency was associated with an abnormal formation of the S junctions characterized by microhomology and with increased cell radiosensitivity. In addition, SHM was skewed toward transitions at G/C residues. Overall, these findings suggest that a unique Ig CSR deficiency phenotype could be related to an as-yet-uncharacterized defect in a DNA repair pathway involved in both CSR and SHM events.
Project description:In breast cancer, humoral immune responses may contribute to clinical outcomes, especially in more immunogenic subtypes. Here, we investigated B lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulin expression, and clonal features in breast tumors, focusing on aggressive triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). In samples from patients with TNBC and healthy volunteers, circulating and tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes (TIL-B) were evaluated. CD20<sup>+</sup>CD27<sup>+</sup>IgD<sup>-</sup> isotype-switched B lymphocytes were increased in tumors, compared with matched blood. TIL-B frequently formed stromal clusters with T lymphocytes and engaged in bidirectional functional cross-talk, consistent with gene signatures associated with lymphoid assembly, costimulation, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, cytotoxic T-cell activation, and T-cell-dependent B-cell activation. TIL-B-upregulated B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway molecules FOS and JUN, germinal center chemokine regulator RGS1, activation marker CD69, and TNFα signal transduction via NFκB, suggesting BCR-immune complex formation. Expression of genes associated with B lymphocyte recruitment and lymphoid assembly, including CXCL13, CXCR4, and DC-LAMP, was elevated in TNBC compared with other subtypes and normal breast. TIL-B-rich tumors showed expansion of IgG but not IgA isotypes, and IgG isotype switching positively associated with survival outcomes in TNBC. Clonal expansion was biased toward IgG, showing expansive clonal families with specific variable region gene combinations and narrow repertoires. Stronger positive selection pressure was present in the complementarity determining regions of IgG compared with their clonally related IgA in tumor samples. Overall, class-switched B lymphocyte lineage traits were conspicuous in TNBC, associated with improved clinical outcomes, and conferred IgG-biased, clonally expanded, and likely antigen-driven humoral responses. SIGNIFICANCE: Tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes assemble in clusters, undergoing B-cell receptor-driven activation, proliferation, and isotype switching. Clonally expanded, IgG isotype-biased humoral immunity associates with favorable prognosis primarily in triple-negative breast cancers.