Differential effects of octanoate and heptanoate on myocardial metabolism during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an infant swine model.
ABSTRACT: Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Odd-numbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant ?-oxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-h ECMO received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA), or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 ?mol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1) as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5/group). The 13-carbon ((13)C)-labeled substrates ([2-(13)C]lactate, [5,6,7-(13)C3]heptanoate, and [U-(13)C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 min before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the (13)C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio compared with other groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate and heptanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC compared with control. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in protein synthesis rate. In conclusion, octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate.
Project description:To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.
Project description:FadD catalyses the first step in E. coli beta-oxidation, the activation of free fatty acids into acyl-CoA thioesters. This activation makes fatty acids competent for catabolism and reduction into derivatives like alcohols and alkanes. Alcohols and alkanes derived from medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6-12 carbons) are potential biofuels; however, FadD has low activity on MCFAs. Herein, we generate mutations in fadD that enhance its acyl-CoA synthetase activity on MCFAs. Homology modeling reveals that these mutations cluster on a face of FadD from which the co-product, AMP, is expected to exit. Using FadD homology models, we design additional FadD mutations that enhance E. coli growth rate on octanoate and provide evidence for a model wherein FadD activity on octanoate can be enhanced by aiding product exit. These studies provide FadD mutants useful for producing MCFA derivatives and a rationale to alter the substrate specificity of adenylating enzymes.
Project description:Metabolic engineering of microalgae to accumulate high levels of medium chain length fatty acids (MCFAs) has met with limited success. Traditional approaches employ single introduction of MCFA specific acyl-ACP thioesterases (TEs), but our current research in transgenic Dunaliella tertiolecta line has highlighted that, there is no single rate-limiting approach that can effectively increase MCFA levels. Here, we explore the accumulation of MCFAs in D. tertiolecta after transgenic expression of myristic acid biased TE (C14TE). We observe that the MCFA levels were negatively correlated to the fatty acid (FA) synthesis genes, ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII), stearoyl-CoA-9-desaturase (?9D), and oleoyl-CoA-12-desaturase (?12D). To further examine the molecular mechanism of MCFA accumulation in microalgae, we investigate the transcriptomic dynamics of the MCFA producing strain of D. tertiolecta. At the transcript level, enhanced MCFA accumulation primarily involved up-regulation of photosynthetic genes and down-regulation of genes from central carbon metabolic processes, resulting in an overall decrease in carbon precursors for FA synthesis. We additionally observe that MCFA specific peroxisomal ?-oxidation gene (ACX3) was greatly enhanced to prevent excessive build-up of unusual MCFA levels. Besides, long chain acyl-CoA synthetase gene (LACS) was down-regulated, likely in attempt to control fatty acyl supply flux to FA synthesis cycle. This article provides a spatial regulation model of unusual FA accumulation in microalgae and a platform for additional metabolic engineering targeting pathways from FA synthesis, FA transport, and peroxisomal ?-oxidation to achieve microalgae oils with higher levels of MCFAs.
Project description:It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-(13)C(3)]heptanoate was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in (13)C, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice relative to normal mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and (13)C enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism.
Project description:Covalent post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins with acyl groups of various carbon chain-lengths regulates diverse biological processes ranging from chromatin dynamics to subcellular localization. While the YEATS domain has been found to be a prominent reader of acetylation and other short acyl modifications, whether additional acyl-lysine reader domains exist, particularly for longer carbon chains, is unclear. Here, we employed a quantitative proteomic approach using various modified peptide baits to identify reader proteins of various acyl modifications. We discovered that proteins harboring HEAT and ARM repeats bind to lysine myristoylated peptides. Recombinant HEAT and ARM repeats bind to myristoylated peptides independent of the peptide sequence or the position of the myristoyl group. Indeed, HEAT and ARM repeats bind directly to medium- and long-chain free fatty acids (MCFA and LCFA). Lipidomic experiments suggest that MCFAs and LCFAs interact with HEAT and ARM repeat proteins in mammalian cells. Finally, treatment of cells with exogenous MCFAs and inhibitors of MCFA-CoA synthases increase the transactivation activity of the ARM repeat protein ?-catenin. Taken together, our results suggest an unappreciated role for fatty acids in the regulation of proteins harboring HEAT or ARM repeats.
Project description:A substantial number of subjects with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) of long duration never develop albuminuria or renal function impairment, yet the underlying protective mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, our study included 308 Joslin Kidney Study subjects who had T1D of long duration (median: 24 years), maintained normal renal function and had either normoalbuminuria or a broad range of albuminuria within the 2 years preceding the metabolomic determinations. Serum samples were subjected to global metabolomic profiling. 352 metabolites were detected in at least 80% of the study population. In the logistic analyses adjusted for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected α = 0.000028), we identified 38 metabolites associated with persistent normoalbuminuria independently from clinical covariates. Protective metabolites were enriched in Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs) and in Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) and particularly involved odd-numbered and dicarboxylate Fatty Acids. One quartile change of nonanoate, the top protective MCFA, was associated with high odds of having persistent normoalbuminuria (OR (95% CI) 0.14 (0.09, 0.23); p < 10<sup>-12</sup>). Multivariable Random Forest analysis concordantly indicated to MCFAs as effective classifiers. Associations of the relevant Fatty Acids with albuminuria seemed to parallel associations with tubular biomarkers. Our findings suggest that MCFAs and SCFAs contribute to the metabolic processes underlying protection against albuminuria development in T1D that are independent from mechanisms associated with changes in renal function.
Project description:Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are key intermediates in the synthesis of medium-chain chemicals including ?-olefins and dicarboxylic acids. In bacteria, microbial production of MCFAs is limited by the activity and product profile of fatty acyl-ACP thioesterases. Here, we engineer a heterologous bacterial medium-chain fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase for improved MCFA production in Escherichia coli. Electrostatically matching the interface between the heterologous medium-chain Acinetobacter baylyi fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (AbTE) and the endogenous E. coli fatty acid ACP ( E. coli AcpP) by replacing small nonpolar amino acids on the AbTE surface for positively charged ones increased secreted MCFA titers more than 3-fold. Nuclear magnetic resonance titration of E. coli 15N-octanoyl-AcpP with a single AbTE point mutant and the best double mutant showed a progressive and significant increase in the number of interactions when compared to AbTE wildtype. The best AbTE mutant produced 131 mg/L of MCFAs, with MCFAs being 80% of all secreted fatty acid chain lengths after 72 h. To enable the future screening of larger numbers of AbTE variants to further improve MCFA titers, we show that a previously developed G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-based MCFA sensor differentially detects MCFAs secreted by E. coli expressing different AbTE variants. This work demonstrates that engineering the interface of heterologous enzymes to better couple with endogenous host proteins is a useful strategy to increase the titers of microbially produced chemicals. Further, this work shows that GPCR-based sensors are producer microbe agnostic and can detect chemicals directly in the producer microbe supernatant, setting the stage for the sensor-guided engineering of MCFA producing microbes.
Project description:Dietary intake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) plays a causative role in insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Whereas LCFAs promote lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, diets rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been associated with increased oxidative metabolism and reduced adiposity, with few deleterious effects on insulin action. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences between dietary fat subtypes are poorly understood. To investigate this further, we treated C2C12 myotubes with various LCFAs (16:0, 18:1n9, and 18:2n6) and MCFAs (10:0 and 12:0), as well as fed mice diets rich in LCFAs or MCFAs, and investigated fatty acid-induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress. MCFA-treated cells displayed less lipid accumulation, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and less oxidative stress than LCFA-treated cells. These changes were associated with improved insulin action in MCFA-treated myotubes. MCFA-fed mice exhibited increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and better glucose tolerance compared with LCFA-fed mice. Dietary MCFAs increased respiration in isolated mitochondria, with a simultaneous reduction in reactive oxygen species generation, and subsequently low oxidative damage. Collectively our findings indicate that in contrast to LCFAs, MCFAs increase the intrinsic respiratory capacity of mitochondria without increasing oxidative stress. These effects potentially contribute to the beneficial metabolic actions of dietary MCFAs.
Project description:Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are digestion products of lipid-rich food and lipid-based formulations, and they are used as transient permeability enhancers in formulation of poorly permeable compounds. These molecules may promote drug absorption by several different processes, including solubilization, increased membrane fluidity, and increased paracellular transport through opening of the tight junctions. Therefore, understanding the aggregation behavior of MCFAs is important. A number of studies have measured the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of MCFAs experimentally. However, CMC is highly dependent on system conditions like pH, temperature, and the ionic strength of the buffer used in different experimental techniques. In this study, we investigated the aggregation behavior of four different MCFAs using the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations with the purpose to explore if CG-MD can be used to study MCFA interactions occurring in water. The ratio of deprotonated and non-charged MCFA molecules were manipulated to assess aggregation behavior under different pH conditions and within the box sizes of 22?×?22?×?44 nm<sup>3</sup> and 44 nm<sup>3</sup> for 1 ?s. CMCs were calculated by performing CG-MD simulations with an increasing number of MCFAs. The resulting aggregate size distribution and number of free MCFA molecules were used to determine the CMC. The CMCs from simulations for C<sub>8</sub>, C<sub>10</sub>, and C<sub>12</sub> were 1.8-3.5-fold lower than the respective CMCs determined experimentally by the Wilhelmy method. However, the variation of MCFA aggregate sizes and morphologies at different pH conditions is consistent with previous experimental observation. Overall, this study suggests that CG-MD is suitable for studying colloidal systems including various MCFAs.
Project description:Medium-chain fatty acids (mc-FAs) are currently applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (lc-FAOD) characterized by impaired β-oxidation. Here, we performed lipidomic and proteomic analysis in fibroblasts from patients with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCADD) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHADD) deficiencies after incubation with heptanoate (C7) and octanoate (C8). Defects of β-oxidation induced striking proteomic alterations, whereas the effect of treatment with mc-FAs was minor. However, mc-FAs induced a remodeling of complex lipids. Especially C7 appeared to act protectively by restoring sphingolipid biosynthesis flux and improving the observed dysregulation of protein homeostasis in LCHADD under control conditions.