MicroRNA-214 and MicroRNA-126 Are Potential Biomarkers for Malignant Endothelial Proliferative Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Malignant endothelial proliferative diseases including human angiosarcoma (AS) and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) are serious diseases with a grave prognosis. Establishing liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for screening has definite clinical utility; however, plasma miRNAs up- or down-regulated in these sarcomas have been unclear. For identifying possible diagnostic plasma miRNAs for these sarcomas, we investigated whether plasma miR-214 and miR-126, which miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, were elevated in malignant endothelial proliferative diseases. For this investigation, human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and clinical plasma samples of canine hemangiosarcoma were examined by performing miRNA qRT-PCR. We report here that human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126 via microvesicles; in addition, their levels in the plasma samples from canines with hemangiosarcoma were increased. Moreover, the surgical resection of primary tumors decreased the levels of plasma miR-214 and miR-126. Our findings suggest that these malignant endothelial proliferative diseases over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126, thus suggesting that these miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for malignant endothelial proliferative diseases in canine and possible in human angiosarcoma.
Project description:MicroRNA-214 regulates both angiogenic function in endothelial cells and apoptosis in various cancers. However, the regulation and function of miR-214 is unclear in canine hemangiosarcoma, which is a spontaneous model of human angiosarcoma. The expression and functional roles of miR-214 in canine hemangiosarcoma were presently explored by performing miRNA TaqMan qRT-PCR and transfecting cells with synthetic microRNA. Here, we report that miR-214 was significantly down-regulated in the cell lines used and in clinical samples of canine hemangiosarcoma. Restoration of miR-214 expression reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines through transcriptional activation of p53-regulated genes although miR-214 had a slight effect of growth inhibition on normal endothelial cells. We identified COP1, which is a critical negative regulator of p53, as a novel direct target of miR-214. COP1 was overexpressed and the specific COP1 knockdown induced apoptosis through transcriptional activation of p53-regulated genes as well as did miR-214-transfection in HSA cell lines. Furthermore, p53 knockdown abolished the miR-214-COP1-mediated apoptosis; thus, miR-214 and COP1 regulated apoptosis through controlling p53 in HSA. In conclusion, miR-214 functioned as a tumor suppressor in canine hemangiosarcoma by inducing apoptosis through recovering the function of p53. miR-214 down-regulation and COP1 overexpression is likely to contribute to tumorigenesis of HSA. Therefore, targeting miR-214-COP1-p53 axis would possibly be a novel effective strategy for treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma and capable of being applied to the development of novel therapeutics for human angiosarcoma.
Project description:Circulating microRNAs in the blood may provide diagnostic and prognostic information about canine neoplastic diseases, and their profiles may be conserved between human and canine species. We performed RT-qPCR to obtain the profiles of circulating plasma microRNA-214 and -126 in total 181 cases of canine neoplastic diseases and healthy controls. MicroRNA-214 levels were high in 2 epithelial tumours (thyroid and mammary carcinomas) and 4 non-epithelial tumours (osteosarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and hemangiosarcoma). In contrast, microRNA-126 levels were high in 6 epithelial tumours (mammary, hepatocellular, squamous cell, thyroid, transitional cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinoma) and 4 non-epithelial tumours (osteosarcoma, mast cell tumour, melanoma, and hemangiosarcoma). The diagnostic potential of microRNA-214 was relatively high in sarcomas, whereas that of microR-126 was high in most types of the tumours. MicroRNA-214 and -126 were prognostic predictors in 2 groups (adenocarcinoma and non-epithelial tumours except for osteosarcoma) and 3 groups (epithelial tumours, adenocarcinoma, and melanoma), respectively. Additionally, the microRNA levels did not show a strong correlation with the other clinical parameters. In conclusion, circulating microRNA-214 and -126 have the potential to be diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for canine neoplastic diseases. Furthermore, their profiles may be key references as well for exploring novel biomarkers for human cancers.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is a highly aggressive cancer of blood vessel-forming cells with few effective treatment options and high patient mortality. It is both rare and heterogenous, making large, well-powered genomic studies nearly impossible. Dogs commonly suffer from a similar cancer, called hemangiosarcoma, with breeds like the golden retriever carrying heritable genetic factors that put them at high risk. If the clinical similarity of canine hemangiosarcoma and human angiosarcoma reflects shared genomic etiology, dogs could be a critically needed model for advancing angiosarcoma research. We assessed the genomic landscape of canine hemangiosarcoma via whole-exome sequencing (47 golden retriever hemangiosarcomas) and RNA sequencing (74 hemangiosarcomas from multiple breeds). Somatic coding mutations occurred most frequently in the tumor suppressor TP53 (59.6% of cases) as well as two genes in the PI3K pathway: the oncogene PIK3CA (29.8%) and its regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (8.5%). The predominant mutational signature was the age-associated deamination of cytosine to thymine. As reported in human angiosarcoma, CDKN2A/B was recurrently deleted and VEGFA, KDR, and KIT recurrently gained. We compared the canine data to human data recently released by The Angiosarcoma Project, and found many of the same genes and pathways significantly enriched for somatic mutations, particularly in breast and visceral angiosarcomas. Canine hemangiosarcoma closely models the genomic landscape of human angiosarcoma of the breast and viscera, and is a powerful tool for investigating the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. IMPLICATIONS: We characterize the genomic landscape of canine hemangiosarcoma and demonstrate its similarity to human angiosarcoma.
Project description:Splenic masses are common in older dogs and may be malignant, benign, or non-neoplastic; yet diagnosis preceding splenectomy and histopathology remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-25 nucleotide, single stranded, non-coding RNAs that play a role in post-transcriptional regulation. MicroRNAs in tumor samples have been used to diagnose tumors, provide prognostic information, and aid in targeted treatments in human medicine, but have not been extensively evaluated in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) between canine splenic hemangiosarcoma, canine splenic nodular hyperplasia, and normal canine spleens by use of RNA-sequencing. Eighteen miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed between hemangiosarcoma and nodular hyperplasia only. The five of these with the largest fold change were mir-193a, mir-450a, mir-503, mir-542, and mir-876. Four miRNA were significantly differentially expressed between hemangiosarcoma and nodular hyperplasia and also hemangiosarcoma and normal spleen (mir-126, mir-150, mir-203, and mir-452). Findings of this study show that miRNA expression profiles are different between canine splenic hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens. This is a preliminary study with findings of clinical relevance, as masses of the spleen cannot be diagnosed pre-operatively in most cases. Canine splenic masses are relatively common, and validation these findings is warranted for potential use as a diagnostic test. Overall design: A total of fifteen samples total were analyzed for miRNA expression. There were 3 experimental condition with 5 replicates in each group.
Project description:Human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma are thought to arise from vascular tissue or vascular forming cells based upon their histological appearance. However, recent evidence indicates a hematopoietic or angioblastic cell of origin for these tumors. In support of this idea, we previously identified an endothelial-myeloid progenitor cell population with high expression of endothelial cell markers and the myeloid cell marker, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R). Here, we further characterized these cells to better understand how their cellular characteristics may impact current therapeutic applications.We performed cell enrichment studies from canine hemangiosarcoma and human angiosarcoma cell lines to generate cell populations with high or low CSF-1R expression. We then utilized flow cytometry, side population and cell viability assays, and fluorescence based approaches to elucidate drug resistance mechanisms and to determine the expression of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cell markers.We demonstrated that cells with high CSF-1R expression enriched from hemangiosarcoma and angiosarcoma cell lines are more drug resistant than cells with little or no CSF-1R expression. We determined that the increased drug resistance may be due to increased ABC transporter expression in hemangiosarcoma and increased drug sequestration within cellular lysosomes in both hemangiosarcoma and angiosarcoma.We identified drug sequestration within cellular lysosomes as a shared drug resistance mechanism in human and canine vascular sarcomas marked by high CSF-1R expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that studies in highly prevalent canine hemangiosarcoma may be especially relevant to understanding and addressing drug resistance mechanisms in both the canine and human forms of this disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) receiving standard amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy demonstrate variable outcome with treatment; however, additional biomarkers would be helpful for predicting their outcome. In the present study, we assessed the potential of circulating microRNA-214 (miR-214) and?-?126 (miR-126) to predict time to metastasis and death in dogs with OSA treated with amputation and chemotherapy. RESULTS:Seventy-six dogs that fully met inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The criteria included (1) a diagnosis of appendicular OSA without metastases at diagnosis, (2) treatment by amputation and chemotherapy using carboplatin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, or a combination of these agents. Circulating miR-214 and -126 levels at the time before treatment were measured by using RT-qPCR. High circulating miR-214 and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) significantly predicted short disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Conversely, high circulating miR-126 significantly predicted prolonged DFS and OS. An integrated approach using circulating miR-214, -?126, and serum ALP showed better accuracy in the prediction of DFS and OS and identification of long-term survivors than prediction using only ALP. Other variables (age, weight, sex, monocyte counts, and primary tumor site) were associated with neither DFS nor OS. miRNA levels did not strongly correlate with histopathological indices. CONCLUSIONS:Circulating miR-214, -?126, and an integrated prognostic score have strong potential to predict the outcome of canine appendicular OSA patients receiving amputation and chemotherapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer of the serous membranes. For the detection of the tumor at early stages non- or minimally-invasive biomarkers are needed. The circulating biomarkers miR-132-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-103a-3p were analyzed in a nested case-control study using plasma samples from 17 prediagnostic mesothelioma cases and 34 matched asbestos-exposed controls without a malignant disease. RESULTS:Using prediagnostic plasma samples collected in median 8.9 months prior the clinical diagnosis miR-132-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-103a-3p revealed 0% sensitivity on a defined specificity of 98%. Thus, the analyzed miRNAs failed to detect the cancer in prediagnostic samples, showing that they are not feasible for the early detection of malignant mesothelioma. However, the miRNAs might still serve as possible markers for prognosis and response to therapy, but this needs to be analyzed in appropriate studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs control gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition. Dysregulation of the expressions of miR-199a/214 cluster has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed at identifying potential microRNAs related to vascular senescence. METHODS:Seven candidate microRNAs (miR-19a, -20a, -26b, -106b, -?126, -?214, and?-?374) related to cell proliferation were tested for their expressions under CoCl2-induced hypoxia in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). After identification of miR-214 as the candidate microRNA, telomere integrity impairment and cell cycle arrest were examined in VSMCs by using miR-214 mimic, AntagomiR, and negative controls. To investigate the clinical significance of miR-214 in vascular diseases, its plasma level from patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS:CoCl2 treatment for 48?h suppressed cell proliferation and angiogenesis as well as enhanced cell senescence in VSMCs. Besides, miR-214 level was elevated in both intracellular and exosome samples of VSMCs after CoCl2 treatment. Manipulating miR-214 in VSMCs demonstrated that miR-214 not only inhibited angiogenic and proliferative capacities but also promoted senescence through the suppression of quaking. Additionally, circulating miR-214 level was upregulated in CAS patients with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) value. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggested that miR-214 plays a role in the modulation of VSMC angiogenesis, proliferation, and senescence with its plasma level being increased in CAS patients with elevated LDL-C value, implying that it may be a vascular senescence marker and a potential therapeutic target for vascular diseases.
Project description:Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor with poor prognosis. We aimed to identify malignancy-associated miRNAs and their target genes, and explore biological functions of miRNA and its target in angiosarcoma. By miRNA microarrays and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we identified 1 up-regulated miRNA (miR-222-3p) and 3 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-497-5p, miR-378-3p and miR-483-5p) in human angiosarcomas compared with human capillary hemangiomas. The intermediate-conductance calcium activated potassium channel KCa3.1 was one of the putative target genes of miR-497-5p, and marked up-regulation of KCa3.1 was detected in angiosarcoma biopsy specimens by immunohistochemistry. The inverse correlation of miR-497-5p and KCa3.1 also was observed in the ISO-HAS angiosarcoma cell line at the mRNA and protein levels. The direct targeting of KCa3.1 by miR-497-5p was evidenced by reduced luciferase activity due to complementary binding of miR-497-5p to KCa3.1 mRNA 3' untranslated region. For the functional role of miR-497-5p/KCa3.1 pair, we showed that application of TRAM-34, a specific KCa3.1 channel blocker, or transfection of ISO-HAS cells with KCa3.1 siRNA or miR-497-5p mimics inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasion by down-regulating cell-cycle related proteins including cyclin D1, surviving and P53 and down-regulating matrix metallopeptidase 9. In an in vivo angiosarcoma xenograft model, TRAM-34 or miR-497-5p mimics both inhibited tumor growth. In conclusion, the tumor suppressor miR-497-5p down-regulates KCa3.1 expression and contributes to the inhibition of angiosarcoma malignancy development. The miR-497-5p or KCa3.1 might be potential new targets for angiosarcoma treatment.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation contribute the cancer pathogenesis. However, the miRNA profile of canine oral melanoma (COM), one of the frequent malignant melanoma in dogs is still unrevealed. The aim of this study is to reveal the miRNA profile in canine oral melanoma. MiRNAs profile of oral tissues from normal healthy dogs and COM patients were compared by next-generation sequencing. Along with tumour suppressor miRNAs, we report 30 oncogenic miRNAs in COM. The expressions of miRNAs were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway analysis showed that deregulated miRNAs impact on cancer and signalling pathways. Three oncogenic miRNAs targets (miR-450b, 301a, and 223) from human study also were down-regulated in COM and had a significant negative correlation with their respective miRNA. Furthermore, we found that miR-450b expression is higher in metastatic cells and regulated MMP9 expression through a PAX9-BMP4-MMP9 axis. In silico analysis indicated that miR-126, miR-20b, and miR-106a regulated the highest numbers of differentially expressed transcription factors with respect to human melanoma. Chromosomal enrichment analysis revealed the X chromosome was enriched with oncogenic miRNAs. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNA's profile in COM which will be a useful resource for developing therapeutic interventions in both species.