A Five-miRNA Panel Identified From a Multicentric Case-control Study Serves as a Novel Diagnostic Tool for Ethnically Diverse Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Patients.
ABSTRACT: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for cancer detection. However, multiethnic and multicentric studies of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are lacking. We recruited 221 NSCLC patients, 161 controls and 56 benign nodules from both China and America. Initial miRNA screening was performed using the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by confirming individually by RT-qPCR in Chinese cohorts. Finally, we performed a blind trial from an American cohort to validate our findings. RT-qPCR confirmed that miR-483-5p, miR-193a-3p, miR-25, miR-214 and miR-7 were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the ROC curve of this five-serum miRNA panel were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.939-1.0; P < 0.0001) and 0.823 (95% CI, 0.75-0.896; P < 0.0001) for the two confirmation sets, respectively. In the blind trial, the panel correctly classified 95% NSCLC cases and 84% controls from the American cohort. Most importantly, the panel was capable of distinguishing NSCLC from benign nodules with an AUC of 0.979 (95% CI, 0.959-1.0) in the American cohort and allowed correct prediction of 86% and 95% stage I-II tumors in the Chinese and American cohorts, respectively. This serum miRNA panel holds the potential for diagnosing ethnically diverse NSCLC patients.
Project description:Background: A liquid biopsy using circulating exosomal genetic materials provides new insights for thyroid cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to identify plasma-derived exosomal biomarkers that could be used for early detection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Method: Exosomal miRNAs in plasma were isolated from patients with benign thyroid nodules and patients with PTC. Profiling of exosomal miRNA was performed using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify miRNA candidates and differentiate the benign from malignant. The validation cohort consisted of 30 patients with benign thyroid nodules, 35 PTC patients, and 31 healthy individuals. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the expression of miRNA candidates. The diagnostic potential of the candidates was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: After RNA-seq, eight plasma exosomal miRNAs were selected as candidates. Further validation indicated that the levels of exosomal miR-16-2-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-182-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-146b-5p were significantly lower in nodules compared to healthy controls (p < 0.0001), whereas miR-16-2-3p and miR-223-5p were significantly higher in the PTC cases than in those with benign nodules (p < 0.05). ROC analyses revealed that the above six miRNAs were potent indicators for detection of thyroid nodules. Meanwhile, miR-16-2-3p and miR-223-5p can be utilized for detecting PTC from benign nodules. Additionally, combined miRNA panels showed increased diagnostic sensitivities and specificities compared to single miRNA markers. Conclusion: Six aberrantly expressed plasma exosomal miRNAs may be used as diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate thyroid nodules from healthy individuals. The panel consisting of miR-16-2-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-101-3p, and miR-34c-5p are eligible for discriminating benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
Project description:Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system; however, there is no reliable blood biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis and even for aggressive and nonaggressive thyroid cancers as well as benign nodule discrimination. The present study is aimed at evaluating whether circulating microRNA (miRNA) can differentiate aggressive and nonaggressive thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules. In this study, we performed a multiphase, case-control study to screen serum miRNA expression profile in 100 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 15 patients with aggressive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 91 patients with benign nodules, and 89 healthy controls using TaqMan low-density array followed by extensive reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR validation. The results showed that the serum levels of miR-222-3p, miR-17-5p, and miR-451a were markedly increased, while miR-146a-5p, miR-132-3p, and miR-183-3p were significantly decreased in the PTC and benign nodule groups compared with the control group. There was no difference in the miRNA expression profile between the PTC group and the benign nodule group. Nevertheless, the serum levels of miR-222-3p and miR-17-5p were significantly increased in the MTC group than the benign nodule and control group. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that the 2 miRNAs and their panel can accurately discriminate MTC from the benign nodule group and healthy controls. These findings indicated that the altered circulating miRNAs may discriminate PTC and benign thyroid nodules from controls, and serum miR-222-3p and miR-17-5p have the potential to serve as auxiliary tools for diagnosing more aggressive thyroid carcinomas, such as MTC.
Project description:AIM:To assess the exosomal miR-21/Let-7a ratio, a noninvasive method, in distinguishing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from benign pulmonary diseases. METHODS:The exosomes were extracted from the peripheral blood serum using serum exosomal extraction kit. miR-21 and Let-7a levels were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:We found that miR-21/Let-7a ratio of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that of healthy people, patients with pulmonary inflammation diseases, and benign pulmonary nodules, respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that as compared with healthy controls, miR-21/Let-7a produced the area under the curve (AUC) at 0.8029 in patients with NSCLC, which helped to distinguish NSCLC from healthy controls with 81.33% sensitivity and 69.57% specificity. In addition, the AUC of miR-21/Let-7a in NSCLC patients was 0.8196 in comparison to patients with pulmonary inflammation diseases. Meanwhile, the sensitivity and specificity were 56.00% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, compared with patients with benign pulmonary nodules, the AUC of miR-21/Let-7a in NSCLC patients was 0.7539. The sensitivity and specificity were 56.00% and 82.61%, respectively. CONCLUSION:In the present study, our findings revealed that exosomal miR-21/Let-7a ratio holds considerable promise as a noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLC from benign pulmonary diseases.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>There is no effective and reliable biomarker to distinguish benign thyroid nodules from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). This study aimed at examining the levels of plasma miRNAs in patients with PTC or benign nodules to explore the potential miRNA biomarkers for PTC.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Genome-wide plasma miRNA expression profiles were determined by the miRNA Microarray and the significantly higher levels of miRNAs were validated in plasma and tissues by quantitative RT-PCR. The levels of two miRNAs were further tested in seven patients before and after tumor excision and the potential values for the diagnosis of PTC were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC).<h4>Results</h4>In comparison with that in the patients with benign nodules, eight significantly higher and three lower levels of plasma miRNAs were detected in the PTC patients. Further validation indicated that the levels of plasma miR-25-3p, miR-451a, miR-140-3p and let-7i were significantly higher in the PTC cases than in those with benign nodules or the healthy controls. Significantly higher levels of miR-25-3p and miR-451a were detected in the thyroid tissues from the PTC patients. The levels of plasma miR-25-3p and miR-451a in seven patients significantly decreased after tumor excision. ROC analyses revealed that the levels of plasma miR-25-3p at cut-off 1.41 and miR-451a at 1.38 had sensitivity of 92.8% and 88.9%, and specificity of 68.8% and 66.7% for distinguishing PTC from benign nodules, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings suggest that the levels of plasma miR-25-3p and miR-451a may be valuable for the diagnosis of PTC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Making a definitive preoperative diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) found by CT has been a clinical challenge. We previously demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) could be used as biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis. Here we investigate whether plasma microRNAs are useful in identifying lung cancer among individuals with CT-detected SPNs.<h4>Methods</h4>By using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, we first determine plasma expressions of five miRNAs in a training set of 32 patients with malignant SPNs, 33 subjects with benign SPNs, and 29 healthy smokers to define a panel of miRNAs that has high diagnostic efficiency for lung cancer. We then validate the miRNA panel in a testing set of 76 patients with malignant SPNs and 80 patients with benign SPNs.<h4>Results</h4>In the training set, miR-21 and miR-210 display higher plasma expression levels, whereas miR-486-5p has lower expression level in patients with malignant SPNs, as compared to subjects with benign SPNs and healthy controls (all P ? 0.001). A logistic regression model with the best prediction was built on the basis of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-486-5p. The three miRNAs used in combination produced the area under receiver operating characteristic curve at 0.86 in distinguishing lung tumors from benign SPNs with 75.00% sensitivity and 84.95% specificity. Validation of the miRNA panel in the testing set confirms their diagnostic value that yields significant improvement over any single one.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The plasma miRNAs provide potential circulating biomarkers for noninvasively diagnosing lung cancer among individuals with SPNs, and could be further evaluated in clinical trials.
Project description:Background: Currently, there are no molecular biomarkers for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study focused on identifying RNAs found on tumor-educated blood platelets (TEPs) for detecting stage I NSCLC. Methods: Platelet RNAs, isolated from the blood of 9 patients with NSCLC (stages I and II) and 8 healthy controls, were analyzed using RNA-seq. ITGA2B was selected as a candidate marker. Two different Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) were used to measure ITGA2B in platelet samples from healthy controls (n = 150), patients with NSCLC (n = 243), and patients with benign pulmonary nodules (n = 141) in two cohorts. Results: Platelet ITGA2B levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with NSCLC than in all controls. The diagnostic accuracy of ITGA2B was area under the curve (AUC) of 0.922 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.892-0.952], sensitivity of 92.8%, and specificity of 78.6% in the test cohort and 0.888, 91.2%, and 56.5% in the validation cohort for NSCLC by quantitative real time PCR (q-PCR). Furthermore, ITGA2B maintained diagnostic accuracy for patients with NSCLC using Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) and the other type of internal control, Ribosomal Protein L32 (RPL32) [ddPCR: 0.967 (0.929-1.000) and RPL32: 0.847(0.773-0.920)]. A nomogram incorporating ITGA2B, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and stage could predict the overall survival (C-index = 0.756). Conclusions: TEP ITGA2B is a promising marker to improve identification of patients with stage I NSCLC and differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules.
Project description:The diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at an early stage, as well as better prediction of outcome remains clinically challenging due to the lack of specific and robust non-invasive markers. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), particularly those found in the bloodstream, has opened up new perspectives for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of our study was to determine whether expression profiles of specific miRNAs in plasma could accurately discriminate between NSCLC patients and controls, and whether they are able to predict the prognosis of resectable NSCLC patients. We therefore evaluated a series of seventeen NSCLC-related miRNAs by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR in plasma from 52 patients with I-IIIA stages NSCLC, 10 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 20-age, sex and smoking status-matched healthy individuals. We identified an eleven-plasma miRNA panel that could distinguish NSCLC patients from healthy subjects (AUC?=?0.879). A six-plasma miRNA panel was able to discriminate between NSCLC patients and COPD patients (AUC?=?0.944). Furthermore, we identified a three-miRNA plasma signature (high miR-155-5p, high miR-223-3p, and low miR-126-3p) that significantly associated with a higher risk for progression in adenocarcinoma patients. In addition, a three-miRNA plasma panel (high miR-20a-5p, low miR-152-3p, and low miR-199a-5p) significantly predicted survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In conclusion, we identified two plasma miRNA expression profiles that may be useful for predicting the outcome of patients with resectable NSCLC.
Project description:Accurate diagnosis of pancreatic head lesions remains challenging as no minimally invasive biomarkers are available to discriminate distal cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study is to identify specific circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) to diagnose distal CCA. In the discovery phase, PCR profiling of 752 miRNAs was performed on fourteen patients with distal CCA and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Candidate miRNAs were selected for evaluation and validation by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort of distal CCA (N = 24), healthy controls (N = 32), benign diseases (N = 20), and PDAC (N = 24). The optimal diagnostic combination of miRNAs was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis and evaluated by ROC curves with AUC values. The discovery phase revealed 19 significantly dysregulated miRNAs, of which six were validated in the evaluation phase. The validation phase confirmed downregulated miR-16 in patients with distal CCA compared to benign disease or PDAC (P = 0.048 and P = 0.012), while miR-877 was significantly upregulated (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006). This two-miRNA panel was validated as a CCA-specific profile, discriminating distal CCA from benign disease (AUC = 0.90) and from PDAC (AUC = 0.88). In conclusion, the present study identified a two-miRNA panel of downregulated miR-16 and upregulated miR-877 with promising capability to diagnose patients with distal CCA.
Project description:Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality world-wide and the majority of cases are diagnosed at late stages of disease. There is currently no cost-effective screening test for NSCLC, and the development of such a test is a public health imperative. Recent studies have suggested that chest computed tomography screening of patients at high risk of lung cancer can increase survival from disease, however, the cost effectiveness of such screening has not been established. In this Phase I/II biomarker study we examined the feasibility of using serum miRNA as biomarkers of NSCLC using RT-qPCR to examine the expression of 180 miRNAs in sera from 30 treatment naive NSCLC patients and 20 healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and area under the curve were used to identify differentially expressed miRNA pairs that could distinguish NSCLC from healthy controls. Selected miRNA candidates were further validated in sera from an additional 55 NSCLC patients and 75 healthy controls. Examination of miRNA expression levels in serum from a multi-institutional cohort of 50 subjects (30 NSCLC patients and 20 healthy controls) identified differentially expressed miRNAs. A combination of two differentially expressed miRNAs miR-15b and miR-27b, was able to discriminate NSCLC from healthy controls with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in the training set. Upon further testing on additional 130 subjects (55 NSCLC and 75 healthy controls), this miRNA pair predicted NSCLC with a specificity of 84% (95% CI 0.73-0.91), sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 0.93-1.0), NPV of 100%, and PPV of 82%. These data provide evidence that serum miRNAs have the potential to be sensitive, cost-effective biomarkers for the early detection of NSCLC. Further testing in a Phase III biomarker study in is necessary for validation of these results.
Project description:The invasive nature of liver biopsy makes the histopathological diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) difficult and its diagnostic performance unsatisfactory. The present study aimed to identify a serum microRNA (miRNA) expression profile that could serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker for NAFLD.Serum miRNA expression was investigated using three cohorts comprising 465 participants (healthy controls and NAFLD patients) recruited between August 2010 and June 2013. miRNA expression was initially screened by Illumina sequencing using serum samples pooled from 20 patients and 20 controls. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was then used to evaluate the expression of selected miRNAs. A logistic regression model was constructed using a training cohort (n?=?242) and validated using another cohort (n?=?183). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy.We identified an miRNA panel (hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-1290, hsa-miR-27b-3p, and hsa-miR-192-5p) with a high diagnostic accuracy for NAFLD. The satisfactory diagnostic performance of the miRNA panel remained regardless of the NAFLD activity score (NAS) status. There was significant difference between the AUC values of the miRNA panel and those of ALT (AUC?=?0.786, 95% CI?=?0.717-0.855; P?=?0.142) and FIB-4 (AUC?=?0.795, 95% CI?=?0.730-0.860; sensitivity?=?69.9%, specificity?=?83.7%.We identified a serum microRNA panel with considerable clinical value in NAFLD diagnosis. The results indicate that the miRNA panel is a more sensitive and specific biomarker for NAFLD than ALT and FIB-4.