Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4.
ABSTRACT: Oxymatrine (OMT) is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT), and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT.
Project description:Morusin, the important active component of a traditional Chinese medicine, Morus alba L., has been shown to exhibit many vital pharmacological activities. In this study, six recombinant CYP450 supersomes and liver microsomes were used to perform metabolic studies. Chemical inhibition studies and screening assays with recombinant human cytochrome P450s were also used to characterize the CYP450 isoforms involved in morusin metabolism. The morusin metabolites identified varied greatly among different species. Eight metabolites of morusin were detected in the liver microsomes from pigs (PLMs), rats (RLMs), and monkeys (MLMs) by LC-MS/MS and six metabolites were detected in the liver microsomes from humans (HLMs), rabbits (RAMs), and dogs (DLMs). Four metabolites (M1, M2, M5, and M7) were found in all species and hydroxylation was the major metabolic transformation. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 contributed differently to the metabolism of morusin. Compared to other CYP450 isoforms, CYP3A4 played the most significant role in the metabolism of morusin in human liver microsomes. These results are significant to better understand the metabolic behaviors of morusin among various species.
Project description:Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been used clinically in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. This study evaluated the effect of GA on the activity of five P450(CYP450) cytochrome enzymes: CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzyme systems using a HPLC-MS/MS CYP-specific probe substrate assay. With midazolam as the probe substrate, GA greatly decreased CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 8.195 ?M in HLMs and 7.498 ?M in the recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 enzyme system, respectively. It significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. Results from Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that GA could inhibit CYP3A4 activity competitively, with a Ki value of 1.57 ?M in HLMs. Moreover, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 could also be inhibited significantly by GA with IC50 of 42.89 and 40.26 ?M in HLMs, respectively. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by GA. The inhibition was also confirmed by an in vivo study of mice. In addition, it was observed that mRNA expressions of the Cyps2c and 3a family decreased significantly in the livers of mice treated with GA. In conclusion, this study indicates that GA may exert herb-drug interactions by competitively inhibiting CYP3A4.
Project description:Vinorelbine is a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid used in the treatment of advanced breast and non-small cell lung cancers. Vincristine, a related vinca alkaloid, is 9-fold more efficiently metabolized by CYP3A5 than by CYP3A4 in vitro. This study quantified the relative contribution of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 to the metabolism of vinorelbine in vitro using cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s (P450s) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were identified as the P450s capable of oxidizing vinorelbine using a panel of human enzymes and selective P450 inhibitors in HLMs. For CYP3A4 coexpressed with cytochrome b5 (CYP3A4+b5) and CYP3A5+b5, the Michaelis-Menten constants for vinorelbine were 2.6 and 3.6 ?M, respectively, but the Vmax of 1.4 pmol/min/pmol was common to both enzymes. In HLMs, the intrinsic clearance of vinorelbine metabolism was highly correlated with CYP3A4 activity, and there was no significant difference in intrinsic clearance between CYP3A5 high and low expressers. When radiolabeled vinorelbine substrate was used, there were clear qualitative differences in metabolite formation fingerprints between CYP3A4+b5 and CYP3A5+b5 as determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. One major metabolite (M2), a didehydro-vinorelbine, was present in both recombinant and microsomal systems but was more abundant in CYP3A4+b5 incubations. We conclude that despite the equivalent efficiency of recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in vinorelbine metabolism the polymorphic expression of CYP3A5, as shown by the kinetics with HLMs, may have a minimal effect on systemic clearance of vinorelbine.
Project description:Bufotalin (BFT), one of the naturally occurring bufodienolides, has multiple pharmacological and toxicological effects including antitumor activity and cardiotoxicity. This study aimed to character the metabolic pathway(s) of BFT and to identify the key drug metabolizing enzyme(s) responsible for hepatic metabolism of BFT in human, as well as to explore the related molecular mechanism of enzymatic selectivity. The major metabolite of BFT in human liver microsomes (HLMs) was fully identified as 5?-hydroxylbufotalin by LC-MS/MS and NMR techniques. Reaction phenotyping and chemical inhibition assays showed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were key enzymes responsible for BFT 5?-hydroxylation. Kinetic analyses demonstrated that BFT 5?-hydroxylation in both HLMs and human CYP3A4 followed the biphasic kinetics, while BFT 5?-hydroxylation in CYP3A5 followed substrate inhibition kinetics. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations showed that BFT could bind on two different ligand-binding sites on both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, which partially explained the different kinetic behaviors of BFT in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. These findings are very helpful for elucidating the phase I metabolism of BFT in human and for deeper understanding the key interactions between CYP3A enzymes and bufadienolides, as well as for the development of bufadienolide-type drugs with improved pharmacokinetic and safety profiles.
Project description:To investigate the metabolism of 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK (CMDCK), a novel anti-HIV agent, by human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs).CMDCK was incubated with HLMs or a panel of recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 3A5. LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify CMDCK metabolites. In the experiments with recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes, specific chemical inhibitors combined with CYP antibodies were used to identify the CYP isoforms involved in CMDCK metabolism.CMDCK was rapidly and extensively metabolized by HLMs. Its intrinsic hepatic clearance estimated from the in vitro data was 19.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1), which was comparable to the mean human hepatic blood flow rate (20.7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)). The major metabolic pathway of CMDCK was oxidation, and a total of 14 metabolites were detected. CYP3A4 and 3A5 were found to be the principal CYP enzymes responsible for CMDCK metabolism.CMDCK was metabolized rapidly and extensively in human hepatic microsomes to form a number of oxidative metabolites. CYP3A4 and 3A5 were the predominant enzymes responsible for the oxidation of CMDCK.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Little information is available regarding the metabolic routes of anastrozole and the specific enzymes involved. We characterized anastrozole oxidative and conjugation metabolism in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Methods</h4>A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed to measure anastrozole and its metabolites in vitro and in vivo. Anastrozole metabolism was characterized using human liver microsomes (HLMs), expressed cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs).<h4>Results</h4>Hydroxyanastrozole and anastrozole glucuronide were identified as the main oxidative and conjugated metabolites of anastrozole in vitro, respectively. Formation of hydroxyanastrozole from anastrozole was markedly inhibited by CYP3A selective chemical inhibitors (by >90%) and significantly correlated with CYP3A activity in a panel of HLMs (r= 0.96, P= 0.0005) and mainly catalyzed by expressed CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The K(m) values obtained from HLMs were also close to those from CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Formation of anastrozole glucuronide in a bank of HLMs was correlated strongly with imipramine N-glucuronide, a marker of UGT1A4 (r= 0.72, P < 0.0001), while expressed UGT1A4 catalyzed its formation at the highest rate. Hydroxyanastrozole (mainly as a glucuronide) and anastrozole were quantified in plasma of breast cancer patients taking anastrozole (1 mg day?¹); anastrozole glucuronide was less apparent.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Anastrozole is oxidized to hydroxyanastrozole mainly by CYP3A4 (and to some extent by CYP3A5 and CYP2C8). Once formed, this metabolite undergoes glucuronidation. Variable activity of CYP3A4 (and probably UGT1A4), possibly due to genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions, may alter anastrozole disposition and its effects in vivo.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of CYP3A5 expression on inhibitory potency (Ki or IC50 values) of CYP3A inhibitors, using recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (rCYP3A4 and rCYP3A5) and CYP3A5 genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs). IC50 ratios between rCYP3A4 and rCYP3A5 (rCYP3A5/rCYP3A4) of ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) were 8.5 and 8.8 for midazolam (MDZ), 4.7 and 9.1 for testosterone (TST), 1.3 and 2.8 for terfenadine, and 0.6 and 1.7 for vincristine, respectively, suggesting substrate- and inhibitor-dependent selectivity of the two azoles. Due to the difference in the IC50 values for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, nonconcordant expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 protein can significantly affect the observed magnitude of CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interactions in humans. Indeed, the IC50 values of KTZ and ITZ for CYP3A-catalyzed MDZ and TST metabolism were significantly higher in HLMs with CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3 genotypes than in HLMs with the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype, showing CYP3A5 expression-dependent IC50 values. Moreover, when IC50 values of KTZ and ITZ for different HLMs were kinetically simulated based on CYP3A5 expression level and enzyme-specific IC50 values, a good correlation between the simulated and the experimentally measured IC50 values was observed. Further simulation analysis revealed that both the Ki ratio (for inhibitors) and Vmax/Km ratio (for substrates) between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were major factors for CYP3A5 expression-dependent IC50 values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CYP3A5 genotype and expression level have a significant impact on inhibitory potency for CYP3A-catalyzed drug metabolism, but that the magnitude of its effect is inhibitor-substrate pair specific.
Project description:Alflutinib (AST2818) is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that inhibits both EGFR-sensitive mutations and T790M mutations. Previous study has shown that after multiple dosages, alflutinib exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics and displays a time- and dose-dependent increase in the apparent clearance, probably due to its self-induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme. In this study, we investigated the CYP isozymes involved in the metabolism of alflutinib and evaluated the enzyme inhibition and induction potential of alflutinib and its metabolites. The data showed that alflutinib in human liver microsomes (HLMs) was metabolized mainly by CYP3A4, which could catalyze the formation of AST5902. Alflutinib did not inhibit CYP isozymes in HLMs but could induce CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Rifampin is a known strong CYP3A4 inducer and is recommended by the FDA as a positive control in the CYP3A4 induction assay. We found that the induction potential of alflutinib was comparable to that of rifampin. The Emax of CYP3A4 induction by alflutinib in three lots of human hepatocytes were 9.24-, 11.2-, and 10.4-fold, while the fold-induction of rifampin (10??M) were 7.22-, 19.4- and 9.46-fold, respectively. The EC50 of alflutinib-induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression was 0.25??M, which was similar to that of rifampin. In addition, AST5902 exhibited much weak CYP3A4 induction potential compared to alflutinib. Given the plasma exposure of alflutinib and AST5902, both are likely to affect the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrates. Considering that alflutinib is a CYP3A4 substrate and a potent CYP3A4 inducer, drug-drug interactions are expected during alflutinib treatment.
Project description:Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent used for the treatment of severe fungal infections. Maintaining therapeutic concentrations of 1 to 5.5 ?g/ml is currently recommended to maximize the exposure-response relationship of voriconazole. However, this is challenging, given the highly variable pharmacokinetics of the drug, which includes metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isotypes CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, through which common metabolic pathways for many medications take place and which are also expressed in different isoforms with various metabolic efficacies. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are also metabolized through these enzymes, making them competitive inhibitors of voriconazole metabolism, and coadministration with voriconazole has been reported to increase total voriconazole exposure. We examined the effects of five PPIs (rabeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, and esomeprazole) on voriconazole concentrations using four sets of human liver microsomes (HLMs) of different CYP450 phenotypes. Overall, the use of voriconazole in combination with any PPI led to a significantly higher voriconazole yield compared to that achieved with voriconazole alone in both pooled HLMs (77% versus 59%; P < 0.001) and individual HLMs (86% versus 76%; P < 0.001). The mean percent change in the voriconazole yield from that at the baseline after PPI exposure in pooled microsomes ranged from 22% with pantoprazole to 51% with esomeprazole. Future studies are warranted to confirm whether and how the deliberate coadministration of voriconazole and PPIs can be used to boost voriconazole levels in patients with difficult-to-treat fungal infections.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule and its concentration is tightly regulated. Several P450 enzymes including CYP26A1, CYP2C8, and CYP3A4 have been proposed to be responsible for RA clearance in the liver but their quantitative importance has not been demonstrated. To determine the contribution of CYP26A1 to hepatic clearance of RA, CYP26A1 protein was quantified in 37 human liver microsomes (HLMs). CYP26A1 expression ranged from not detectable to 2.80pmol/mg microsomal protein. RA clearance by P450 enzymes abundant in human liver was measured in Supersomes. CYP2C8, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 metabolized RA with unbound K(m) values of 3.4-7.2microM and V(max) values of 2.3-4.9pmol/min/pmol P450, but were less efficient than CYP26A1 in clearing RA. Simulations performed for livers with varying P450 expression levels over a range of RA concentrations demonstrated that at both endogenous and therapeutic concentrations of RA, CYP26A1 is the primary enzyme responsible for 4-OH RA formation clearance. HLM incubation data showed that 4-OH RA formation velocity varied from 0.2 to 15.3pmol/min/mg microsomal protein and velocity in HLMs was significantly correlated (p<0.01) to CYP26A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 protein content, but not to CYP2C8. When experimental data were scaled to in vivo clearances, the predicted hepatic clearance of RA (0.07L/min using combined Supersome data) was similar to the published in vivo clearance of RA. These findings suggest that CYP26A1 is the P450 isoform that should be targeted when designing RA metabolism blocking agents.