Ernst Rudin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.
ABSTRACT: In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses).
Project description:Although the technical and analytic complexity of whole genome sequencing is generally appreciated, best practices for data cleaning and quality control have not been defined. Family based data can be used to guide the standardization of specific quality control metrics in nonfamily based data. Given the low mutation rate, Mendelian inheritance errors are likely as a result of erroneous genotype calls. Thus, our goal was to identify the characteristics that determine Mendelian inheritance errors. To accomplish this, we used chromosome 3 whole genome sequencing family based data from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. Mendelian inheritance errors were provided as part of the GAW18 data set. Additionally, for binary variants we calculated Mendelian inheritance errors using PLINK. Based on our analysis, nonbinary single-nucleotide variants have an inherently high number of Mendelian inheritance errors. Furthermore, in binary variants, Mendelian inheritance errors are not randomly distributed. Indeed, we identified 3 Mendelian inheritance error peaks that were enriched with repetitive elements. However, these peaks can be lessened with the inclusion of a single filter from the sequencing file. In summary, we demonstrated that erroneous sequencing calls are nonrandomly distributed across the genome and quality control metrics can dramatically reduce the number of mendelian inheritance errors. Appropriate quality control will allow optimal use of genetic data to realize the full potential of whole genome sequencing.
Project description:Intelligence and education are predictive of better physical and mental health, socioeconomic position (SEP), and longevity. However, these associations are insufficient to prove that intelligence and/or education cause these outcomes. Intelligence and education are phenotypically and genetically correlated, which makes it difficult to elucidate causal relationships. We used univariate and multivariable Mendelian randomization to estimate the total and direct effects of intelligence and educational attainment on mental and physical health, measures of socioeconomic position, and longevity. Both intelligence and education had beneficial total effects. Higher intelligence had positive direct effects on income and alcohol consumption, and negative direct effects on moderate and vigorous physical activity. Higher educational attainment had positive direct effects on income, alcohol consumption, and vigorous physical activity, and negative direct effects on smoking, BMI and sedentary behaviour. If the Mendelian randomization assumptions hold, these findings suggest that both intelligence and education affect health.
Project description:Seckel syndrome-1 or "bird-headed dwarfism", Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man number 210600, is a rare genetic disease with an autosomal recessive transmission. We report a female child of 56 months diagnosed with SCKL1 at the Pediatric department of the University Hospital Center Sourou Sanou, Burkina Faso. She showed the typical features including facial dysmorphism, dwarfism, microcephalus and mental retardation. Ophthalmic and dental anomaly and extremities were associated. Without a codified etiological treatment, a psychotherapist support, a genetic counseling, a regular pediatric follow-up, a quarterly odontostomatological and ophthalmological follow- up have been recommended.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Transmission ratio distortion (TRD), defined as statistically significant deviation from expected 1:1 Mendelian ratios of allele inheritance, results in a reduction of the expected progeny of a given genotype. Since TRD is a common occurrence within interspecific crosses, a mouse interspecific backcross was used to genetically map regions showing TRD, and a developmental analysis was performed to identify the timing of allele loss.<h4>Results</h4>Three independent events of statistically significant deviation from the expected 50:50 Mendelian inheritance ratios were observed in an interspecific backcross between the Mus musculus A/J and the Mus spretus SPRET/EiJ inbred strains. At weaning M. musculus alleles are preferentially inherited on Chromosome (Chr) 7, while M. spretus alleles are preferentially inherited on Chrs 10 and 11. Furthermore, alleles on Chr 3 modify the TRD on Chr 11. All TRD loci detected at weaning were present in Mendelian ratios at mid-gestation and at birth.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Given that Mendelian ratios of inheritance are observed for Chr 7, 10 and 11 during development and at birth, the underlying causes for the interspecific TRD events are the differential post-natal survival of pups with specific genotypes. These results are consistent with the TRD mechanism being deviation from Mendelian inheritance rather than meiotic drive or segregation distortion.
Project description:One important piece of information about the human Mendelian disorders is the mode of inheritance. Recent studies of human genetic diseases on a large scale have provided many novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, most successful analyses ignored the mode of inheritance of diseases, which severely limits our understanding of human disease mechanisms relating to the mode of inheritance at the large scale. Therefore, we here conducted a systematic large-scale study of the inheritance mode of Mendelian disorders, to bring new insight into human diseases. Our analyses include the comparison between dominant and recessive disease genes on both genomic and proteomic characteristics, Mendelian mutations, protein network properties and disease connections on both the genetic and the population levels. We found that dominant disease genes are more functionally central, topological central and more sensitive to disease outcome. On the basis of these findings, we suggested that dominant diseases should have higher genetic heterogeneity and should have more comprehensive connections with each other compared with recessive diseases, a prediction we confirm by disease network and disease comorbidity.
Project description:The recent work of Besseling and Bringmann (2016) identified a molecular intervention for C. elegans in which premature segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the fertilized oocyte can produce viable animals exhibiting a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern. Overexpression in embryos of a single protein regulating chromosome segregation (GPR-1) provides a germline derived clonally from a single parental gamete. We present a collection of strains and cytological assays to consistently generate and track non-Mendelian inheritance. These tools allow reproducible and high-frequency (>80%) production of non-Mendelian inheritance, the facile and simultaneous homozygosis for all nuclear chromosomes in a single generation, the precise exchange of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes between strains, and the assessments of non-canonical mitosis events. We show the utility of these strains by demonstrating a rapid assessment of cell lineage requirements (AB versus P1) for a set of genes (lin-2, lin-3, lin-12, and lin-31) with roles in C. elegans vulval development.
Project description:Current recommendations for the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies focus on mass dog vaccination as the most feasible and cost-effective strategy. However, attempts to control rabies are often combined with canine surgical sterilisation programmes. The added value of sterilisation is widely debated. A systematic review was undertaken to compare the outcomes and impact of vaccination and sterilisation programmes with vaccination only programmes. A systematic search of three electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Medline and Global Health) and grey literature was performed. From 8696 abstracts found, 5554 unique studies were identified, and 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight described vaccination only programmes and eight described vaccination and sterilisation programmes. Indicators of impact measured were dog bites and/or doses of post-exposure prophylaxis administered; numbers of dog and/or human rabies cases; dog population demographic changes; changes in health and welfare of dogs, and indicators related to human behaviour change. The studies were contextually very diverse, programmes being implemented were complex, and there was variation in measurement and reporting of key indicators. Therefore, it was difficult to compare the two types of intervention, and impossible to make an evaluation of the role of sterilisation, using this evidence. Given the large number of vaccination and sterilisation programmes conducted globally, the lack of studies available for review highlights a gap in data collection or reporting, essential for impact assessment. There are several knowledge gaps concerning the impact of the sterilisation component alone, as well as subsequent effects on rabies transmission and control. Prospective studies comparing the outcomes and impact of the two interventions would be required in order to establish any additional contribution of sterilisation, as well as the underlying mechanisms driving any changes. In the absence of such evidence, the priority for rabies control objectives should be implementation of mass vaccination, as currently recommended by the World Health Organisation.
Project description:In genome science, the advancement in high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis is facilitating the better understanding of Mendelian and complex trait inheritance. Charting the genetic basis of complex diseases - including pediatric cancer, and interpreting huge amount of next-generation sequencing data are among the major technical challenges to be overcome in order to understand the molecular basis of various diseases and genetic disorders. In this review, we provide insights into some major challenges currently hindering a better understanding of Mendelian and complex trait inheritance, and thus impeding medical benefits to patients.
Project description:CRISPR-based gene drives can spread through wild populations by biasing their own transmission above the 50% value predicted by Mendelian inheritance. These technologies offer population-engineering solutions for combating vector-borne diseases, managing crop pests, and supporting ecosystem conservation efforts. Current technologies raise safety concerns for unintended gene propagation. Herein, we address such concerns by splitting the drive components, Cas9 and gRNAs, into separate alleles to form a trans-complementing split-gene-drive (tGD) and demonstrate its ability to promote super-Mendelian inheritance of the separate transgenes. This dual-component configuration allows for combinatorial transgene optimization and increases safety by restricting escape concerns to experimentation windows. We employ the tGD and a small-molecule-controlled version to investigate the biology of component inheritance and resistant allele formation, and to study the effects of maternal inheritance and impaired homology on efficiency. Lastly, mathematical modeling of tGD spread within populations reveals potential advantages for improving current gene-drive technologies for field population modification.
Project description:Studies focusing on unraveling the genetic origin of health span in humans assume that polygenic, aging-related phenotypes are inherited through Mendelian mechanisms of inheritance of individual genes. We use the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) data to examine whether non-Mendelian mechanisms of inheritance can drive linkage of loci on non-homologous chromosomes and whether such mechanisms can be relevant to longevity-related phenotypes. We report on genome-wide inter-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium (LD) and on chromosome-wide intra-chromosomal LD and show that these are real phenomena in the FHS data. Genetic analysis of inheritance in families based on Mendelian segregation reveals that the alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LD at loci on non-homologous chromosomes are inherited as a complex resembling haplotypes of a genetic unit. This result implies that the inter-chromosomal LD is likely caused by non-random assortment of non-homologous chromosomes during meiosis. The risk allele haplotypes can be subject to dominant-negative selection primary through the mechanisms of non-Mendelian inheritance. They can go to extinction within two human generations. The set of SNPs in inter-chromosomal LD (N=68) is nearly threefold enriched, with high significance (p=1.6 × 10(-9)), on non-synonymous coding variants (N=28) compared to the entire qualified set of the studied SNPs. Genes for the tightly linked SNPs are involved in fundamental biological processes in an organism. Survival analyses show that the revealed non-genetic linkage is associated with heritable complex phenotype of premature death. Our results suggest the presence of inter-chromosomal level of functional organization in the human genome and highlight a challenging problem of genomics of human health and aging.