Motivated to win: Relationship between anticipatory and outcome reward-related neural activity.
ABSTRACT: Reward-processing involves two temporal stages characterized by two distinct neural processes: reward-anticipation and reward-outcome. Intriguingly, very little research has examined the relationship between neural processes involved in reward-anticipation and reward-outcome. To investigate this, one needs to consider the heterogeneity of reward-processing within each stage. To identify different stages of reward processing, we adapted a reward time-estimation task. While EEG data were recorded, participants were instructed to button-press 3.5s after the onset of an Anticipation-Cue and received monetary reward for good time-estimation on the Reward trials, but not on No-Reward trials. We first separated reward-anticipation into event related potentials (ERPs) occurring at three sub-stages: reward/no-reward cue-evaluation, motor-preparation and feedback-anticipation. During reward/no-reward cue-evaluation, the Reward-Anticipation Cue led to a smaller N2 and larger P3. During motor-preparation, we report, for the first time, that the Reward-Anticipation Cue enhanced the Readiness Potential (RP), starting approximately 1s before movement. At the subsequent feedback-anticipation stage, the Reward-Anticipation Cue elevated the Stimulus-Preceding Negativity (SPN). We also separated reward-outcome ERPs into different components occurring at different time-windows: the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN), Feedback-P3 (FB-P3) and Late-Positive Potentials (LPP). Lastly, we examined the relationship between reward-anticipation and reward-outcome ERPs. We report that individual-differences in specific reward-anticipation ERPs uniquely predicted specific reward-outcome ERPs. In particular, the reward-anticipation Early-RP (1-.8s before movement) predicted early reward-outcome ERPs (FRN and FB-P3), whereas, the reward-anticipation SPN most strongly predicted a later reward-outcome ERP (LPP). Results have important implications for understanding the nature of the relationship between reward-anticipation and reward-outcome neural-processes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Brain functioning, as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs) representing smoking cue reactivity, inhibitory control, and reward processing, has been found to be compromised in smokers. However, whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in never smokers results in similar brain changes is unknown. This question is particularly relevant during adolescence, given ongoing brain maturation and a high risk of smoking initiation. The present study tested the associations between ETS exposure and ERPs reflecting cue reactivity (P3, LPP), inhibitory control (N2, P3), and reward processing (anticipation P3 (P3), feedback-related negativity (FRN)) among never-smoking adolescents. METHODS:Eighty-four never-smoking adolescents (nonexposed = 32, exposed = 52) performed a smoking cue reactivity, a Go/NoGo, and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task while ERPs were measured. RESULTS:Exposed and nonexposed groups did not differ in ERPs reflecting smoking cue reactivity, inhibitory control, and reward processing. A negative correlation between ETS exposure and the anticipatory P3 suggests reduced anticipatory reward sensitivity for nondrug rewards with increased levels of ETS exposure. However, since this effect was not consistent across analyses, no strong conclusions can be formulated. In the current study, few participants reported high levels of ETS exposure; therefore, further study is necessary. CONCLUSIONS:Nevertheless, from this study, it can be concluded that low-to-moderate exposure to ETS during adolescence does not result in functional brain changes related to smoking cue reactivity, inhibitory control, and reward processing.
Project description:Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses. After completing a behavioral intertemporal choice task, 34 participants performed an ERP gambling task. From this ERP task, we separately examined individual differences in outcome anticipation (stimulus-preceding negativity; SPN), early outcome valuation (feedback-related negativity; FRN), and late outcome evaluation (P3). We observed that both elevated outcome-anticipation (SPN) and late outcome-evaluation (P3) neural processes predicted a stronger preference toward larger-but-delayed rewards. No relationship was observed between intertemporal responses and early outcome evaluation (FRN), indicating that the relationship between outcome evaluation and intertemporal responses was specific to the late outcome-evaluation processing stream. Moreover, multiple regression analyses indicated that the SPN and P3 independently modulate individual differences in intertemporal responses, suggesting separate mechanisms underlie the relationship between these two neurocognitive processes and intertemporal responses. Accordingly, we identify two potential neurocognitive modulators of individual variability in intertemporal responses. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these modulators in terms of anticipation-related processing (SPN) and a saliency bias toward gain (compared to loss) outcomes (P3).
Project description:Reward and punishment processing are subject to substantial developmental changes during youth. However, little is known about the neurophysiological correlates that are associated with these developmental changes, particularly with regard to both anticipatory and outcome processing stages. Thus, the aim of this study was to address this research gap in a sample of typically developing children and adolescents. Fifty-four children and adolescents (8-18 years) performed a Monetary Incentive Delay Task comprising a monetary reward and punishment condition. Using event-related brain potential recordings, the cue-P3 and the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) were analyzed during the anticipation phase, while the Reward Positivity and the feedback-P3 were analyzed during the outcome phase. When anticipating monetary loss or no gain, SPN amplitude in the right hemisphere decreased with age. Moreover, exploratory analyses revealed a decrease in feedback-P3 amplitudes in response to monetary loss with increasing age. No other group differences were observed. Age-related changes in the SPN and fP3 component suggest that sensitivity to negative outcomes decreases from childhood to late adolescence, supporting the notion that adolescence is associated with reduced harm-avoidance. Longitudinal research including young adults is needed to substantiate our findings and its clinical implications regarding disturbed developmental trajectories in psychiatric populations.
Project description:Background: Event related potential (ERP) components, such as P3, N2, and FRN, are potential metrics for assessing feedback response as a form of performance monitoring. Most research studies investigate these ERP components using clinical or research-grade electroencephalography (EEG) systems. Wearable EEGs, which are an affordable alternative, have the potential to assess feedback response using ERPs but have not been sufficiently evaluated. Feedback-related ERPs also have not been scientifically evaluated in interactive settings that are similar to daily computer use. In this study, a consumer-grade wearable EEG system was assessed for its feasibility to collect feedback-related ERPs through an interactive software module that provided an environment in which users were permitted to navigate freely within the program to make decisions. Methods: The recording hardware, which costs < $1,500 in total, incorporated the OpenBCI Cyton Board with Daisy chain, a consumer-grade EEG system that costs $949 USD. Seventeen participants interacted with an oddball paradigm and an interactive module designed to elicit feedback-related ERPs. The features of interests for the oddball paradigm were the P3 and N2 components. The features of interests for the interactive module were the P3, N2, and FRN components elicited in response to positive, neutral, and two types of negative feedback. The FRN was calculated by subtracting the positive feedback response from the negative feedback responses. Results: The P3 and N2 components of the oddball paradigm indicated statistically significant differences between infrequent targets and frequent targets which is in line with current literature. The P3 and N2 components elicited in the interactive module indicated statistically significant differences between positive, neutral, and negative feedback responses. There were no significant differences between the FRN types and significant interactions with channel group and FRN type. Conclusion: The OpenBCI Cyton, after some modifications, shows potential for eliciting and assessing P3, N2, and FRN components, which are important indicators for performance monitoring, in an interactive setting.
Project description:Recent research suggests that exposure to monetary cues strengthens an individual's motivation to pursue monetary rewards by inducing the 'market mode' (i.e. thinking and behaving in accordance with market principles). Here, we examined the effect of market mode on social reward processes by means of event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants primed with monetary images or neutral images acted as advisors who selected one of two options for a putative advisee. Subsequently, all participants passively observed the advisee accepting or rejecting their advice and receiving a gain or loss outcome. After money priming, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) to the advisee's gain/loss outcome was larger following incorrect as compared to correct advice irrespective of whether the advice had been accepted or rejected. A smaller P3 following incorrect advice showed only when the advice was rejected. After neutral priming, the FRN was larger for incorrect relative to correct advice only when the advice had been rejected. However, the P3 was larger for correct relative to incorrect advice irrespective of the advisee's final choice. These findings suggest that the market mode facilitates early and automatic feedback processing but reduces later and controlled responding to outcomes that had been accepted.
Project description:Feedback processing during decision making involves comparing anticipated and actual outcome. Although effects on ERPs of valence, magnitude, expectancy, and context during feedback processing have been extensively investigated, the electrophysiological processes underlying prediction formation in anticipation of feedback signals have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore these processes of prediction formation and their influence on subsequent feedback signals. Twenty healthy, right-handed volunteers performed a forced-choice task in which they had to indicate which of two presented objects was more expensive. After the volunteer's choice, an expert cue, which was accurate in 80% of trials, was presented to manipulate prediction formation about future reward and punishment. ERPs were recorded during presentation of the expert cue and during feedback. Results revealed that prediction formation of future rewards and punishments is accompanied by differences in the P2 component and a subsequent delay period. During feedback processing, the prediction-related P2 was associated with the processing of valence reflected in the feedback-related P2. Furthermore, the prediction-related difference in the delay period was associated with error processing in feedback-related medial frontal negativity. These findings suggest that prediction signals prior to feedback contain information about whether a prediction is correct or wrong (expectancy) and if the outcome will be a reward or punishment (valence).
Project description:The present research explored rewarding bias and attentional deficits in Internet addiction (IA) based on the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) construct, during an attentional inhibitory task (Go/NoGo task). Event-related Potentials (ERPs) effects (Feedback Related Negativity (FRN) and P300) were monitored in concomitance with Behavioral Activation System (BAS) modulation. High-IAT young participants showed specific responses to IA-related cues (videos representing online gambling and videogames) in terms of cognitive performance (decreased Response Times, RTs; and Error Rates, ERs) and ERPs modulation (decreased FRN and increased P300). Consistent reward and attentional biases was adduced to explain the cognitive "gain" effect and the anomalous response in terms of both feedback behavior (FRN) and attentional (P300) mechanisms in high-IAT. In addition, BAS and BAS-Reward subscales measures were correlated with both IAT and ERPs variations. Therefore, high sensitivity to IAT may be considered as a marker of dysfunctional reward processing (reduction of monitoring) and cognitive control (higher attentional values) for specific IA-related cues. More generally, a direct relationship among reward-related behavior, Internet addiction and BAS attitude was suggested.
Project description:Disturbances in motivation are prominent in the clinical presentation of people with schizophrenia and might reflect a disturbance in reward processing. Recent advances in affective neuroscience have subdivided reward processing into distinct components, but there are two limitations of the prior work in schizophrenia. First, studies typically focus on only one component rather than on the unfolding of reward processing across multiple stages. Second, studies have not considered the impact of certainty effects, which represent an important contextual factor that impacts processing. We examined whether individuals with schizophrenia show the typical certainty effects across three phases of reward processing: cue evaluation, feedback anticipation, and feedback receipt. Electroencephalography from 74 healthy controls and 92 people with schizophrenia was recorded during a cued gambling task under conditions in which cues indicated forthcoming reward outcomes that were certain or uncertain. Controls demonstrated the expected certainty effects across each stage. Initial cue evaluation (cue P300) was intact in the schizophrenia group, but people with schizophrenia showed diminished certainty effects during feedback anticipation (stimulus-preceding negativity [SPN]) and receipt (feedback reward positivity [fRewP] and feedback P300). During feedback receipt, event-related potentials in people with schizophrenia were similar to controls for the uncertain context but larger than controls for the certain context. Essentially, people with schizophrenia appeared to process certain feedback as though it were uncertain. These findings show, for the first time, that the fundamental distinction between certain and uncertain contexts is altered in schizophrenia at a neural level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A role for aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of depression has long been proposed. However, no review has yet examined its role in depression by integrating conceptual and quantitative findings across functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG methodologies. The authors quantified these effects, with an emphasis on development. METHOD:A total of 38 fMRI and 12 EEG studies were entered into fMRI and EEG meta-analyses. fMRI studies primarily examined reward anticipation and reward feedback. These were analyzed using the activation likelihood estimation method. EEG studies involved mainly the feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potential, and these studies were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis of the association between FRN and depression. RESULTS:Analysis of fMRI studies revealed significantly reduced striatal activation in depressed compared with healthy individuals during reward feedback. When region-of-interest analyses were included, reduced activation was also observed in reward anticipation, an effect that was stronger in individuals under age 18. FRN was also significantly reduced in depression, with pronounced effects in individuals under age 18. In longitudinal studies, reduced striatal activation in fMRI and blunted FRN in EEG were found to precede the onset of depression in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, the findings show consistent neural aberrations during reward processing in depression, namely, reduced striatal signal during feedback and blunted FRN. These aberrations may underlie the pathogenesis of depression and have important implications for development of new treatments.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. METHODS: 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditions: no-feedback, gain and loss. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) time-locked to feedback and errors were computed. RESULTS: All groups performed more accurately with gain and loss than without feedback. Feedback-related ERPs demonstrated no group differences in the feedback P2, but an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) to feedback stimuli (both gains and losses) for Mph-free children with ADHD compared to controls. Feedback-related ERPs in Mph-treated children with ADHD were similar to controls. Correlational analyses in the ADHD groups revealed that the severity of inattention problems correlated negatively with the feedback P2 amplitude and positively with the LPP to losses and omitted gains. CONCLUSIONS: The early selective attention for rewarding and punishing feedback was relatively intact in children with ADHD, but the late feedback processing was deviant (increased feedback LPP). This may explain the often observed positive effects of continuous reinforcement on performance and behaviour in children with ADHD. However, these group findings cannot be generalised to all individuals with the ADHD, because the feedback-related ERPs were associated with the severity of the inattention problems. Children with ADHD-combined type with more inattention problems showed both deviant early attentional selection of feedback stimuli, and deviant late processing of non-reward and punishment.