Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon).
ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress.
Project description:As a widely used warm-season turfgrass in landscapes and golf courses, bermudagrass encounters multiple abiotic stresses during the growth and development. Physiology analysis indicated that abiotic stresses induced the accumulation of ROS and decline of photosynthesis, resulting in increased cell damage and inhibited growth. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed that antioxidant enzymes and osmoprotectant contents (sugar, sucrose, dehydrin, proline) were extensively changed under abiotic stress conditions. Exogenous application of small molecules, such as ABA, NO, CaCl2, H2S, polyamine and melatonin, could effectively alleviate damages caused by multiple abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, heat and cold. Based on high through-put RNA seq analysis, genes involved in ROS, transcription factors, hormones, and carbohydrate metabolisms were largely enriched. The data indicated that small molecules induced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and antioxidants, kept cell membrane integrity, increased photosynthesis and kept ion homeostasis, which protected bermudagrass from damages caused by abiotic stresses.
Project description:Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of tolerant grass species to drought and salt. The comparative analyses of bermudagrass in response to drought and salt stresses at the physiological, proteomic, and metabolomic levels were performed in this study. The physiological results indicated that osmolytes accumulation, ROS level and antioxidant enzyme activities were extensively changed by drought and salt stresses. Through comparative proteomic analyses, we successfully identified a total of 77 proteins involved in photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis, and redox metabolic pathways when exposed to drought and salt stresses. Among them, 36 proteins were commonly regulated by both treatments, while other 40 and 13 proteins were specifically regulated by drought and salt, respectively. Totally 15 proteins were involved in carbon metabolic pathway. Moreover, contents of 37 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by drought and salt treatments. Among them, 18 commonly modulated metabolites were involved in carbon and amino acid metabolic pathways. Drought treatment for 21 days caused less accumulation of sugars and sugar alcohols and increased ROS level in bermudagrass which led to relatively more severe cell membrane reflected by high EL-value and lower survival rate when compared to 400 mM salt treatment for 21 days. These results suggested that drought and 400 mM NaCl stresses for 21 days treatment affected common and specific changes in bermudagrass, which would provide new insights to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms and metabolic homeostasis of bermudagrass in responses to abiotic stresses.
Project description:We investigated the physiological and proteomic changes in the leaves of three Lolium perenne genotypes, one Iranian putative self-pollinating genotype named S10 and two commercial genotypes of Vigor and Speedy, subjected to drought stress conditions. The results of this study indeed showed higher RWC (relative water content), SDW (shoot dry weight), proline, ABA (abscisic acid), nitrogen and amino acid contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of S10 under drought stress in comparison with the two other genotypes. A total of 915 proteins were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis, and the number of differentially abundant proteins between normal and stress conditions was 467, 456, and 99 in Vigor, Speedy, and S10, respectively. Proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, TCA cycle, redox, and transport categories were up-regulated in the two commercial genotypes. We also found that some protein inductions, including those involved in amino acid and ABA metabolisms, aquaporin, HSPs, photorespiration, and increases in the abundance of antioxidant enzymes, are essential responses of the two commercial genotypes to drought stress. In contrast, we observed only slight changes in the protein profile of the S10 genotype under drought stress. Higher homozygosity due to self-pollination in the genetic background of the S10 genotype may have led to a lower variation in response to drought stress conditions.
Project description:Excess salinity is a major environmental stress that limits growth and development of plants. Improving salt stress tolerance of plants is important in order to enhance land utilization and crop yield. Cold priming has been reported to trigger the protective processes in plants that increase their stress tolerance. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of the most widely used turfgrass species around the world. However, the effect of cold priming on salt tolerance of bermudagrass is largely unknown. In the present study, wild bermudagrass was pre-treated with 4 °C for 6 h before 150 mM NaCl treatment for one week. The results showed that the cell membrane stability, ion homeostasis and photosynthesis process which are usually negatively affected by salt stress in bermudagrass were alleviated by short-term pre-cold treatment. Additionally, the gene expression profile also corresponded to the change of physiological indexes in bermudagrass. The results suggest that cold priming plays a positive role in improving salt stress tolerance of bermudagrass.
Project description:Drought susceptible rice cultivar PTT1 (Pathumthani1) was treated with drought (-72 kPa) and CPPU (N-2-(chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenyl urea) @ 5 mg/L at tillering and grain-filling stages. Plants were tested for the effect of synthetic cytokinin on the parameters influencing the process of photosynthesis. Exogenous spray of CPPU improved the stomatal conductance of rice leaves, which was severely reduced by drought. The abundance intensities of proteins, associated with the stomatal conductance (ZEP, NCED4, PYL9, PYL10, ABI5, SnRK4, Phot1, and Phot2), were also in agreement with the positive impact of CPPU on the stomatal conductance under drought stress. Among the photosynthetic pigments, Chl b contents were significantly reduced by drought stress, whereas CPPU treated plants retained the normal contents of Chl b under drought stress. Subsequently, we examined the abundance intensities of chlorophyll synthase and HCR proteins, implicated in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll pigments and the conversion of Chl b to Chl a, respectively. The results indicated a drought-mediated suppression of chlorophyll synthase. However, CPPU treated plants retained normal levels of chlorophyll synthase under drought stress. In addition, drought stress induced HCR proteins, which might be the cause for reduced Chl b contents in drought stressed plants. Further, CPPU treatment helped the plants sustain photosynthesis at a normal rate under drought stress, which was comparable with well-watered plants. The results were further confirmed by examining the abundance intensities of two key proteins, RAF1 and Rubisco activase, implicated in the assembly and activation of Rubisco, respectively. CPPU treatment reversed the drought mediated suppression of these proteins at both of the growth stages of rice under drought stress. Based on the results, it can be suggested that synthetic cytokinins help the plants sustain photosynthesis at a normal rate under drought stress by positively influencing the determinants of photosynthesis at a molecular level.
Project description:Submergence and drought stresses are the main constraints to crop production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play a major role in plant response to various stresses. In this study, we analyzed the expression of maize and teosinte miRNAs by high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries in maize and its ancestor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), under submergence, drought, and alternated stress. We found that the expression patterns of 67 miRNA sequences representing 23 miRNA families in maize and other plants were regulated by submergence or drought. miR159a, miR166b, miR167c, and miR169c were downregulated by submergence in both plants but more severely in maize. miR156k and miR164e were upregulated by drought in teosinte but downregulated in maize. Small RNA profiling of teosinte subject to alternate treatments with drought and submergence revealed that submergence as the first stress attenuated the response to drought, while drought being the first stress did not alter the response to submergence. The miRNAs identified herein, and their potential targets, indicate that control of development, growth, and response to oxidative stress could be crucial for adaptation and that there exists evolutionary divergence between these two subspecies in miRNA response to abiotic stresses.
Project description:Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism.
Project description:Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting crop productivity. A better understanding of the effects of drought on millet (Setaria italica L.) production, a model crop for studying drought tolerance, and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for drought stress responses is vital to improvement of agricultural production. In this study, we exposed the drought resistant F1 hybrid, M79, and its parental lines E1 and H1 to drought stress. Subsequent physiological analysis demonstrated that M79 showed higher photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency and drought tolerance than its parents. A transcriptomic study using leaves collected six days after drought treatment, when the soil water content was about ?20%, identified 3066, 1895, and 2148 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in M79, E1 and H1 compared to the respective untreated controls, respectively. Further analysis revealed 17 Gene Ontology (GO) enrichments and 14 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in M79, including photosystem II (PSII) oxygen-evolving complex, peroxidase (POD) activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Co-regulation analysis suggested that these DEGs in M79 contributed to the formation of a regulatory network involving multiple biological processes and pathways including photosynthesis, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, redox regulation, hormonal signaling, and osmotic regulation. RNA-seq analysis also showed that some photosynthesis-related DEGs were highly expressed in M79 compared to its parental lines under drought stress. These results indicate that various molecular pathways, including photosynthesis, respond to drought stress in M79, and provide abundant molecular information for further analysis of the underlying mechanism responding to this stress.
Project description:TDK1 is a popular rice variety from the Lao PDR. Originally developed for irrigated conditions, this variety suffers a high decline in yield under drought conditions. Studies have identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield under drought conditions, qDTY3.1 , qDTY6.1 , and qDTY6.2 , that show a high effect in the background of this variety. We report here the pyramiding of these three QTLs with SUB1 that provides 2-3 weeks of tolerance to complete submergence, with the aim to develop drought- and submergence-tolerant near-isogenic lines (NILs) of TDK1. We used a tandem approach that combined marker-assisted backcross breeding with phenotypic selection to develop NILs with high yield under drought stress and non-stress conditions and preferred grain quality. The effect of different QTL combinations on yield and yield-related traits under drought stress and non-stress conditions is also reported. Our results show qDTY3.1 to be the largest and most consistent QTL affecting yield under drought conditions, followed by qDTY6.1 and qDTY6.2 , respectively. QTL class analysis also showed that lines with a combination of qDTY3.1 and qDTY6.1 consistently showed a higher tolerance to drought than those in which one of these QTLs was missing. In countries such as Lao PDR, where large areas under rice cultivation suffer vegetative-stage submergence and reproductive-stage drought, these lines could ensure yield stability. These lines can also serve as valuable genetic material to be used for further breeding of high-yielding, drought- and submergence-tolerant varieties in local breeding programs.
Project description:To understand molecular mechanisms of perennial grass adaptation to drought stress, genes associated with drought avoidance or tolerance traits were identified and their expression patterns were characterized in C4 hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.×C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, cv. Tifway] and common bermudagrass (C. dactylon, cv. C299). Plants of drought-tolerant 'Tifway' and drought-sensitive 'C299' were exposed to drought for 5 d (mild stress) and 10 d (severe stress) by withholding irrigation in a growth chamber. 'Tifway' maintained significantly lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content than 'C299' at both 5 and 10 d of drought stress. Four cDNA libraries via suppression subtractive hybridization analysis were constructed and identified 277 drought-responsive genes in the two genotypes at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, which were mainly classified into the functional categories of stress defense, metabolism, osmoregulation, membrane system, signal and regulator, structural protein, protein synthesis and degradation, and energy metabolism. Quantitative-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of 36 drought up-regulated genes that were more highly expressed in drought-tolerant 'Tifway' than drought-sensitive 'C299', including those for drought avoidance traits, such as cuticle wax formation (CER1 and sterol desaturase), for drought tolerance traits, such as dehydration-protective proteins (dehydrins, HVA-22-like protein) and oxidative stress defense (superoxide dismutase, dehydroascorbate reductase, 2-Cys peroxiredoxins), and for stress signaling (EREBP-4 like protein and WRKY transcription factor). The results suggest that the expression of genes for stress signaling, cuticle wax accumulation, antioxidant defense, and dehydration-protective protein accumulation could be critically important for warm-season perennial grass adaptation to long-term drought stress.