Characteristic signatures of quantum criticality driven by geometrical frustration.
ABSTRACT: Geometrical frustration describes situations where interactions are incompatible with the lattice geometry and stabilizes exotic phases such as spin liquids. Whether geometrical frustration of magnetic interactions in metals can induce unconventional quantum critical points is an active area of research. We focus on the hexagonal heavy fermion metal CeRhSn, where the Kondo ions are located on distorted kagome planes stacked along the c axis. Low-temperature specific heat, thermal expansion, and magnetic Grüneisen parameter measurements prove a zero-field quantum critical point. The linear thermal expansion, which measures the initial uniaxial pressure derivative of the entropy, displays a striking anisotropy. Critical and noncritical behaviors along and perpendicular to the kagome planes, respectively, prove that quantum criticality is driven be geometrical frustration. We also discovered a spin flop-type metamagnetic crossover. This excludes an itinerant scenario and suggests that quantum criticality is related to local moments in a spin liquid-like state.
Project description:Geometric frustration, in which competing interactions give rise to degenerate ground states, potentially induces various exotic quantum phenomena in magnetic materials. Minimal models comprising triangular units, such as triangular and Kagome lattices, have been investigated for decades to realize novel quantum phases, such as quantum spin liquid. A pentagon is the second-minimal elementary unit for geometric frustration. The realization of such systems is expected to provide a distinct platform for studying frustrated magnetism. Here, we present a spin-1/2 quantum pentagonal lattice in the new organic radical crystal ?-2,6-Cl2-V [=?-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl]. Its unique molecular arrangement allows the formation of a partially corner-shared pentagonal lattice (PCPL). We find a clear 1/3 magnetization plateau and an anomalous change in magnetization in the vicinity of the saturation field, which originate from frustrated interactions in the PCPL.
Project description:Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.
Project description:Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.
Project description:A spin-[Formula: see text] lattice Heisenberg Kagome antiferromagnet (KAFM) is a prototypical frustrated quantum magnet, which exhibits exotic quantum spin liquids that evade long-range magnetic order due to the interplay between quantum fluctuation and geometric frustration. So far, the main focus has remained on the ground-state properties; however, the theoretical consensus regarding the magnetic excitations is limited. Here, we study the dynamic spin structure factor (DSSF) of the KAFM by means of the density matrix renormalization group. By comparison with the well-defined magnetically ordered state and the chiral spin liquid sitting nearby in the phase diagram, the KAFM with nearest neighbor interactions shows distinct dynamical responses. The DSSF displays important spectral intensity predominantly in the low-frequency region around the [Formula: see text] point in momentum space and shows a broad spectral distribution in the high-frequency region for momenta along the boundary of the extended Brillouin zone. The excitation continuum identified from momentum- and energy-resolved DSSF signals emergent spinons carrying fractional quantum numbers. These results capture the main observations in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements of herbertsmithite and indicate the spin liquid nature of the ground state. By tracking the DSSF across quantum-phase transition between the chiral spin liquid and the magnetically ordered phase, we identify the condensation of two-spinon bound state driving the quantum-phase transition.
Project description:Quantum entanglement in magnetic materials is expected to yield a quantum spin liquid (QSL), in which strong quantum fluctuations prevent magnetic ordering even at zero temperature. This topic has been one of the primary focuses of condensed-matter science since Anderson first proposed the resonating valence bond state in a certain spin-1/2 frustrated magnet in 1973. Since then, several candidate materials featuring frustration, such as triangular and kagome lattices, have been reported to exhibit liquid-like behavior. However, the mechanisms that stabilize the liquid-like states have remained elusive. Here, we present a QSL state in a spin-1/2 honeycomb lattice with randomness in the exchange interaction. That is, we successfully introduce randomness into the organic radial-based complex and realize a random-singlet (RS) state (or valence bond glass). All magnetic and thermodynamic experimental results indicate the liquid-like behaviors, which are consistent with those expected in the RS state. Our results suggest that the randomness or inhomogeneity in the actual systems stabilize the RS state and yield liquid-like behavior.
Project description:The spin- 12 kagome antiferromagnet is considered an ideal host for a quantum spin liquid (QSL) ground state. We find that when the bonds of the kagome lattice are modulated with a periodic pattern, new quantum ground states emerge. Newly synthesized crystalline barlowite (Cu4(OH)6FBr) and Zn-substituted barlowite demonstrate the delicate interplay between singlet states and spin order on the spin- 12 kagome lattice. Comprehensive structural measurements demonstrate that our new variant of barlowite maintains hexagonal symmetry at low temperatures with an arrangement of distorted and undistorted kagome triangles, for which numerical simulations predict a pinwheel valence bond crystal (VBC) state instead of a QSL. The presence of interlayer spins eventually leads to an interesting pinwheel q = 0 magnetic order. Partially Zn-substituted barlowite (Cu3.44Zn0.56(OH)6FBr) has an ideal kagome lattice and shows QSL behavior, indicating a surprising robustness of the QSL against interlayer impurities. The magnetic susceptibility is similar to that of herbertsmithite, even though the Cu2+ impurities are above the percolation threshold for the interlayer lattice and they couple more strongly to the nearest kagome moment. This system is a unique playground displaying QSL, VBC, and spin order, furthering our understanding of these highly competitive quantum states.
Project description:The search for two-dimensional quantum spin liquids, exotic magnetic states remaining disordered down to zero temperature, has been a great challenge in frustrated magnetism over the last few decades. Recently, evidence for fractionalized excitations, called spinons, emerging from these states has been observed in kagome and triangular antiferromagnets. In contrast, quantum ferromagnetic spin liquids in two dimensions, namely quantum kagome ices, have been less investigated, yet their classical counterparts exhibit amazing properties, magnetic monopole crystals as well as magnetic fragmentation. Here, we show that applying a magnetic field to the pyrochlore oxide Nd2Zr2O7, which has been shown to develop three-dimensional quantum magnetic fragmentation in zero field, results in a dimensional reduction, creating a dynamic kagome ice state: the spin excitation spectrum determined by neutron scattering encompasses a flat mode with a six arm shape akin to the kagome ice structure factor, from which dispersive branches emerge.
Project description:In this work, a systematic study of Cu(NO3)2·2.5?H2O (copper nitrate hemipentahydrate, CN), an alternating Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model material, is performed with multi-technique approach including thermal tensor network (TTN) simulations, first-principles calculations, as well as magnetization measurements. Employing a cutting-edge TTN method developed in the present work, we verify the couplings J?=?5.13?K, ??=?0.23(1) and Landé factors g?=?2.31, g??=?2.14 in CN, with which the magnetothermal properties have been fitted strikingly well. Based on first-principles calculations, we reveal explicitly the spin chain scenario in CN by displaying the calculated electron density distributions, from which the distinct superexchange paths are visualized. On top of that, we investigated the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in CN by calculating its isentropes and magnetic Grüneisen parameter. Prominent quantum criticality-enhanced MCE was uncovered near both critical fields of intermediate strengths as 2.87 and 4.08?T, respectively. We propose that CN is potentially a very promising quantum critical coolant.
Project description:The Ising model-in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)-is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ?0.3?K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.
Project description:Pyrochlore systems are ideally suited to the exploration of geometrical frustration in three dimensions, and their rich phenomenology encompasses topological order and fractional excitations. Classical spin ices provide the first context in which it is possible to control emergent magnetic monopoles, and anisotropic exchange leads to even richer behaviour associated with large quantum fluctuations. Whether the magnetic ground state of Yb2Ti2O7 is a quantum spin liquid or a ferromagnetic phase induced by a Higgs transition appears to be sample dependent. Here we have determined the role of structural defects on the magnetic ground state via the diffuse scattering of neutrons. We find that oxygen vacancies stabilise the spin liquid phase and the stuffing of Ti sites by Yb suppresses it. Samples in which the oxygen vacancies have been eliminated by annealing in oxygen exhibit a transition to a ferromagnetic phase, and this is the true magnetic ground state.