G protein-coupled receptors directly bind filamin A with high affinity and promote filamin phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: Although interaction of a few G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with Filamin A, a key actin cross-linking and biomechanical signal transducer protein, has been observed, a comprehensive structure-function analysis of this interaction is lacking. Through a systematic sequence-based analysis, we found that a conserved filamin binding motif is present in the cytoplasmic domains of >20% of the 824 GPCRs encoded in the human genome. Direct high-affinity interaction of filamin binding motif peptides of select GPCRs with the Ig domain of Filamin A was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetric experiments. Engagement of the filamin binding motif with the Filamin A Ig domain induced the phosphorylation of filamin by protein kinase A in vitro. In transfected cells, agonist activation as well as constitutive activation of representative GPCRs dramatically elicited recruitment and phosphorylation of cellular Filamin A, a phenomenon long known to be crucial for regulating the structure and dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a molecular mechanism for direct GPCR-cytoskeleton coupling via filamin. Until now, GPCR signaling to the cytoskeleton was predominantly thought to be indirect, through canonical G protein-mediated signaling cascades involving GTPases, adenylyl cyclases, phospholipases, ion channels, and protein kinases. We propose that the GPCR-induced filamin phosphorylation pathway is a conserved, novel biochemical signaling paradigm.
Project description:The PI3K/Akt pathway promotes skeletal muscle growth and myogenic differentiation. Although its importance in skeletal muscle biology is well documented, many of its substrates remain to be identified. We here studied PI3K/Akt signaling in contracting skeletal muscle cells by quantitative phosphoproteomics. We identified the extended basophilic phosphosite motif RxRxxp[S/T]xxp[S/T] in various proteins including filamin-C (FLNc). Importantly, this extended motif, located in a unique insert in Ig-like domain 20 of FLNc, is doubly phosphorylated. The protein kinases responsible for this dual-site phosphorylation are Akt and PKC?. Proximity proteomics and interaction analysis identified filamin A-interacting protein 1 (FILIP1) as direct FLNc binding partner. FILIP1 binding induces filamin degradation, thereby negatively regulating its function. Here, dual-site phosphorylation of FLNc not only reduces FILIP1 binding, providing a mechanism to shield FLNc from FILIP1-mediated degradation, but also enables fast dynamics of FLNc necessary for its function as signaling adaptor in cross-striated muscle cells.
Project description:Mutations in the chloride channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder characterized by defects in CFTR biosynthesis, localization to the cell surface, or activation by regulatory factors. It was discovered recently that surface localization of CFTR is stabilized by an interaction between the CFTR N terminus and the multidomain cytoskeletal protein filamin. The details of the CFTR-filamin interaction, however, are unclear. Using x-ray crystallography, we show how the CFTR N terminus binds to immunoglobulin-like repeat 21 of filamin A (FlnA-Ig21). CFTR binds to beta-strands C and D of FlnA-Ig21 using backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds, a linchpin serine residue, and hydrophobic side-chain packing. We use NMR to determine that the CFTR N terminus also binds to several other immunoglobulin-like repeats from filamin A in vitro. Our structural data explain why the cystic fibrosis-causing S13F mutation disrupts CFTR-filamin interaction. We show that FlnA-Ig repeats transfected into cultured Calu-3 cells disrupt CFTR-filamin interaction and reduce surface levels of CFTR. Our findings suggest that filamin A stabilizes surface CFTR by anchoring it to the actin cytoskeleton through interactions with multiple filamin Ig repeats. Such an interaction mode may allow filamins to cluster multiple CFTR molecules and to promote colocalization of CFTR and other filamin-binding proteins in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells.
Project description:Filamins are dimeric actin-binding proteins participating in the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton. Their modular domain organization is made up of an N-terminal actin-binding domain composed of two CH domains followed by flexible rod regions that consist of 24 Ig-like domains. Homology modeling was used to model human filamin using Modeller 9v5. The resulting model assessed by Verify 3D and PROCHECK showed that the final model is reliable. The conformational disorder prediction of human filamin residues were also mapped on the validated structure of human filamin. Prediction of protein disorder in filamin structures will help structural biologists to find suitable targets to be analyzed and for understanding protein function.
Project description:Filamins are actin binding proteins that contribute to cytoskeletal integrity and biochemical scaffolds during mechanochemical signal transductions. Structurally, human filamins are dimers composed of an actin-binding domain with 24 immunoglobulin (Ig)-like repeats. In this study, we focus on the recently solved high-resolution crystal structure of Ig-like repeats 19-21 of filamin-A (IgFLNa-R19-R21). IgFLNa-R19-21 is of marked importance because it contains the binding site for integrins and facilitates the dynamic ability of filamin-A to communicate with the extracellular environment. However, the structure of filamin-A shows an interesting domain arrangement where the integrin binding site on IgFLNa-R21 is hindered sterically by IgFLNa-R20. Thus, a number of hypotheses on the regulation of filamin-A exist. Using molecular dynamics simulations we evaluated the effects of two primary regulators of filamin-A, force and phosphorylation. We find that a tensile force of 40 pN is sufficient to initiate the partial removal of the autoinhibition on the integrin binding site of IgFLNa-R21. Force coupled to phosphorylation at Ser(2152), however, affords complete dissociation of autoinhibition with a decreased force requirement. Phosphorylation seems to decrease the threshold for removing the IgFLNa-R20 beta-strand inhibitor within 300 ps with 40 pN tensile force. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic trajectories illustrate phosphorylation of Ser(2152) without force is insufficient to remove autoinhibition. We believe the results of this study implicate filamin-A as a tunable mechanosensor, where its sensitivity can be modulated by the degree of phosphorylation.
Project description:Filamin A (FLNa), a dimeric actin cross-linking and scaffold protein with numerous intracellular binding partners, anchors the platelet adhesion glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V receptor to actin cytoskeleton. We mapped the GPIbalpha binding site to a single domain of FLNa and resolved the structure of this domain and its interaction complex with the corresponding GPIbalpha cytoplasmic domain. This is the first atomic structure of this class of membrane glycoprotein-cytoskeleton connection. GPIbalpha binds in a groove formed between the C and D beta strands of FLNa domain 17. The interaction is strikingly similar to that between the beta7 integrin tail and a different FLNa domain, potentially defining a conserved motif for FLNa binding. Nevertheless, the structures also reveal specificity of the interfaces, which explains different regulatory mechanisms. To verify the topology of GPIb-FLNa interaction we also purified the native complex from platelets and showed that GPIb interacts with the C-terminus of FLNa, which is in accordance with our biochemical and structural data.
Project description:A link between sites of cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton is essential for regulation of cell shape, motility, and signaling. Migfilin is a recently identified adaptor protein that localizes at cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion sites, where it is thought to provide a link to the cytoskeleton by interacting with the actin cross-linking protein filamin. Here we have used x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and protein-protein interaction studies to investigate the molecular basis of migfilin binding to filamin. We report that the N-terminal portion of migfilin can bind all three human filamins (FLNa, -b, or -c) and that there are multiple migfilin-binding sites in FLNa. Human filamins are composed of an N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like (IgFLN) domains and we find that migfilin binds preferentially to IgFLNa21 and more weakly to IgFLNa19 and -22. The filamin-binding site in migfilin is localized between Pro(5) and Pro(19) and binds to the CD face of the IgFLNa21 beta-sandwich. This interaction is similar to the previously characterized beta 7 integrin-IgFLNa21 interaction and migfilin and integrin beta tails can compete with one another for binding to IgFLNa21. This suggests that competition between filamin ligands for common binding sites on IgFLN domains may provide a general means of modulating filamin interactions and signaling. In this specific case, displacement of integrin tails from filamin by migfilin may provide a mechanism for switching between different integrin-cytoskeleton linkages.
Project description:Mechanical forces are important signals for cell response and development, but detailed molecular mechanisms of force sensing are largely unexplored. The cytoskeletal protein filamin is a key connecting element between the cytoskeleton and transmembrane complexes such as integrins or the von Willebrand receptor glycoprotein Ib. Here, we show using single-molecule mechanical measurements that the recently reported Ig domain pair 20-21 of human filamin A acts as an autoinhibited force-activatable mechanosensor. We developed a mechanical single-molecule competition assay that allows online observation of binding events of target peptides in solution to the strained domain pair. We find that filamin force sensing is a highly dynamic process occurring in rapid equilibrium that increases the affinity to the target peptides by up to a factor of 17 between 2 and 5 pN. The equilibrium mechanism we find here can offer a general scheme for cellular force sensing.
Project description:Filamin-mediated linkages between transmembrane receptors (TR) and the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for regulating many cytoskeleton-dependent cellular processes such as cell shape change and migration. A major TR binding site in the immunoglobulin repeat 21 (Ig21) of filamin is masked by the adjacent repeat Ig20, resulting in autoinhibition. The TR binding to this site triggers the relief of Ig20 and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-2152, thereby dynamically regulating the TR-actin linkages. A P2204L mutation in Ig20 reportedly cause frontometaphyseal dysplasia, a skeletal disorder with unknown pathogenesis. We show here that the P2204L mutation impairs a hydrophobic core of Ig20, generating a conformationally fluctuating molten globule-like state. Consequently, unlike in WT filamin, where PKA-mediated Ser-2152 phosphorylation is ligand-dependent, the P2204L mutant is readily accessible to PKA, promoting ligand-independent phosphorylation on Ser-2152. Strong TR peptide ligands from platelet GP1bα and G-protein-coupled receptor MAS effectively bound Ig21 by displacing Ig20 from autoinhibited WT filamin, but surprisingly, the capacity of these ligands to bind the P2204L mutant was much reduced despite the mutation-induced destabilization of the Ig20 structure that supposedly weakens the autoinhibition. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that compared with WT filamin, the conformationally fluctuating state of the Ig20 mutant makes Ig21 enthalpically favorable to bind ligand but with substantial entropic penalty, resulting in total higher free energy and reduced ligand affinity. Overall, our results reveal an unusual structural and thermodynamic basis for the P2204L-induced dysfunction of filamin and frontometaphyseal dysplasia disease.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation mediates essentially all aspects of cellular life. In humans, this is achieved by ∼500 kinases, each recognizing a specific consensus motif (CM) in the substrates. The majority of CMs are surface-exposed and are thought to be accessible to kinases for phosphorylation. Here we investigated the archetypical protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of filamin, a major cytoskeletal protein that can adopt an autoinhibited conformation. Surprisingly, autoinhibited filamin is refractory to phosphorylation by PKA on a known Ser(2152) site despite its CM being exposed and the corresponding isolated peptide being readily phosphorylated. Structural analysis revealed that although the CM fits into the PKA active site its surrounding regions sterically clash with the kinase. However, upon ligand binding, filamin undergoes a conformational adjustment, allowing rapid phosphorylation on Ser(2152). These data uncover a novel ligand-induced conformational switch to trigger filamin phosphorylation. They further suggest a substrate shape-dependent filtering mechanism that channels specific exposed CM/kinase recognition in diverse signaling responses.
Project description:Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin.