Photodamage to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II by visible light.
ABSTRACT: Light damages photosynthetic machinery, primarily photosystem II (PSII), and it results in photoinhibition. A new photodamage model, the two-step photodamage model, suggests that photodamage to PSII initially occurs at the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) by light energy absorbed by manganese and that the PSII reaction center is subsequently damaged by light energy absorbed by photosynthetic pigments due to the limitation of electrons to the PSII reaction center. However, it is still uncertain whether this model is applicable to photodamage to PSII under visible light as manganese absorbs visible light only weakly. In the present study, we identified the initial site of photodamage to PSII upon illumination of visible light using PSII membrane fragments isolated from spinach leaves. When PSII samples were exposed to visible light in the presence of an exogenous electron acceptor, both PSII total activity and the PSII reaction centre activity declined due to photodamage. The supplemental addition of an electron donor to the PSII reaction centre alleviated the decline of the reaction centre activity but not the PSII total activity upon the light exposure. Our results demonstrate that visible light damages OEC prior to photodamage to the PSII reaction center, consistent with two-step photodamage model.
Project description:The quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence caused by photodamage of Photosystem II (qI) is a well recognized phenomenon, where the nature and physiological role of which are still debatable. Paradoxically, photodamage to the reaction centre of Photosystem II is supposed to be alleviated by excitation quenching mechanisms which manifest as fluorescence quenchers. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage in vivo and in vitro and that of picosecond time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence (quencher formation). Two long-lived fluorescence quenching processes during photodamage were observed and were formed at different speeds. The slow-developing quenching process exhibited a time course similar to that of the accumulation of photodamaged PSII, while the fast-developing process took place faster than the light-induced PSII damage. We attribute the slow process to the accumulation of photodamaged PSII and the fast process to an independent quenching mechanism that precedes PSII photodamage and that alleviates the inactivation of the PSII reaction centre.
Project description:Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is the only major phospholipid in the thylakoid membrane in cyanobacteria and plant chloroplasts. Although PG accounts only for ~10% of total thylakoid lipids, it plays indispensable roles in oxygenic photosynthesis. In contrast to the comprehensive analyses of PG-deprived mutants in cyanobacteria, in vivo roles of PG in photosynthesis during plant growth remain elusive. In this study, we characterized the photosynthesis of an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertional mutant (pgp1-2), which lacks plastidic PG biosynthesis. In the pgp1-2 mutant, energy transfer from antenna pigments to the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center was severely impaired, which resulted in low photochemical efficiency of PSII. Unlike in the wild type, in pgp1-2, the PSII complexes were susceptible to photodamage by red light irradiation. Manganese ions were mostly dissociated from protein systems in pgp1-2, with oxygen-evolving activity of PSII absent in the mutant thylakoids. The oxygen-evolving complex may be disrupted in pgp1-2, which may accelerate the photodamage to PSII by red light. On the acceptor side of the mutant PSII, decreased electron-accepting capacity was observed along with impaired electron transfer. Although the reaction center of PSI was relatively active in pgp1-2 compared to the severe impairment in PSII, the cyclic electron transport was dysfunctional. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis at 77K revealed that PG may not be needed for the self-organization of the macromolecular protein network in grana thylakoids but is essential for the assembly of antenna-reaction center complexes. Our data clearly show that thylakoid glycolipids cannot substitute for the role of PG in photosynthesis during plant growth.
Project description:The oxygen in the atmosphere is derived from light-driven oxidation of water at a catalytic centre contained within a multi-subunit enzyme known as photosystem II (PSII). PSII is located in the photosynthetic membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria and its oxygen-evolving centre (OEC) consists of four manganese ions and a calcium ion surrounded by a highly conserved protein environment. Recently, the structure of PSII was elucidated by X-ray crystallography thus revealing details of the molecular architecture of the OEC. This structural information, coupled with an extensive knowledge base derived from a wide range of biophysical, biochemical and molecular biological studies, has provided a framework for understanding the chemistry of photosynthetic oxygen generation as well as opening up debate about its evolutionary origin.
Project description:Sunlight drives photosynthesis but can also cause photodamage. To protect themselves, photosynthetic organisms dissipate the excess absorbed energy as heat, in a process known as nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). In green algae, diatoms, and mosses, NPQ depends on the light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) proteins. Here we investigated NPQ in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using an approach that maintains the cells in a stable quenched state. We show that in the presence of LHCSR3, all of the photosystem (PS) II complexes are quenched and the LHCs are the site of quenching, which occurs at a rate of ?150 ps-1 and is not induced by LHCII aggregation. The effective light-harvesting capacity of PSII decreases upon NPQ, and the NPQ rate is independent of the redox state of the reaction center. Finally, we could measure the pH dependence of NPQ, showing that the luminal pH is always above 5.5 in vivo and highlighting the role of LHCSR3 as an ultrasensitive pH sensor.
Project description:Photodamage to Photosystem II (PSII) has been attributed either to excessive excitation of photosynthetic pigments or by direct of light absorption by Mn4CaO5 cluster. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage and release of Mn in PSII-enriched membranes under high light illumination at 460?nm and 660?nm. We found that the loss of PSII activity, assayed by chlorophyll fluorescence, is faster than release of Mn from the Mn4CaO5 cluster, assayed by EPR. Loss of PSII activity and Mn release was slower during illumination in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors. Recovery of PSII activity was observed, after 30?min of addition of electron donor post illumination. The same behavior was observed under 460 and 660?nm illumination, suggesting stronger correlation between excessive excitation and photodamage compared to direct light absorption by the cluster. A unified model of PSII photodamage that takes into account present and previous literature reports is presented.
Project description:In oxygenic photosynthesis, photosystem II (PSII) is the multisubunit membrane protein responsible for the oxidation of water to O2 and the reduction of plastoquinone to plastoquinol. One electron charge separation in the PSII reaction center is coupled to sequential oxidation reactions at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which is composed of four manganese ions and one calcium ion. The sequentially oxidized forms of the OEC are referred to as the S(n) states. S(1) is the dark-adapted state of the OEC. Flash-induced oxygen production oscillates with period four and occurs during the S(3) to S(0) transition. Chloride plays an important, but poorly understood role in photosynthetic water oxidation. Chloride removal is known to block manganese oxidation during the S(2) to S(3) transition. In this work, we have used azide as a probe of proton transfer reactions in PSII. PSII was sulfate-treated to deplete chloride and then treated with azide. Steady state oxygen evolution measurements demonstrate that azide inhibits oxygen evolution in a chloride-dependent manner and that azide is a mixed or noncompetitive inhibitor. This result is consistent with two azide binding sites, one at which azide competes with chloride and one at which azide and chloride do not compete. At pH 7.5, the K(i) for the competing site was estimated as 1 mM, and the K(i)' for the uncompetitive site was estimated as 8 mM. Vibrational spectroscopy was then used to monitor perturbations in the frequency and amplitude of the azide antisymmetric stretching band. These changes were induced by laser-induced charge separation in the PSII reaction center. The results suggest that azide is involved in proton transfer reactions, which occur before manganese oxidation, on the donor side of chloride-depleted PSII.
Project description:Photosynthetic water oxidation is catalyzed by the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII). This process is energetically driven by light-induced charge separation in the reaction center of PSII, which leads to a stepwise accumulation of oxidizing equivalents in the OEC (Si states, i?=?0-4) resulting in O2 evolution after each fourth flash, and to the reduction of plastoquinone to plastoquinol on the acceptor side of PSII. However, the Si-state advancement is not perfect, which according to the Kok model is described by miss-hits (misses). These may be caused by redox equilibria or kinetic limitations on the donor (OEC) or the acceptor side. In this study, we investigate the effects of individual S state transitions and of the quinone acceptor side on the miss parameter by analyzing the flash-induced oxygen evolution patterns and the S2, S3 and S0 state lifetimes in thylakoid samples of the extremophilic red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The data are analyzed employing a global fit analysis and the results are compared to the data obtained previously for spinach thylakoids. These two organisms were selected, because the redox potential of QA/QA- in PSII is significantly less negative in C. merolae (Em?=?-?104 mV) than in spinach (Em?=?-?163 mV). This significant difference in redox potential was expected to allow the disentanglement of acceptor and donor side effects on the miss parameter. Our data indicate that, at slightly acidic and neutral pH values, the Em of QA-/QA plays only a minor role for the miss parameter. By contrast, the increased energy gap for the backward electron transfer from QA- to Pheo slows down the charge recombination reaction with the S3 and S2 states considerably. In addition, our data support the concept that the S2 ? S3 transition is the least efficient step during the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen in the Kok cycle of PSII.
Project description:The extrinsic subunits of membrane-bound photosystem II (PSII) maintain an essential role in optimizing the water-splitting reaction of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), even though they have undergone drastic change during the evolution of oxyphototrophs from symbiotic cyanobacteria to chloroplasts. Two specific extrinsic proteins, PsbP and PsbQ, bind to the lumenal surface of PSII in green plants and maintain OEC conformation and stabilize overall enzymatic function; however, their precise location has not been fully resolved. In this study, PSII-enriched membranes, isolated from spinach, were subjected to chemical cross-linking combined with release-reconstitution experiments. We observed direct interactions between PsbP and PsbE, as well as with PsbR. Intriguingly, PsbP and PsbQ were further linked to the CP26 and CP43 light-harvesting proteins. In addition, two cross-linked sites, between PsbP and PsbR, and that of PsbP and CP26, were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These data were used to estimate the binding topology and location of PsbP, and the putative positioning of PsbQ and PsbR on the lumenal surface of the PSII. Our model gives new insights into the organization of PSII extrinsic subunits in higher plants and their function in stabilizing the OEC of the PSII supercomplex.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII) in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contains approximately fifteen core proteins, which organize numerous pigments and prosthetic groups that mediate the light-driven water-splitting activity that drives oxygenic photosynthesis. The PSII reaction center protein D1 is subject to photodamage, whose repair requires degradation of damaged D1 and its replacement with nascent D1. Mechanisms that couple D1 synthesis with PSII assembly and repair are poorly understood. We address this question by using ribosome profiling to analyze the translation of chloroplast mRNAs in maize and Arabidopsis mutants with defects in PSII assembly. We found that OHP1, OHP2, and HCF244, which comprise a recently elucidated complex involved in PSII assembly and repair, are each required for the recruitment of ribosomes to psbA mRNA, which encodes D1. By contrast, HCF136, which acts upstream of the OHP1/OHP2/HCF244 complex during PSII assembly, does not have this effect. The fact that the OHP1/OHP2/HCF244 complex brings D1 into proximity with three proteins with dual roles in PSII assembly and psbA ribosome recruitment suggests that this complex is the hub of a translational autoregulatory mechanism that coordinates D1 synthesis with need for nascent D1 during PSII biogenesis and repair.
Project description:Photosynthetic species are subjected to a variety of environmental stresses, including suboptimal irradiance. In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, a major effect of high light exposure is damage to the Photosystem II (PSII) reaction-center protein D1. This process even happens under low or moderate light. To cope with photodamage to D1, photosynthetic organisms evolved an intricate PSII repair and reassembly cycle, which requires the participation of different auxiliary proteins, including thiol/disulfide-modulating proteins. Most of these auxiliary proteins exist ubiquitously in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Due to differences in mobility and environmental conditions, land plants are subject to more extensive high light stress than algae and cyanobacteria. Therefore, land plants evolved additional thiol/disulfide-modulating proteins, such as Low Quantum Yield of PSII 1 (LQY1), to aid in the repair and reassembly cycle of PSII. In this study, we introduced an Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of LQY1 (AtLQY1) into the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and performed a series of biochemical and physiological assays on AtLQY1-expressing Synechocystis. At a moderate growth light intensity (50 µmol photons m-2 s-1), AtLQY1-expressing Synechocystis was found to have significantly higher F v /F m , and lower nonphotochemical quenching and reactive oxygen species levels than the empty-vector control, which is opposite from the loss-of-function Atlqy1 mutant phenotype. Light response curve analysis of PSII operating efficiency and electron transport rate showed that AtLQY1-expressing Synechocystis also outperform the empty-vector control under higher light intensities. The increases in F v /F m , PSII operating efficiency, and PSII electron transport rate in AtLQY1-expressing Synechocystis under such growth conditions most likely come from an increased amount of PSII, because the level of D1 protein was found to be higher in AtLQY1-expressing Synechocystis. These results suggest that introducing AtLQY1 is beneficial to Synechocystis.