Determination of RNA polymerase binding surfaces of transcription factors by NMR spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT: In bacteria, RNA polymerase (RNAP), the central enzyme of transcription, is regulated by N-utilization substance (Nus) transcription factors. Several of these factors interact directly, and only transiently, with RNAP to modulate its function. As details of these interactions are largely unknown, we probed the RNAP binding surfaces of Escherichia coli (E. coli) Nus factors by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Perdeuterated factors with [(1)H,(13)C]-labeled methyl groups of Val, Leu, and Ile residues were titrated with protonated RNAP. After verification of this approach with the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NusG and RNAP we determined the RNAP binding site of NusE. It overlaps with the NusE interaction surface for the NusG C-terminal domain, indicating that RNAP and NusG compete for NusE and suggesting possible roles for the NusE:RNAP interaction, e.g. in antitermination and direct transcription:translation coupling. We solved the solution structure of NusA-NTD by NMR spectroscopy, identified its RNAP binding site with the same approach we used for NusG-NTD, and here present a detailed model of the NusA-NTD:RNAP:RNA complex.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC4642336 | BioStudies |