Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Vacuole-Targeted Thermotoga maritima BglB Related to Elevated Levels of Liberated Hormones.
ABSTRACT: The hyperthermostable ?-glucosidase BglB of Thermotoga maritima was modified by adding a short C-terminal tetrapeptide (AFVY, which transports phaseolin to the vacuole, to its C-terminal sequence). The modified ?-glucosidase BglB was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. We observed a range of significant phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants compared to the wild-type (WT) plants. The transgenic plants had faster stem growth, earlier flowering, enhanced root systems development, an increased biomass biosynthesis rate, and higher salt stress tolerance in young plants compared to WT. In addition, programed cell death was enhanced in mature plants. Furthermore, the C-terminal AFVY tetrapeptide efficiently sorted T. maritima BglB into the vacuole, which was maintained in an active form and could perform its glycoside hydrolysis function on hormone conjugates, leading to elevated hormone [abscisic acid (ABA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin] levels that likely contributed to the phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants. The elevation of cytokinin led to upregulation of the transcription factor WUSCHELL, a homeodomain factor that regulates the development, division, and reproduction of stem cells in the shoot apical meristems. Elevation of IAA led to enhanced root development, and the elevation of ABA contributed to enhanced tolerance to salt stress and programed cell death. These results suggest that overexpressing vacuole-targeted T. maritima BglB may have several advantages for molecular farming technology to improve multiple targets, including enhanced production of the ?-glucosidase BglB, increased biomass, and shortened developmental stages, that could play pivotal roles in bioenergy and biofuel production.
Project description:Here, we report an increase in biomass yield and saccharification in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) overexpressing thermostable ?-glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima, BglB, targeted to the chloroplasts and vacuoles. The transgenic tobacco plants showed phenotypic characteristics that were significantly different from those of the wild-type plants. The biomass yield and life cycle (from germination to flowering and harvest) of the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing BglB were 52% higher and 36% shorter than those of the wild-type tobacco plants, respectively, indicating a change in the genome transcription levels in the transgenic tobacco plants. Saccharification in biomass samples from the transgenic tobacco plants was 92% higher than that in biomass samples from the wild-type tobacco plants. The transgenic tobacco plants required a total investment (US$/year) corresponding to 52.9% of that required for the wild-type tobacco plants, but the total biomass yield (kg/year) of the transgenic tobacco plants was 43% higher than that of the wild-type tobacco plants. This approach could be applied to other plants to increase biomass yields and overproduce ?-glucosidase for lignocellulose conversion.
Project description:Beta-glucosidase (126.96.36.199) plays an essential role in the removal of non-reducing terminal glucosyl residues from glycosides. Recently, beta-glucosidase has been of interest for biomass conversion that acts in synergy with two other enzymes, endoglucanase and exo-glucanase. However, there is not much information available on the catalytic interactions of beta-glucosidase with its substrates. Thus, this study reports on the binding modes between beta-glucosidase from glycoside hydrolase family 1 namely BglB with cellobiose, cellotetraose and cellotetriose via molecular docking simulation. From the results, the binding affinities of BglB-cellobiose, BglB-cellotetraose, and BglB-cellotetriose complexes were reported to be -6.2kJ/mol , -5.68 kJ/mol and -5.63 kJ/mol, respectively. The detail interactions were also been investigated that revealed the key residues involved in forming hydrogen bonds (h-bond) with the substrates. These findings may provide valuable insigths in designing beta-glucosidase with higher cellobiose-hydrolyzing efficiency.
Project description:The ability of yeasts to ferment cellodextrins is rare. Candida wickerhamii is able to use these sugars for alcohol production because of a cell-bound, extracellular, beta-glucosidase that is unusual by not being inhibited by glucose. A cDNA expression library in lambda phage was prepared with mRNA isolated from cellobiose-grown C. wickerhamii. Immunological screening of the library with polyclonal antibodies against purified C. wickerhamii cell-bound, extracellular beta-glucosidase yielded 12 positive clones. Restriction endonuclease analysis and sequence data revealed that the clones could be divided into two groups, bglA and bglB, which were shown to be genetically distinct by Southern hybridization analyses. Efforts were directed at the study of bglB since it appeared to code for the cell-bound beta-glucosidase. Sequence data from both cDNA and genomic clones showed the absence of introns in bglB. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting of cell lysates from Escherichia coli bglB clones confirmed the presence of an expressed protein with an apparent molecular mass of 72 kDa, which is consistent with that expected for an unglycosylated form of the enzyme. Amino acid comparisons of BglB with other beta-glucosidase sequences suggest that it is a member of family 1 glycosyl hydrolases but is unusual in that it contains an additional 100 to 130 amino acids at the N terminus. This sequence did not have homologies to other known protein sequences and may impart unique properties to this beta-glucosidase.
Project description:Genomic DNA fragments encoding beta-glucosidase activities of the thermophilic actinomycete Microbispora bispora were cloned into Escherichia coli. Transformants expressing beta-glucosidase activity were selected by their ability to hydrolyze the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucoside. Two genes encoding beta-glucosidase activity were isolated and distinguished by restriction analysis, Southern hybridization, and the substrate specificities of the encoded enzymes. One gene, bglB, encoded a beta-glucosidase that was expressed intracellularly in E. coli. It exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 52,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and 51,280 Da by nondenaturing gradient PAGE, a pI of 4.6, and temperature and pH optima of 60 degrees C and 6.2, respectively. Cloned BglB showed greater activity against cellobiose than against aryl-beta-D-glucosides and was thermostable, retaining about 70% of its activity after 48 h at 60 degrees C. BglB activity is activated two- to threefold in the presence of 2 to 5% (0.1 to 0.3 M) glucose. The DNA sequence of the 2.2-kb insert carrying bglB has been determined. An open reading frame which codes for a protein of 473 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 52,227 Da showed significant homology (40 to 47% identity) with beta-glucosidases from glycosal hydrolase family 1.
Project description:Responses to drought, heat, and combined stress were compared in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants ectopically expressing the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase CKX1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana L. under the control of either the predominantly root-expressed WRKY6 promoter or the constitutive 35S promoter, and in the wild type. WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited high CKX activity in the roots under control conditions. Under stress, the activity of the WRKY6 promoter was down-regulated and the concomitantly reduced cytokinin degradation coincided with raised bioactive cytokinin levels during the early phase of the stress response, which might contribute to enhanced stress tolerance of this genotype. Constitutive expression of CKX1 resulted in an enlarged root system, a stunted, dwarf shoot phenotype, and a low basal level of expression of the dehydration marker gene ERD10B. The high drought tolerance of this genotype was associated with a relatively moderate drop in leaf water potential and a significant decrease in leaf osmotic potential. Basal expression of the proline biosynthetic gene P5CSA was raised. Both wild-type and WRKY6:CKX1 plants responded to heat stress by transient elevation of stomatal conductance, which correlated with an enhanced abscisic acid catabolism. 35S:CKX1 transgenic plants exhibited a small and delayed stomatal response. Nevertheless, they maintained a lower leaf temperature than the other genotypes. Heat shock applied to drought-stressed plants exaggerated the negative stress effects, probably due to the additional water loss caused by a transient stimulation of transpiration. The results indicate that modulation of cytokinin levels may positively affect plant responses to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological mechanisms.
Project description:Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact cellulose degradation mechanism is unknown. In this study, the four ?-glucosidase (bgl) genes in C. hutchinsonii were singly and multiply deleted, and the functions of these ?-glucosidases in cellobiose and cellulose degradation were investigated. We found that the constitutively expressed BglB played a key role in cellobiose utilization, while BglA which was induced by cellobiose could partially make up for the deletion of bglB. The double deletion mutant ?bglA/bglB lost the ability to digest cellobiose and could not thrive in cellulose medium, indicating that ?-glucosidases were important for cellulose degradation. When cultured in cellulose medium, a small amount of glucose accumulated in the medium in the initial stage of growth for the wild type, while almost no glucose accumulated for ?bglA/bglB. When supplemented with a small amount of glucose, ?bglA/bglB started to degrade cellulose and grew in cellulose medium. We inferred that glucose might be essential for initiating cellulose degradation, and with additional glucose, C. hutchinsonii could partially utilize cellulose without ?-glucosidases. We also found that there were both cellulose binding cells and free cells when cultured in cellulose. Since direct contact between C. hutchinsonii cells and cellulose is necessary for cellulose degradation, we deduced that the free cells which were convenient to explore new territory in the environment might be fed by the adherent cells which could produce cello-oligosaccharide and glucose into the environment. This study enriched our knowledge of the cellulolytic pathway of C. hutchinsonii.
Project description:Recent advances in cytokinin analysis have made it possible to measure the content of 22 cytokinin metabolites in the tissue of developing tobacco seedlings. Individual types of cytokinins in plants are interconverted to their respective forms by several enzymatic activities (5'-AMP-isopentenyltransferase, adenosine nucleosidase, 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine phosphorylase, adenosine kinase, trans-hydroxylase, zeatin reductase, beta-glucosidase, O-glucosyl transferase, N-glucosyl transferase, cytokinin oxidase). This paper reports modelling and measuring of the dynamics of endogenous cytokinins in tobacco plants grown on media supplemented with isopentenyl adenine (IP), zeatin (Z) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR). Differences in phenotypes generated by the three cytokinins are shown and discussed, and the assumption that substrate concentration drives enzyme kinetics underpinned the construction of a simple mathematical model of cytokinin metabolism in developing seedlings. The model was tested on data obtained from liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry cytokinin measurements on tobacco seedlings grown on Murashige and Skoog agar nutrient medium, and on plants grown in the presence of IP, Z and DHZR. A close match was found between measured and simulated data, especially after a series of iterative parameter searches, in which the parameters were set to obtain the best fit with one of the data sets.
Project description:Developmental processes that control root system architecture are critical for soil exploration by plants, allowing for uptake of water and nutrients. Conversion of the auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to active auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) modulates lateral root formation. However, mechanisms governing IBA-to-IAA conversion have yet to be elucidated. We identified TRANSPORTER OF IBA1 (TOB1) as a vacuolar IBA transporter that limits lateral root formation. Moreover, TOB1, which is transcriptionally regulated by the phytohormone cytokinin, is necessary for the ability of cytokinin to exert inhibitory effects on lateral root production. The increased production of lateral roots in tob1 mutants, TOB1 transport of IBA into the vacuole, and cytokinin-regulated TOB1 expression provide a mechanism linking cytokinin signaling and IBA contribution to the auxin pool to tune root system architecture.
Project description:Our phenotyping and hormonal study has characterized the role of cytokinins (CK) in the drought and recovery responses of Arabidopsis thaliana. CK down-regulation was achieved by overexpression of the gene for CK deactivating enzyme cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX): constitutive (35S:CKX) or at the stress onset using a dexamethasone-inducible pOp/LhGR promoter (DEX:CKX). The 35S:CKX plants exhibited slow ontogenesis and higher expression levels of stress-associated genes, e.g., AtP5CS1, already at well-watered conditions. CK down-regulation resulted during drought in higher stress tolerance (indicated by relatively low up-regulation of the expression of drought stress marker gene AtRD29B) accompanied with lower leaf water loss. Nevertheless, these plants exhibited slow and delayed recovery after re-watering. CK levels were increased at the stress onset by stimulation of the expression of CK biosynthetic gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt) (DEX:IPT) or by application of exogenous CK meta-topolin. After water withdrawal, long-term CK elevation resulted in higher water loss in comparison with CKX transformants as well as with plants overexpressing ipt driven by senescence-inducible SAG12 promoter (SAG:IPT), which gradually enhanced CKs during the stress progression. In all cases, CK up-regulation resulted in fast and more vigorous recovery. All drought-stressed plants exhibited growth suppression associated with elevation of abscisic acid and decrease of auxins and active CKs (with the exception of SAG:IPT plants). Apart from the ipt overexpressers, also increase of jasmonic and salicylic acid was found.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cytokinin is a negative regulator of root growth, and a reduction of the cytokinin content or signalling causes the formation a larger root system in model plants, improves their growth under drought and nutrient limitation and causes increased accumulation of elements in the shoot. Roots are an important but understudied target of plant breeding. Here we have therefore explored whether root enhancement by lowering the cytokinin content can also be achieved in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants. RESULTS:Transgenic plants overexpressing the CKX2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a cytokinin-degrading cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase showed higher CKX activity and a strongly reduced cytokinin content. Cytokinin deficiency led to the formation of a larger root system under different growth conditions, which was mainly due to an increased number of lateral and adventitious roots. In contrast, shoot growth was comparable to wild type, which caused an enhanced root-to-shoot ratio. Transgenic plants accumulated in their leaves higher concentrations of macro- and microelements including P, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mo and Mn. They formed more chlorophyll under Mg- and S-deficiency and accumulated a larger amount of Cd and Zn from contaminated medium and soil. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate the usefulness of ectopic CKX gene expression to achieve root enhancement in oilseed rape and underpin the functional relevance of a larger root system. Furthermore, the lack of major developmental consequences on shoot growth in cytokinin-deficient oilseed rape indicates species-specific differences of CKX gene and/or cytokinin action.