Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow Phosphorylation is Altered in Duchenne Dystrophy and Arthrogryposis Myopathy in Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscles.
ABSTRACT: Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C), encoded by MYBPC1, comprises a family of regulatory proteins of skeletal muscles that are phosphorylated by PKA and PKC. MYBPC1 missense mutations are linked to the development of Distal Arthrogryposis-1 (DA-1). Although structure-function details for this myopathy are evolving, function is undoubtedly driven by sequence variations and post-translational modifications in sMyBP-C. Herein, we examined the phosphorylation profile of sMyBP-C in mouse and human fast-twitch skeletal muscles. We used Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) isolated from young (~2-months old) and old (~14-months old) wild type and mdx mice, and human Abductor Hallucis (AH) and gastrocnemious muscles carrying the DA-1 mutations. Our results indicate both constitutive and differential phosphorylation of sMyBP-C in aged and diseased muscles. We report a 7-35% reduction in the phosphorylation levels of select sites in old wild type and young or old mdx FDB mouse muscles, compared to young wild type tissue. Similarly, we observe a 30-70% decrease in the phosphorylation levels of all PKA and PKC phospho-sites in the DA-1 AH, but not gastrocnemius, muscle. Overall, our studies show that the phosphorylation pattern of sMyBP-C is differentially regulated in response to age and disease, suggesting that phosphorylation plays important roles in these processes.
Project description:Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C) is expressed in skeletal muscles where it plays structural and regulatory roles. The functions of sMyBP-C are modulated through alternative splicing and phosphorylation. Herein, we examined the phosphorylation profile of sMyBP-C in mouse slow-twitch soleus muscle isolated from fatigued or non-fatigued young (2-4-months old) and old (~14-months old) wild type and mdx mice. Our findings are two-fold. First, we identified the phosphorylation events present in individual sMyBP-C variants at different states. Secondly, we quantified the relative abundance of each phosphorylation event, and of sMyBP-C phospho-species as a function of age and dystrophy, in the presence or absence of fatigue. Our results revealed both constitutive and differential phosphorylation of sMyBP-C. Moreover, we noted a 10-40% and a 25-35% reduction in the phosphorylation levels of select sites in old wild type and young or old mdx soleus muscles, respectively. On the contrary, we observed a 5-10% and a 20-25% increase in the phosphorylation levels of specific sites in young fatigued wild type and mdx soleus muscles, respectively. Overall, our studies showed that the phosphorylation pattern of sMyBP-C is differentially regulated following reversible (i.e. fatigue) and non-reversible (i.e. age and disease) (patho)physiological stressors.
Project description:Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C) comprises a complex family of proteins expressed in slow and fast type skeletal muscles. Similar to its fast and cardiac counterparts, sMyBP-C functions to modulate the formation of actomyosin cross-bridges, and to organize and stabilize sarcomeric A- and M-bands. The slow form of MyBP-C was originally classified as a single protein, however several variants encoded by the single MYBPC1 gene have been recently identified. Alternative splicing of the 5' and 3' ends of the MYBPC1 transcript has led to the differential expression of small unique segments interspersed between common domains. In addition, the NH2-terminus of sMyBP-C undergoes complex phosphorylation. Thus, alternative splicing and phosphorylation appear to regulate the functional activities of sMyBP-C. sMyBP-C proteins are not restricted to slow twitch muscles, but they are abundantly expressed in fast twitch muscles, too. Using bioinformatic tools, we herein perform a systematic comparison of the known human and mouse sMyBP-C variants. In addition, using single fiber westerns and antibodies to a common region of all known sMyBP-C variants, we present a detailed and comprehensive characterization of the expression profile of sMyBP-C proteins in the slow twitch soleus and the fast twitch flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) mouse muscles. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that distinct sMyBP-C variants are co-expressed in the same fiber, and that their expression profile differs among fibers. Given the differential expression of sMyBP-C variants in single fibers, it becomes apparent that each variant or combination thereof may play unique roles in the regulation of actomyosin cross-bridges formation and the stabilization of thick filaments.
Project description:HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exert beneficial effects in mdx mice, by promoting endogenous regeneration; however, the cellular determinants of HDACi activity on dystrophic muscles have not been determined. We show that fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAP) influence the regeneration potential of satellite cells during disease progression in mdx mice and mediate HDACi ability to selectively promote regeneration at early stages of disease. FAPs from young mdx mice promote, while FAPs from old mdx mice repress, satellite cell-mediated formation of myotubes. In young mdx mice HDACi inhibited FAP adipogenic potential, while enhancing their ability to promote differentiation of adjacent satellite cells, through upregulation of the soluble factor follistatin. By contrast, FAPs from old mdx mice were resistant to HDACi-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis and constitutively repressed satellite cell-mediated formation of myotubes. We show that transplantation of FAPs from regenerating young muscles restored HDACi ability to increase myofibre size in old mdx mice. These results reveal that FAPs are key cellular determinants of disease progression in mdx mice and mediate a previously unappreciated stage-specific beneficial effect of HDACi in dystrophic muscles.
Project description:Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) is expressed in striated muscles, where it plays key roles in the modulation of actomyosin cross-bridges. Slow MyBP-C (sMyBP-C) consists of multiple variants sharing common domains but also containing unique segments within the NH2 and COOH termini. Two missense mutations in the NH2 terminus (W236R) and COOH terminus (Y856H) of sMyBP-C have been causally linked to the development of distal arthrogryposis-1 (DA-1), a severe skeletal muscle disorder. Using a combination of in vitro binding and motility assays, we show that the COOH terminus mediates binding of sMyBP-C to thick filaments, while the NH2 terminus modulates the formation of actomyosin cross-bridges in a variant-specific manner. Consistent with this, a recombinant NH2-terminal peptide that excludes residues 34-59 reduces the sliding velocity of actin filaments past myosin heads from 9.0 ± 1.3 to 5.7 ± 1.0 μm/s at 0.1 μM, while a recombinant peptide that excludes residues 21-59 fails to do so. Notably, the actomyosin regulatory properties of sMyBP-C are completely abolished by the presence of the DA-1 mutations. In summary, our studies are the first to show that the NH2 and COOH termini of sMyBP-C have distinct functions, which are regulated by differential splicing, and are compromized by the presence of missense point mutations linked to muscle disease.
Project description:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor changes in the transverse relaxation time constant (T2) in lower hindlimb muscles of mdx mice at different ages.Young (5 weeks), adult (44 weeks), and old mdx (96 weeks), and age-matched control mice were studied. Young mdx mice were imaged longitudinally, whereas adult and old mdx mice were imaged at a single time-point.Mean muscle T2 and percent of pixels with elevated T2 were significantly different between mdx and control mice at all ages. In young mdx mice, mean muscle T2 peaked at 7-8 weeks and declined at 9-11 weeks. In old mdx mice, mean muscle T2 was decreased compared with young and adult mice, which could be attributed to fibrosis.MRI captured longitudinal changes in skeletal muscle integrity of mdx mice. This information will be valuable for pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutic interventions for muscular dystrophy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To define a distinct, dominantly inherited, mild skeletal myopathy associated with prominent and consistent tremor in two unrelated, three-generation families. METHODS:Clinical evaluations as well as exome and panel sequencing analyses were performed in affected and nonaffected members of two families to identify genetic variants segregating with the phenotype. Histological assessment of a muscle biopsy specimen was performed in 1 patient, and quantitative tremor analysis was carried out in 2 patients. Molecular modeling studies and biochemical assays were performed for both mutations. RESULTS:Two novel missense mutations in MYBPC1 (p.E248K in family 1 and p.Y247H in family 2) were identified and shown to segregate perfectly with the myopathy/tremor phenotype in the respective families. MYBPC1 encodes slow myosin binding protein-C (sMyBP-C), a modular sarcomeric protein playing structural and regulatory roles through its dynamic interaction with actin and myosin filaments. The Y247H and E248K mutations are located in the NH2 -terminal M-motif of sMyBP-C. Both mutations result in markedly increased binding of the NH2 terminus to myosin, possibly interfering with normal cross-bridge cycling as the first muscle-based step in tremor genesis. The clinical tremor features observed in all mutation carriers, together with the tremor physiology studies performed in family 2, suggest amplification by an additional central loop modulating the clinical tremor phenomenology. INTERPRETATION:Here, we link two novel missense mutations in MYBPC1 with a dominant, mild skeletal myopathy invariably associated with a distinctive tremor. The molecular, genetic, and clinical studies are consistent with a unique sarcomeric origin of the tremor, which we classify as "myogenic tremor." ANN NEUROL 2019.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Distal arthrogryposis (DA) is the most common congenital limb malformation secondary to the functional defects of joints and muscles. DA1 is one of the most commonly described forms of DA. The characteristics of DA1 include bilateral and symmetric clenched fist, overlapping fingers, camptodactyly, ulnar deviation of fingers, and positional foot deformities such as talipes equinovarus. Previous studies demonstrate that mutations of TPM2, TNNI2, TNNT3, MYH3 and MYBPC1 may contribute to DA1. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The present study investigated 8 DA1 families/patients and 1 DA2B patient, determined sequences of TPM2, TNNI2, TNNT3, MYH3 and MYBPC1 and detected the mutation by multiple sequence alignments and bioinformatic prediction of mutation. RESULTS:We identified a novel missense mutation of TPM2 (c.463G>A; p.A155T) in a DA1 family without genetic mutant of TNNI2, TNNT3, MYH3 and MYBPC1. CONCLUSION:The mutation of TPM2 (c.463G>A; p.A155T) led to DA1 of the family. The identification of the mutation expands the spectrum of known TPM2 mutations, and it may contribute to novel approaches to genetic diagnosis and counseling of families with DA1.
Project description:Myosin binding protein-C slow (sMyBP-C) comprises a family of accessory proteins in skeletal muscles that bind both myosin and actin filaments. Herein, we examined the role of sMyBP-C in adult skeletal muscles using in vivo gene transfer and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats technology to knock down all known sMyBP-C variants. Our findings, confirmed in two different skeletal muscles, demonstrated efficient knockdown (KD) of sMyBP-C (>70%) resulting in notably decreased levels of thick, but not thin, filament proteins ranging from ?50% for slow and fast myosin to ?20% for myomesin. Consistent with this, A bands were selectively distorted, and sarcomere length was significantly reduced. Contrary to earlier in vitro studies showing that addition of recombinant sMyBP-C slows down the formation of actomyosin crossbridges, our work demonstrates that KD of sMyBP-C in intact myofibers results in decreased contraction and relaxation kinetics under no-load conditions. Similarly, KD muscles develop markedly reduced twitch and tetanic force and contraction velocity. Taken together, our results show that sMyBP-C is essential for the regular organization and maintenance of myosin filaments into A bands and that its structural role precedes its ability to regulate actomyosin crossbridges.-Geist, J., Ward, C. W., Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A. Structure before function: myosin binding protein-C slow is a structural protein with regulatory properties.
Project description:The C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J (BL10-mdx) mouse has been the most commonly used model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) for decades. Their muscle dysfunction and pathology is, however, less severe than in patients with DMD, which complicates preclinical studies. Recent discoveries indicate that disease severity is exacerbated when muscular dystrophy mouse models are generated on a DBA2/J genetic background. Knowledge on the natural history of animal models is pivotal for high-quality preclinical testing. However, for BL10-mdx mice on a DBA2/J background (D2-mdx), limited data are available. We addressed this gap in the natural history knowledge. First, we compared histopathological aspects in skeletal muscles of young D2-mdx, BL10-mdx, and wild-type mice. Pathology was more pronounced in D2-mdx mice and differed in severity between muscles within individuals. Secondly, we subjected D2-mdx mice to a functional test regime for 34 weeks and identified that female D2-mdx mice outperform severely impaired males, making females less useful for functional preclinical studies. Direct comparisons between 10- and 34-wk-old D2-mdx mice revealed that disease pathology ameliorates with age. Heart pathology was progressive, with some features already evident at a young age. This natural history study of the D2-mdx mouse will be instrumental for experimental design of future preclinical studies.-Van Putten, M., Putker, K., Overzier, M., Adamzek, W. A., Pasteuning-Vuhman, S., Plomp, J. J., Aartsma-Rus, A. Natural disease history of the D2-mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Project description:The I?B kinase (IKK?, ? and the regulatory subunit IKK?) complex regulates nuclear factor of ?B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity, which is upregulated in many chronic inflammatory diseases. NF-?B signaling promotes inflammation and limits muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), resulting in fibrotic and fatty tissue replacement of muscle that exacerbates the wasting process in dystrophic muscles. Here, we examined whether dominant-negative forms of IKK? (IKK?-dn) and IKK? (IKK?-dn) delivered by adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to the gastrocnemius (GAS) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of 1, 2 and 11-month-old mdx mice, a murine DMD model, block NF-?B activation and increase muscle regeneration. At 1 month post-treatment, the levels of nuclear NF-?B in locally treated muscle were decreased by gene transfer with either AAV-CMV-IKK?-dn or AAV-CMV-IKK?-dn, but not by IKK wild-type controls (IKK? and ?) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Although treatment with AAV-IKK?-dn or AAV-IKK?-dn vectors had no significant effect on muscle regeneration in young mdx mice treated at 1 and 2 months of age and collected 1 month later, treatment of old (11 months) mdx with AAV-CMV-IKK?-dn or AAV-CMV-IKK?-dn significantly increased levels of muscle regeneration. In addition, there was a significant decrease in myofiber necrosis in the AAV-IKK?-dn- and AAV-IKK?-dn-treated mdx muscle in both young and old mice. These results demonstrate that inhibition of IKK? or IKK? in dystrophic muscle reduces the adverse effects of NF-?B signaling, resulting in a therapeutic effect. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of inhibiting NF-?B activation by AAV gene transfer in dystrophic muscle to promote regeneration, particularly in older mdx mice, and block necrosis.