Optimization of human mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing: the effects of animal/xeno-free media.
ABSTRACT: Due to their immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated for the treatment of immunological diseases. However, the animal-derived growth supplements utilized for MSC manufacturing may lead to clinical complications. Characterization of alternative media formulations is imperative for MSC therapeutic application. Human BMMSC and AdMSC were expanded in media supplemented with either human platelet lysates (HPL), serum-free media/xeno-free FDA-approved culture medium (SFM/XF), or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the effects on their properties were investigated. The immunophenotype of resting and IFN-? primed BMMSC and AdMSC remained unaltered in all media. Both HPL and SFM/XF increased the proliferation of BMMSC and AdMSC. Expansion of BMMSC and AdMSC in HPL increased their differentiation, compared to SFM/XF and FBS. Resting BMMSC and AdMSC, expanded in FBS or SFM/XF, demonstrated potent immunosuppressive properties in both non-primed and IFN-? primed conditions, whereas HPL-expanded MSC exhibited diminished immunosuppressive properties. Finally, IFN-? primed BMMSC and AdMSC expanded in SFM/XF and HPL expressed attenuated levels of IDO-1 compared to FBS. Herein, we provide strong evidence supporting the use of the FDA-approved SFM/XF medium, in contrast to the HPL medium, for the expansion of MSC towards therapeutic applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stem cell therapy requires a serum-free and/or chemically-defined medium for commercialization, but it is difficult to find one that supports long-term expansion of cells without compromising their stemness, particularly for novel stem cells. METHODS:In this study, we tested the efficiency of StemPro® MSC SFM Xeno Free (SFM-XF), a serum-free medium, for the long-term expansion of human fetal cartilage-derived progenitor cells (hFCPCs) from three donors in comparison to that of the conventional ?-Modified Eagle's Medium (?-MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). RESULTS:We found that SFM-XF supported the expansion of hFCPCs for up to 28-30 passages without significant changes in the doubling time, while ?-MEM with 10% FBS showed a rapid increase in doubling time at 10-18 passages depending on the donor. Senescence of hFCPCs was not observed until passage 10 in both media but was induced in approximately 15 and 25% of cells at passage 20 in SFM-XF and ?-MEM with 10% FBS, respectively. The colony forming ability of hFCPCs in SFX-XF was also comparable to that in ?-MEM with 10% FBS. hFCPCs expressed pluripotency genes like Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog, SCF, and SSEA4 at passage 20 and 31 in SFM-XF; however, this was not observed when cells were cultured in ?-MEM with 10% FBS. The ability of hFCPCs to differentiate into three mesodermal lineages decreased gradually in both media but it was less significant in SFM-XF. Finally we found no chromosomal abnormality after long-term culture of hFCPCs until passage 17 by karyotype analysis. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that SFM-XF supports the long-term expansion of hFCPCs without significant phenotypic and chromosomal changes. This study have also shown that hFCPCs can be mass-produced in vitro, proving their commercial value as a novel source for developing cell therapies.
Project description:The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) holds great promise in using them for treatment of a wide range of debilitating diseases. Several types of culture media and systems have been used for large-scale expansion of MSCs in vitro; however, the majority of them rely heavily on using foetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplement for optimal cell proliferation. FBS-based cultures pose the potential threat of spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and bovine spongiform encephalopathy to MSCs and then to their recipients. A recent trend in cell culture is to change from serum-use to serum-free media (SFM). In this context, the current review focuses specifically on employment of various SFM for MSCs and discusses existences of various options with which to substitute FBS. In addition, we analyse MSC population growth kinetic patterns using various SFM for large-scale production of MSCs.
Project description:Spheroid culture has gained increasing popularity, arising as a promising tool for regenerative medicine applications. Importantly, spheroids may present advantages over single-cell suspensions in cell-based therapies (CT). Unfortunately, most growth media used for spheroid culture contain animal origin-components, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS). The presence of FBS compromises the safety of CT and presents economic and ethical constraints. SCC (supplement for cell culture) is a novel xeno-free (XF) industrial cell culture supplement, derived from well-controlled pooled human plasma and processed under good manufacturing practice rules. Here, we developed a XF SCC-based formulation for 2D-culture of outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC), and then used it for generating co-culture spheroids of OEC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). XF MSC-OEC spheroids were characterized in detail and compared to spheroids cultured in FBS-supplemented medium. XF spheroids presented comparable integrity, size and morphology as the reference culture. The use of both media resulted in spheroids with similar structure, abundant extracellular matrix deposition and specific patterns of OEC distribution and organization. Notably, XF spheroids presented significantly enhanced angiogenic potential, both in vitro (fibrin sprouting assay) and in vivo (CAM assay). These findings are particularly promising in the context of potential therapeutic applications.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitor (hES-MP) cells are mesenchymal-like cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells without the aid of feeder cells. They have been suggested as a potential alternative to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine due to their mesenchymal-like proliferation and differentiation characteristics. Cells and cell products intended for regenerative medicine in humans should be derived, expanded and differentiated using conditions free of animal-derived products to minimize risk of animal-transmitted disease and immune reactions to foreign proteins. Human platelets are rich in growth factors needed for cell culture and have been used successfully as an animal serum replacement for MSC expansion and differentiation. In this study, we compared the proliferation of hES-MP cells and MSCs; the hES-MP cell growth was sustained for longer than that of MSCs. Growth factors, gene expression, and surface marker expression in hES-MP cells cultured with either human platelet lysate (hPL) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation were compared, along with differentiation to osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Despite some differences between hES-MP cells grown in hPL- and FBS-supplemented media, hPL was found to be a suitable replacement for FBS. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that hES-MP cells can be grown using platelet lysates from expired platelet concentrates (hPL).
Project description:Gingiva has been identified as a minimally invasive source of multipotent progenitor cells (GPCs) for use in bone tissue engineering (BTE). To facilitate clinical translation, it is important to characterize GPCs in xeno-free cultures. Recent evidence indicates several advantages of three-dimensional (3D) spheroid cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) over conventional 2D monolayers. The present study aimed to characterize human GPCs in xeno-free 2D cultures, and to test their osteogenic potential in 3D cultures, in comparison to bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs). Primary GPCs and BMSCs were expanded in human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and characterized based on in vitro proliferation, immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation. Next, 3D spheroids of GPCs and BMSCs were formed via self-assembly and cultured in HPL. Expression of stemness- (SOX2, OCT4, NANOG) and osteogenesis-related markers (BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, OCN) was assessed at gene and protein levels in 3D and 2D cultures. The cytokine profile of 3D and 2D GPCs and BMSCs was assessed via a multiplex immunoassay. Monolayer GPCs in both HPL and FBS demonstrated a characteristic MSC-like immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation; osteogenic differentiation of GPCs was enhanced in HPL vs. FBS. CD271+ GPCs in HPL spontaneously acquired a neuronal phenotype and strongly expressed neuronal/glial markers. 3D spheroids of GPCs and BMSCs with high cell viability were formed in HPL media. Expression of stemness- and osteogenesis-related genes was significantly upregulated in 3D vs. 2D GPCs/BMSCs; the latter was independent of osteogenic induction. Synthesis of SOX2, BMP2 and OCN was confirmed via immunostaining, and in vitro mineralization via Alizarin red staining. Finally, secretion of several growth factors and chemokines was enhanced in GPC/BMSC spheroids, while that of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced, compared to monolayers. In summary, monolayer GPCs expanded in HPL demonstrate enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential, comparable to that of BMSCs. Xeno-free spheroid culture further enhances stemness- and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and cytokine secretion in GPCs, comparable to that of BMSCs.
Project description:Living tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHV) would be a major benefit for children who require a replacement with the capacity for growth and biological integration. A persistent challenge for TEHV is accessible human cell source(s) that can mimic native valve cell phenotypes and matrix remodeling characteristics that are essential for long-term function. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BMMSC) or adipose tissue (ADMSC) are intriguing cell sources for TEHV, but they have not been compared with pediatric human aortic valve interstitial cells (pHAVIC) in relevant 3D environments. In this study, we compared the spontaneous and induced multipotency of ADMSC and BMMSC with that of pHAVIC using different induction media within three-dimensional (3D) bioactive hybrid hydrogels with material modulus comparable to that of aortic heart valve leaflets. pHAVIC possessed some multi-lineage differentiation capacity in response to induction media, but limited to the earliest stages and much less potent than either ADMSC or BMMSC. ADMSC expressed cell phenotype markers more similar to pHAVIC when conditioned in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) containing HAVIC growth medium, while BMMSC generally expressed similar extracellular matrix remodeling characteristics to pHAVIC. Finally, we covalently attached bFGF to PEG monoacrylate linkers and further covalently immobilized in the 3D hybrid hydrogels. Immobilized bFGF upregulated vimentin expression and promoted the fibroblastic differentiation of pHAVIC, ADMSC, and BMMSC. These findings suggest that stem cells retain a heightened capacity for osteogenic differentiation in 3D culture, but can be shifted toward fibroblast differentiation through matrix tethering of bFGF. Such a strategy is likely important for utilizing stem cell sources in heart valve tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Manufacturing of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies for regenerative medicine requires the use of suitable supply of growth factors that enhance proliferation, cell stability and potency during cell expansion. Human blood derivatives such as human platelet lysate (hPL) have emerged as a feasible alternative for cell growth supplement. Nevertheless, composition and functional characterization of hPL in the context of cell manufacturing is still under investigation, particularly regarding the content and function of pro-survival and pro-regenerative factors. We performed comparative analyses of hPL, human serum (hS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) stability and potency to support Wharton's jelly (WJ) MSC production. We demonstrated that hPL displayed low inter-batch variation and unique secretome profile that was not present in hS and FBS. Importantly, hPL-derived factors including PDGF family, EGF, TGF-alpha, angiogenin and RANTES were actively taken up by WJ-MSC to support efficient expansion. Moreover, hPL but not hS or FBS induced secretion of osteoprotegerin, HGF, IL-6 and GRO-alpha by WJ-MSC during the expansion phase. Thus, hPL is a suitable source of factors supporting viability, stability and potency of WJ-MSC and therefore constitutes an essential raw material that in combination with WJ-MSC introduces a great opportunity for the generation of potent regenerative medicine products.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a clinically relevant alternative source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC). To overcome the low cell number per UCB unit, ex vivo expansion of UCB HSPC in co-culture with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has been established. Bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC have been the standard choice, but the use of MSC from alternative sources, less invasive and discardable, could ease clinical translation of an expanded CD34<sup>+</sup> cell product. Here, we compare the capacity of BM-, umbilical cord matrix (UCM)-, and adipose tissue (AT)-derived MSC, expanded with/without xenogeneic components, to expand/maintain UCB CD34<sup>+</sup>-enriched cells ex vivo.<h4>Methods</h4>UCB CD34<sup>+</sup>-enriched cells were isolated from cryopreserved mononuclear cells and cultured for 7 days over an established feeder layer (FL) of BM-, UCM-, or AT-derived MSC, previously expanded using fetal bovine serum (FBS) or fibrinogen-depleted human platelet lysate (HPL) supplemented medium. UCB cells were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with SCF/TPO/FLT3-L/bFGF. Fold increase in total nucleated cells (TNC) as well as immunophenotype and clonogenic potential (cobblestone area-forming cells and colony-forming unit assays) of the expanded hematopoietic cells were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>MSC from all sources effectively supported UCB HSPC expansion/maintenance ex vivo, with expansion factors (in TNC) superior to 50x, 70x, and 80x in UCM-, BM-, and AT-derived MSC co-cultures, respectively. Specifically, AT-derived MSC co-culture resulted in expanded cells with similar phenotypic profile compared to BM-derived MSC, but resulting in higher total cell numbers. Importantly, a subpopulation of more primitive cells (CD34<sup>+</sup>CD90<sup>+</sup>) was maintained in all co-cultures. In addition, the presence of a MSC FL was essential to maintain and expand a subpopulation of progenitor T cells (CD34<sup>+</sup>CD7<sup>+</sup>). The use of HPL to expand MSC prior to co-culture establishment did not influence the expansion potential of UCB cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>AT represents a promising alternative to BM as a source of MSC for co-culture protocols to expand/maintain HSPC ex vivo. On the other hand, UCM-derived MSC demonstrated inferior hematopoietic supportive capacity compared to MSC from adult tissues. Despite HPL being considered an alternative to FBS for clinical-scale manufacturing of MSC, further studies are needed to determine its impact on the hematopoietic supportive capacity of these cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Canine MuStem cells have demonstrated regenerative efficacy in a dog model of muscular dystrophy, and the recent characterization of human counterparts (hMuStem) has highlighted the therapeutic potential of this muscle-derived stem cell population. To date, these cells have only been generated in research-grade conditions. However, evaluation of the clinical efficacy of any such therapy will require the production of hMuStem cells in compliance with good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Because the current use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to isolate and expand hMuStem cells raises several ethical, safety, and supply concerns, we assessed the use of two alternative xeno-free blood derivatives: human serum (HS) and a human platelet lysate (hPL). METHODS:hMuStem cells were isolated and expanded in vitro in either HS-supplemented or hPL-supplemented media and the proliferation rate, clonogenicity, myogenic commitment potential, and oligopotency compared with that observed in FBS-supplemented medium. Flow cytometry and high-throughput 3'-digital gene expression RNA sequencing were used to characterize the phenotype and global gene expression pattern of hMuStem cells cultured with HS or hPL. RESULTS:HS-supplemented and hPL-supplemented media both supported the isolation and long-term proliferation of hMuStem cells. Compared with FBS-based medium, both supplements enhanced clonogenicity and allowed for a reduction in growth factor supplementation. Neither supplement altered the cell lineage pattern of hMuStem cells. In vitro differentiation assays revealed a decrease in myogenic commitment and in the fusion ability of hMuStem cells when cultured with hPL. In return, this reduction of myogenic potential in hPL-supplemented cultures was rapidly reversed by substitution of hPL with HS or fibrinogen-depleted hPL. Moreover, culture of hMuStem cells in hPL hydrogel and fibrinogen-depleted hPL demonstrated that myogenic differentiation potential is maintained in heparin-free hPL derivatives. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that HS and hPL are efficient and viable alternatives to FBS for the preparation of hMuStem cell batches in compliance with GMPs.
Project description:Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been considered as the preferred supplement for the xeno-free stem cell culture for many years. However, the biological effect of hPL on the proliferation and differentiation of dental stem cells combined with the use of medical grade synthetic biomaterial is still under investigation. Thus, the optimal scaffold composition, cell type and specific growth conditions, yet need to be formulated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the regenerative potential of dental stem cells seeded on synthetic scaffolds and maintained in osteogenic media supplemented with either hPL or xeno-derived fetal bovine serum (FBS). Two types of dental stem cells were isolated from human impacted third molars and intact teeth; stem cells of apical papilla (SCAP) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cells were expanded in cell culture media supplemented with either hPL or FBS. Consequently, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypic characteristics and multilineage differentiation potential of the derived cells were evaluated on monolayer culture (2D) and on synthetic scaffolds fabricated from poly 'lactic-co-glycolic' acid (PLGA) (3D). The functionality of the induced cells was examined by measuring the concentration of osteogenic markers ALP, OCN and OPN at different time points. Our results indicate that the isolated dental stem cells showed similar mesenchymal characteristics when cultured on hPL or FBS-containing culture media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and H&E staining revealed the proper adherence of the derived cells on the 3D scaffold cultures. Moreover, the increase in the concentration of osteogenic markers proved that hPL was able to produce functional osteoblasts in both culture conditions (2D and 3D), in a way similar to FBS culture. These results reveal that hPL provides a suitable substitute to the animal-derived serum, for the growth and functionality of both SCAP and PDLSCs. Thus the use of hPL, in combination with PLGA scaffolds, can be useful in future clinical trials for dental regeneration.