Twenty-eight-week results from the REALISTIC phase IIIb randomized trial: efficacy, safety and predictability of response to certolizumab pegol in a diverse rheumatoid arthritis population.
ABSTRACT: This 28-week, phase IIIb study assessed safety and maintenance of response to certolizumab pegol (CZP) in a diverse population of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, stratified by prior anti-TNF exposure, concomitant methotrexate (MTX) use and disease duration. The ability to predict achievement of low disease activity (LDA) at week 28 from improvements in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), swollen joint count (SJC) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) up to week 12 was assessed.The 28-week study population included all patients who completed the double-blind (DB) phase and entered the open-label (OL) phase, receiving 200 mg CZP every 2 weeks (Q2W) ?16 weeks. In the 12-week DB period, patients with active RA and an inadequate response to ?1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) were randomized 4:1 to CZP (400 mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4 then 200 mg Q2W) or placebo (Q2W), stratified by prior anti-TNF use, concomitant use of MTX and disease duration (<2 years vs. ?2 years).A total of 955 patients entered the OL phase. At week 28, similar clinical improvements were seen in those receiving CZP throughout (CZP???CZP; n?=?771) and those receiving placebo during the DB phase and switching to CZP in the OL phase (placebo???CZP; n?=?184) (ACR20 response rate?=?59.7% vs. 53.3%; ACR50/ACR70 response rates were also similar). Effect of CZP treatment was similar regardless of prior anti-TNF use, disease duration and concomitant DMARDs, based on ACR20 response rates. The percentage of patients achieving DAS28(ESR) LDA at week 28 was calculated for DAS28(ESR), SJC or CDAI responders at earlier time points. Reductions from baseline (?) of DAS28(ESR) <1.2, ?SJC <25% or ?CDAI <10 by week 12 were associated with <9% chance of achieving LDA at week 28 regardless of prior anti-TNF exposure. Adverse event rates were similar for placebo???CZP and CZP???CZP patients, with no new safety signals identified.A diverse population of RA patients with varying disease duration showed rapid and sustained clinical improvements on CZP treatment, regardless of prior anti-TNF or concomitant DMARD use. Failure to achieve improvements in DAS28(ESR), SJC or CDAI within the first 12 weeks of CZP therapy was associated with a low chance of achieving LDA at week 28. No new safety signals were observed.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00717236 , 15 July 2008.
Project description:The aim of the Patient/Physician Reported Efficacy Determination In Clinical Practice Trial (PREDICT; ClinicalTrials identifier NCT01255761) was to compare the patient-reported Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID-3) instrument with the investigator-based Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) for assessing certolizumab pegol (CZP) treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients at 12 weeks and to predict the treatment response at week 52 using the data from week 12 (coprimary end points).Patients received 400 mg of CZP at weeks 0, 2, and 4 (loading dose), followed by 200 mg every 2 weeks thereafter. Patients were randomized 1:1 to assessment with the RAPID-3 or the CDAI. Responder classification was performed at week 12; treatment response was defined as a score of ≤6 or a 20% improvement over baseline on the RAPID-3 or a score of ≤10 or a 20% improvement over baseline on the CDAI. Long-term treatment success was defined as a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) of ≤3.2 at week 52. Comparisons were made for the coprimary end points using noninferiority methods. Patients with improvement of <1 on the CDAI score or with no improvement on the RAPID-3 score at week 12 or patients with high levels of disease activity (CDAI score >22 or RAPID-3 score >12) at 2 consecutive visits were withdrawn from the study.Patients had longstanding disease (mean 8.9 years) and high levels of disease activity (mean scores of 6.3 on the DAS28-ESR, 16.1 on the RAPID-3, and 40.2 on the CDAI). Previous anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy had failed in 55.5% of them. At week 12, a total of 64.7% (by RAPID-3) and 76.4% (by CDAI) of the patients were classified as responders (difference of -11.9% [95% confidence interval -18.4%, -5.3%]). At week 52, a total of 31.5% (by RAPID-3) and 32.3% (by CDAI) of the responders achieved a low level of disease activity on the DAS28-ESR (difference of -1.3% [95% confidence interval -9.3%, 6.6%]).The CDAI classified more patients as CZP responders at week 12 than did the RAPID-3. Although these outcome measures were not statistically comparable, the positive predictive value for low disease activity at week 52 was similar. As these tools cover differing domains of therapy response, further evaluation for clinical disease activity assessments and treatment decisions is needed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to standardize the definition of low disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) group's proposed definition of minimal disease activity. METHOD:Based on a nationwide RA database, we proposed new Boolean low disease activity criteria using OMERACT's core set definition of minimal disease activity that requires the fulfillment of at least five of the following seven core set measures: a pain score of 2 or less, a swollen joint count (SJC28) of 1 or fewer, a tender joint count of 1 or fewer, a Health Assessment Questionnaire score of 0.5 or less, a Physician's Global Assessment score of 1.5 or less, a Patient's Global Assessment score of 2 or less, and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 20 mm/h or less. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we determined the cutoffs for the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3), and the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)-ESR. RESULTS:Of 8298 patients, 56.2% met the proposed Boolean low disease activity criteria. We determined an SDAI score of 5.5 or less and a CDAI score of 5 or less to be the new cutoffs, and we chose a DAS28 of 2.85 or less (the original cutoff for DAS-based minimal disease activity) and a RAPID3 score of 6 or less (the original cutoff for RAPID3-based low disease activity) with or without a swollen joint count (SJC) (SJC of 2 or fewer) as the cutoffs for DAS28 and RAPID3. The agreement between the new cutoffs for DAS28 of 2.85 or less vs. CDAI score of 5 or less, CDAI score of 5 or less vs. RAPID3 score of 6 or less (with SJC of 2 or fewer), and DAS28 of 2.85 or less vs. RAPID3 score of 6 or less (with SJC of 2 or fewer), was 0.619, 0.612 (0.702), and 0.474 (0.531), respectively. CONCLUSION:OMERACT's minimal disease activity definition may be used to standardize the criteria for low disease activity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Optimal targeted treatment in rheumatoid arthritis requires early identification of failure to respond. This post hoc analysis explored the relationship between early disease activity changes and the achievement of low disease activity (LDA) and remission targets with tofacitinib. METHODS:Data were from 2 randomized, double-blind, phase III studies. In the ORAL Start trial, methotrexate (MTX)-naive patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily, or MTX, for 24 months. In the placebo-controlled ORAL Standard trial, MTX inadequate responder patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily or adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks, with MTX, for 12 months. Probabilities of achieving LDA (using a Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI] score ?10 or the 4-component Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate [DAS28-ESR] ?3.2) at months 6 and 12 were calculated, given failure to achieve threshold improvement from baseline (change in CDAI ?6 or DAS28-ESR ?1.2) at month 1 or 3. RESULTS:In ORAL Start, 7.2% and 5.4% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily, respectively, failed to show improvement in the CDAI ?6 at month 3; of those who failed, 3.8% and 28.6%, respectively, achieved month 6 CDAI-defined LDA. In ORAL Standard, 18.8% and 17.5% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily, respectively, failed to improve CDAI ?6 at month 3; of those who failed, 0% and 2.9%, respectively, achieved month 6 CDAI-defined LDA. Findings were similar when considering improvements at month 1 or DAS28-ESR thresholds. CONCLUSION:In patients with an inadequate response to MTX, lack of response to tofacitinib after 1 or 3 months predicted a low probability of achieving LDA at month 6. Lack of an early response may be considered when deciding whether to continue treatment with tofacitinib.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This 52-week, randomised, double-blind phase IIIb study assessed efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) as add-on therapy to non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with low to moderate disease activity, and stopping therapy in patients in sustained remission. METHODS:Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP (400?mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4, then 200?mg every 2?weeks) or placebo (every 2?weeks) plus current non-biologic DMARDs. At week 24, patients who achieved the primary endpoint of Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission at both weeks 20 and 24 stopped study treatment and continued in the study until week 52. RESULTS:Of 194 patients (CZP=96; placebo=98), >90% had moderate disease activity at baseline. Significantly more CZP patients met the primary endpoint than placebo patients (week 20 and 24 CDAI remission rates: 18.8% vs 6.1%; p?0.05). At week 24, 63.0% vs 29.7% of CZP versus placebo patients (p<0.001) achieved LDA. Disease activity score (ESR) based on 28-joint count and Simplified Disease Activity Index remission rates were also significantly higher with CZP versus placebo (19.8% vs 3.1%; p?0.01 and 14.6% vs 4.1%; p?0.05). CZP patients reported improvements in physical function versus placebo (mean Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability-Index change from baseline: CZP, -0.25 vs placebo, -0.03; p?0.01). During the period following withdrawal of CZP or placebo, only 3/17 prior CZP patients and 2/6 prior placebo patients maintained CDAI remission until week 52, but CZP reinstitution allowed renewed improvement. Adverse and serious adverse event rates were comparable between CZP and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS:Addition of CZP to non-biologic DMARDs is an effective treatment in RA patients with predominantly moderate disease activity, allowing low-disease activity or remission to be reached in a majority of the patients. However, the data suggest that CZP cannot be withdrawn in patients achieving remission. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT00674362.
Project description:To examine the safety and efficacy of 5-year administration of certolizumab pegol (CZP)+methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Eligible patients from the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention of Structural Damage (RAPID)1 randomised controlled trial (RCT) were treated in open-label extension (OLE) with CZP 400 mg every other week (Q2W), reduced to 200 mg Q2W after ?6 months, +MTX. Combined safety data from RCT and OLE are presented from initiation of CZP treatment to 12 wks post last visit in patients receiving ?1 dose of CZP (Safety population, N=958). Efficacy data are presented to start of first site closure (wk 256 of CZP treatment: 52 wks in RCT+204 wks in OLE) for all patients randomised to receive CZP (intent-to-treat (ITT) population, N=783) and CZP patients who completed the 52 wk RCT and enrolled into OLE (wk 52 CZP completers, N=508). Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)), American College of Rheumatology Criteria (ACR) 20/50/70, Health Assessment Questionnaire - Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and patient retention (Kaplan-Meier analysis) were assessed.Overall event rate per 100 patient-years (ER) of adverse events (AEs) was 290.4, most frequently: urinary tract infections (ER=7.9), nasopharyngitis (ER=7.3) and upper respiratory tract infections (ER=7.3). ER of serious AEs was 20.3 (infections=5.9, malignancies=1.2). 21 patients (2.2%) experienced an AE resulting in death (incidence rate=0.6). At wk 256 of treatment, 55.3% of the CZP ITT population were estimated to remain on treatment (68.7% if solely withdrawals due to AE or lack of efficacy were considered). In wk 52 CZP completers and CZP ITT population, DAS28 (ESR) remission rates and improvements from baseline were sustained to wk 256.CZP+MTX treatment provided a favourable risk-benefit profile over 5 years in patients with active RA. No new safety signals were identified.
Project description:Calprotectin may be a sensitive biomarker of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity.In the current study, we investigated whether calprotectin is a better biomarker than CRP for predicting clinical activity and ultrasound parameters in patients with RA.A total of 160 patients with RA underwent clinical (swollen joint count-SJC, tender joint count-TJC, Disease Activity Score-DAS28, Clinical Disease Activity Index-CDAI, and simplified Disease Activity Index-SDAI) and ultrasound (German US7) examination. Clinical and laboratory measures were correlated with ultrasound findings using Spearman´s correlation coefficient. Differences in serum calprotectin levels in patients with variable disease activity according to the DAS28-ESR and CDAI scores were assessed using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the predictive values of calprotectin, CRP and SJC for CDAI and PD US synovitis scores.Serum calprotectin was significantly associated with DAS28-ESR (r = 0.321, p<0.001), DAS28-CRP (r = 0.346, p<0.001), SDAI (r = 0.305, p<0.001), CDAI (r = 0.279, p<0.001) scores and CRP levels (r = 0.556, p<0.001). Moreover, calprotectin was significantly correlated with GS (r = 0.379, p<0.001) and PD synovitis scores (r = 0.419, p<0.001). The multivariate regression analysis showed that calprotectin is a better predictor of the CDAI score and PD US synovitis than CRP.The results of this study support an additional role of calprotectin in assessing inflammatory activity in patients with RA.
Project description:Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are frequently used in combination with methotrexate (MTX) to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the effect of a background MTX dose, in combination with anti-TNF certolizumab pegol (CZP), on treatment efficacy and safety in RA patients.A pre-specified subgroup analysis comparing 2 MTX dosage categories (<15 mg/week and ≥15 mg/week) was carried out using data pooled from phase III clinical trials, Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention of Structural Damage 1 (RAPID 1) and RAPID 2, according to treatment group: CZP 200 mg, CZP 400 mg, or placebo, every 2 weeks. Inclusion criteria required MTX dosage ≥10 mg/week. Efficacy end points included week 24 American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20%, 50%, and 70% improvement (ACR20/50/70) responses analyzed by logistic regression, and changes from baseline in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were categorized by baseline MTX dose. Post hoc sensitivity analysis investigated 3 MTX dose categories: ≤10 mg/week, >10 and ≤15 mg/week, and >15 mg/week.A total of 638, 635, and 325 patients received CZP 200 mg, CZP 400 mg, and placebo, respectively. At week 24, treatment responses in both CZP groups were uninfluenced by baseline MTX dose category, and were superior to the placebo group for all investigated end points: ACR20/50/70, DAS28-ESR, and SHS. TEAE incidence rates were higher in patients receiving MTX ≥15 mg/week for most TEAE types across treatment groups.CZP efficacy was not affected by background MTX dose category. It can be hypothesized that to minimize TEAEs, background MTX doses could be tailored to individual patient tolerance without affecting CZP efficacy.
Project description:Stringent remission criteria are crucial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assessment. Disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28)-remission has not been included among American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism definitions, because of its association with significant residual disease activity, partly due to high weighting of acute-phase reactants (APR). New, more stringent cut-points for DAS28-remission have recently been proposed that are suggested to reflect remission by clinical and simplified disease activity indices (clinical disease activity index (CDAI), simple disease activity index (SDAI)). However, their stringency in therapies directly influencing APR, like IL-6-blockers, has not been tested. We tested the new cut-points in patients with RA receiving tocilizumab.We used data from randomised controlled trials of tocilizumab and evaluated patients in remission according to new DAS28-C-reactive protein (DAS-CRP) and DAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS-ESR) cut-points (1.9 and 2.2). We assessed their disease activity state using the CDAI, SDAI and Boolean criteria and analysed their individual residual core set variables, like swollen joint counts (SJC28).About 50% of patients in DAS28-CRP-remission (<1.9) fell into higher disease activity states when assessed with CDAI, SDAI or Boolean criteria. Also, 15% had three or more (up to eight) SJC. Even higher disease activity was seen in patients classified as being in DAS28-ESR-remission (<2.2).Even with new, more stringent cut-points, DAS28-remission is frequently associated with considerable residual clinical disease activity, indicating that this limitation of the DAS28 is related to score construction rather than the choice of cut-points.
Project description:To determine the prognostic significance of data collected early after starting certolizumab pegol (CZP) to predict low disease activity (LDA) at week 52.Data from 703 CZP-treated patients in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention of Structural Damage 1 (RAPID 1) trial through week 12 were used as variables to predict LDA (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate ?3.2) at week 52. We identified variables, developed prediction models using classification trees, and tested performance using training and testing data sets. Additional prediction models were constructed using the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and an alternate outcome definition (composite of LDA or American College of Rheumatology criteria for 50% improvement [ACR50]).Using week 6 and 12 data and across several different prediction models, response (LDA) and nonresponse at 1 year were predicted with relatively high accuracy (70-90%) for most patients. The best performing model predicting nonresponse by 12 weeks was 90% accurate and applied to 46% of the population. Model accuracy for predicted responders (30% of the RAPID 1 population) was 74%. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.76. Depending on the desired certainty of prediction at 12 weeks, ~12-25% of patients required >12 weeks of treatment to be accurately classified. CDAI-based models and those evaluating the composite outcome (LDA or ACR50) achieved comparable accuracy.We could accurately predict within 12 weeks of starting CZP whether most established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with high baseline disease activity would likely achieve/not achieve LDA at 1 year. Decision trees may be useful to guide prospective management for RA patients treated with CZP and other biologics.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The objective of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of repository corticotropin injection (RCI) in subjects with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with a corticosteroid and one or two disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). METHODS:All subjects received open-label RCI (80 U) twice weekly for 12 weeks (part 1); only those with low disease activity [LDA; i.e., Disease Activity Score 28 joint count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR)?<?3.2] were randomly assigned to receive either RCI (80 U) or placebo twice weekly during the 12-week double-blind period (part 2). The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved LDA at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included proportions of subjects who maintained LDA during weeks 12 through 24 and achieved Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)???10 at weeks 12 and 24. Safety was assessed via adverse event reports. RESULTS:Of the 259 enrolled subjects, 235 completed part 1; 154 subjects (n?=?77 each for RCI and placebo) entered part 2, and 127 (RCI, n?=?71; placebo, n?=?56) completed. At week 12, 163 subjects (62.9%) achieved LDA and 169 (65.3%) achieved CDAI???10 (both p?<?0.0001). At week 24, 47 (61.0%) RCI-treated and 32 (42.1%) placebo-treated subjects maintained LDA (p?=?0.019); 66 (85.7%) RCI-treated and 50 (65.8%) placebo-treated subjects maintained CDAI???10 (p?=?0.004). No unexpected safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS:RCI was effective and generally safe in patients with active RA despite corticosteroid/DMARD therapy. By week 12,?>?60% of patients achieved LDA, which was maintained with 12 additional weeks of treatment. Most patients who achieved LDA maintained it for 3 months after RCI discontinuation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02919761.