Improved anti-glioblastoma efficacy by IL-13Rα2 mediated copolymer nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel.
ABSTRACT: Glioma presents one of the most malignant brain tumors, and the therapeutic effect is often limited due to the existence of brain tumor barrier. Based on interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) over-expression on glioma cell, it was demonstrated to be a potential receptor for glioma targeting. In this study, Pep-1-conjugated PEGylated nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel (Pep-NP-PTX) were developed as a targeting drug delivery system for glioma treatment. The Pep-NP-PTX presented satisfactory size of 95.78 nm with narrow size distribution. Compared with NP-PTX, Pep-NP-PTX exhibited significantly enhanced cellular uptake in C6 cells (p < 0.001). The in vitro anti-proliferation evaluation showed that the IC50 were 146 ng/ml and 349 ng/ml of Pep-NP-PTX and NP-PTX, respectively. The in vivo fluorescent image results indicated that Pep-NP had higher specificity and efficiency in intracranial tumor accumulation. Following intravenous administration, Pep-NP-PTX could enhance the distribution of PTX in vivo glioma section, 1.98, 1.91 and 1.53-fold over that of NP-PTX group after 0.5, 1 and 4 h, respectively. Pep-NP-PTX could improve the anti-glioma efficacy with a median survival time of 32 days, which was significantly longer than that of PTX-NP (23 days) and Taxol(®) (22 days). In conclusion, Pep-NP-PTX is a potential targeting drug delivery system for glioma treatment.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess inherent tropism towards tumor cells, and so have attracted increased attention as targeted-therapy vehicles for glioma treatment.The objective of this study was to demonstrate the injection of MSCs loaded with paclitaxel (Ptx)-encapsulated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for orthotopic glioma therapy in rats.Ptx-PLGA NP-loaded MSC was obtained by incubating MSCs with Ptx-PLGA NPs. The drug transfer and cytotoxicity of Ptx-PLGA NP-loaded MSC against tumor cells were investigated in the transwell system. Biodistribution and antitumor activity was evaluated in the orthotopic glioma rats after contralateral injection.The optimal dose of MSC-loaded Ptx-PLGA NPs (1 pg/cell Ptx) had little effect on MSC-migration capacity, cell cycle, or multilineage-differentiation potential. Compared with Ptx-primed MSCs, Ptx-PLGA NP-primed MSCs had enhanced sustained Ptx release in the form of free Ptx and Ptx NPs. Ptx transfer from MSCs to glioma cells could induce tumor cell death in vitro. As for distribution in vivo, NP-loaded fluorescent MSCs were tracked throughout the tumor mass for 2 days after therapeutic injection. Survival was significantly longer after contralateral implantation of Ptx-PLGA NP-loaded MSCs than those injected with Ptx-primed MSCs or Ptx-PLGA NPs alone.Based on timing and sufficient Ptx transfer from the MSCs to the tumor cells, Ptx-PLGA NP-loaded MSC is effective for glioma treatment. Incorporation of chemotherapeutic drug-loaded NPs into MSCs is a promising strategy for tumor-targeted therapy.
Project description:Introduction:Traditional chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is limited due to drug resistance and systemic side effects. Although various targeted drug delivery strategies have been designed to enhance drug accumulation at the tumor site, simply improvement of targeting capability has not consistently led to satisfactory outcomes. Herein, AMD3100 was selected as the targeting ligand because of its high affinity to chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which was highly expressed on ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the AMD3100 has been proved having blockage capability of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12)/CXCR4 axis and to be a sensitizer of chemotherapeutic therapy. We designed a dual-functional targeting delivery system by modifying paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEGylation bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) with AMD3100 (AMD-NP-PTX), which can not only achieve specific tumor-targeting efficiency but also enhance the therapeutic outcomes. Methods:AMD3100 was chemically modified to Mal-PEG-NHS followed by reacting with BSA, then AMD-NP-PTX was synthesized and characterized. The targeting efficiency of AMD-NP was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The anticancer effect of AMD-NP-PTX was determined on Caov3 cells and ovarian cancer-bearing nude mice. Finally, the potential therapeutic mechanism was studied. Results:AMD-NP-PTX was synthesized successfully and well characterized. Cellular uptake assay and in vivo imaging experiments demonstrated that NPs could be internalized by Caov3 cells more efficiently after modification of AMD3100. Furthermore, the AMD-NP-PTX exhibited significantly enhanced inhibition effect on tumor growth and metastasis compared with PTX, NP-PTX and free AMD3100 plus NP-PTX both in vitro and in vivo, and demonstrated improved safety profile. We also confirmed that AMD-NP-PTX worked through targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, thereby disturbing its downstream signaling pathways including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway. Conclusion:The AMD-NP-PTX we designed would open a new avenue for dual-functional NPs in ovarian cancer therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer is the most leading cause of death and the third most common gynecologic malignancy in women. Traditional chemotherapy has inevitable drawbacks of nonspecific tumor targeting, high toxicity, and poor therapeutic efficiency. In order to overcome such shortcomings, we prepared a novel nano-carrier drug-delivery system to enhance the anti-tumor efficiency. METHODS:In vitro characterizations of nano-carriers were determined by TEM, DLS. Cell viability was measured by MTT method. RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of FARα in three ovarian cancer cell lines. The drug-release study and the uptaken study were measured in vitro. The pharmacokinetic and the drug distribution study were verified by HPLC methods in vivo. The enhanced anti-tumor efficiency of FA-NP was evaluated by the tumor inhibitory rate in vivo. RESULTS:Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) (PTX-PEG-PLA-NP and PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP) were prepared successfully, and the drug-release study showed that the cumulative release rates of NP groups were much less than free PTX group. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the elimination phase of two kinds of NP groups were much longer than that of PTX group. The drug distribution in different tissues showed that the peak-reach time was 2 h in the PTX group and 6 h in both NP groups. All of these results confirmed the excellent slow-release effects of both kinds of nano-carriers. More importantly, we confirmed that PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP had greater uptake by SK-OV-3 cells than PTX-PEG-PLA-NP and free PTX in vitro. A drug-distribution study of tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that the PTX concentration of tumor tissues in the PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP group was 3 times higher than the other two groups. PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP was uptaken much more by SK-OV-3 cells than PTX-PEG-PLA-NP and free PTX. Eventually, based on the slow-release effect and tumor-targeting characteristics of PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP, a cytotoxicity test indicated that PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP was much more toxic to SK-OV-3 cells than the controls. The tumor inhibitory rate in the PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP group of tumor-bearing mice was about 1.5 times higher than the controls. The tumor targeting and anti-tumor efficiency of PTX-PEG-PLA-FA-NP were confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:We developed an ovarian cancer targeting nano-carrier drug delivery system successfully, which showed perfect ovarian cancer targeting and anti-tumor effect, thus have the potential to be a new therapy strategy for ovarian cancer patients.
Project description:Although the treatments of malignant glioma include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy by oral drug administration, the prognosis of patients with glioma remains very poor. We developed a polyethylene glycol-dipalmitoylphosphatidyle- thanoiamine (mPEG-DPPE) calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NPs) injectable thermoresponsive hydrogel (nanocomposite gel) that could provide a sustained and local delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and temozolomide (TMZ). In addition, the proportion of PTX and TMZ for the optimal synergistic antiglioma effect on C6 cells was determined to be 1:100 (w/w) by the Chou and Talalay method. Our results clearly indicated that the autophagy induced by PTX:TMZ NPs plays an important role in regulating tumor cell death, while autophagy inhibition dramatically reverses the antitumor effect of PTX:TMZ NPs, suggesting that antiproliferative autophagy occurs in response to PTX:TMZ NPs treatment. The antitumor efficacy of the PTX:TMZ NP-loaded gel was evaluated in situ using C6 tumor-bearing rats, and the PTX:TMZ NP-loaded gel exhibited superior antitumor performance. The antitumor effects of the nanocomposite gel in vivo were shown to correlate with autophagic cell death in this study. The in vivo results further confirmed the advantages of such a strategy. The present study may provide evidence supporting the development of nanomedicine for potential clinical application.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) has been applied widely in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with high ROS-production capacity and intense absorption in the near-infrared region. However, weak tumor targeting and the aggregation tendency of ZnPc seriously affect the therapeutic effect of PDT. Therefore, overcoming the aggregation of ZnPc and enhancing its antitumor effect were the purpose of this study.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we first found that the aggregation behaviors of the photosensitizer ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>, ZnPc substituted by tertiary amine groups, were regulated finely by pH and that ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> could be disaggregated gradually as the pH descended. ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and human serum albumin (HSA) molecules were assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor targeting. Meanwhile, the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (Ptx) was loaded into HSA NPs together with ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> for dual antitumor effects. HSA NPs loading both ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and Ptx (NP-ZnPc[TAP]<sub>4</sub>-Ptx) were characterized by particle size and in vitro release. Cytotoxicity, subcellular localization, tumor targeting, and anticancer effect in vivo were investigated respectively.<h4>Results</h4>We found that NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had good stability with qualifying particle size. Interestingly, ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> was released from the NPs and the photodynamic activity enhanced in the acidic environment of tumor. In addition, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had prominent cytotoxicity and time-dependent subcellular localization characteristics. Through a three-dimensional animal imaging system, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx showed much-enhanced tumor targeting in tumor-bearing mice. Above all, NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx was demonstrated to have the synergistic anticancer effect of PDT and chemotherapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx had enhanced tumor targeting for the pH-sensitive property of ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and the transport function of HSA. NP-ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub>-Ptx possessed a double-anticancer effect through the combination of ZnPc(TAP)<sub>4</sub> and Ptx. This drug-delivery system may also be used to carry chemotherapy drugs other than Ptx for improving antitumor effects.
Project description:A randomized controlled efficacy trial targeting older adults with hypertension (age 60 and over) provided an e-health, tailored intervention with the "next generation" of the Personal Education Program (PEP-NG). Eleven primary care practices with advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) providers participated. Participants (N?=?160) were randomly assigned by the PEP-NG (accessed via a wireless touchscreen tablet computer) to either control (entailing data collection and four routine APRN visits) or tailored intervention (involving PEP-NG intervention and four focused APRN visits) group. Compared to patients in the control group, patients receiving the PEP-NG e-health intervention achieved significant increases in both self-medication knowledge and self-efficacy measures, with large effect sizes. Among patients not at BP targets upon entry to the study, therapy intensification in controls (increased antihypertensive dose and/or an additional antihypertensive) was significant (p?=?.001) with an odds ratio of 21.27 in the control compared to the intervention group. Among patients not at BP targets on visit 1, there was a significant declining linear trend in proportion of the intervention group taking NSAIDs 21-31 days/month (p?=?0.008). Satisfaction with the PEP-NG and the APRN provider relationship was high in both groups. These results suggest that the PEP-NG e-health intervention in primary care practices is effective in increasing knowledge and self-efficacy, as well as improving behavior regarding adverse self-medication practices among older adults with hypertension.
Project description:Development of safe, efficient nanocomplex for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer stem cells in brain glioma has become a great challenge. Herein, a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and a RNA aptamer bound CD133 were used as dual-targeting ligands to prepare dual-modified cationic liposomes (DP-CLPs) loaded with survivin siRNA and paclitaxel (DP-CLPs-PTX-siRNA) for actively targeting imaging and treating CD133+ glioma stem cells after passing through the blood-brain barrier. After being administrated with DP-CLPs-PTX-siRNA nanocomplex, DP-CLPs showed a persistent target ability to bind glioma cells and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BCECs) and to deliver drugs (PTX/siRNA) to CD133+ glioma stem cells. Prepared DP-CLPs-PTX-siRNA nanocomplex showed very low cytotoxicity to BCECs, but induced selectively apoptosis of CD133+ glioma stem cells, and improved CD133+ glioma stem cells' differentiation into non-stem-cell lineages, also markedly inhibited tumorigenesis, induced CD133+ glioma cell apoptosis in intracranial glioma tumor-bearing nude mice and improved survival rates. In conclusion, prepared DP-CLPs-PTX-siRNA nanocomplex selectively induced CD133+ glioma stem cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo exhibits great potential for targeted imaging and therapy of brain glioma stem cells.
Project description:1. We studied the involvement of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins in the sensitivity of arterial constriction to intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization. 2. Vasoconstriction was measured in vitro in perfused, de-endothelialized rat tail arteries loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 and treated or not with PTX (30 - 1000 ng ml(-1)). Arteries were stimulated with noradrenaline (NA, 0.1 - 100 microM) or KCl (15 - 120 mM). 3. KCl elicited a smaller vasoconstrictor response (E(max)=94+/-8 mmHg) than NA (E(max)=198+/-9 mmHg) although [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization was similar (E(max)=123+/-8 and 135+/-7 nM for KCl and NA, respectively). PTX (1000 ng ml(-1)) had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization but lowered NA- (but not KCl-) induced vasoconstriction (E(max)=118+/-7 mmHg). 4. G(i/o)-proteins were revealed by immunoblotting with anti-G(i alpha) and anti-G(o alpha) antibodies in membranes prepared from de-endothelialized tail arteries. [alpha(32)P]-ADP-ribosylation of G-proteins by PTX (1000 ng ml(-1)) was demonstrated in the intact rat tail artery (pixels in the absence of PTX: 3150, presence: 25053). 5. In conclusion, we suggest that smooth muscle cells possess a PTX-sensitive G(i)-protein-mediated intracellular pathway which amplifies [Ca(2+)](i) sensitivity of contraction in the presence of agonists such as NA.
Project description:Development of efficient nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer therapy remains a challenge. NPs are required to have high stability, uniform size, sufficient drug loading, targeting capability, and ability to overcome drug resistance. In this study, the development of a NP formulation that can meet all these challenging requirements for targeted glioblastoma multiform (GBM) therapy is reported. This multifunctional NP is composed of a polyethylene glycol-coated magnetic iron oxide NP conjugated with cyclodextrin and chlorotoxin (CTX) and loaded with fluorescein and paclitaxel (PTX) (IONP-PTX-CTX-FL). The physicochemical properties of the IONP-PTX-CTX-FL are characterized by transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The cellular uptake of NPs is studied using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cell viability and apoptosis are assessed with the Alamar Blue viability assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The IONP-PTX-CTX-FL had a uniform size of ?44 nm and high stability in cell culture medium. Importantly, the presence of CTX on NPs enhanced the uptake of the NPs by GBM cells and improved the efficacy of PTX in killing both GBM and GBM drug-resistant cells. The IONP-PTX-CTX-FL demonstrated its great potential for brain cancer therapy and may also be used to deliver PTX to treat other cancers.
Project description:Uncontrollable cell proliferation and irreversible neurological damage make glioma one of the most deadly diseases in clinic. Besides the multiple biological barriers, glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of tumor tissues also hinder the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Therefore, all-stage precisional glioma targeted therapy regimens that could efficiently deliver drugs to glioma cells and GSCs after overcoming multiple barriers have received increasing scrutiny. Methods: A polymeric micelle-based drug delivery system was developed by modifying a "Y-shaped" well-designed ligand of both GRP78 protein and quorum sensing receptor to achieve all-stage precisional glioma targeting, then we evaluated the targeting ability and barrier penetration ability both in vitro and in vivo. In order to achieve all-stage precisional therapy, we need kill both GSCs and glioma related cells. Parthenolide (PTL) has been investigated for its selective toxicity to glioma stem cells while Paclitaxel (PTX) and Temozolomide (TMZ) are widely used in experimental and clinical therapy of glioma respectively. So the in vivo anti-glioma effect of combination therapy was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination of tumor tissues. Results: The "Y-shaped" well-designed peptide, termed DWVAP, exhibited excellent glioma (and GSCs) homing and barrier penetration ability. When modified on micelle surface, DWVAP peptide significantly enhanced accumulation of micelles in brain and glioma. In addition, DWVAP micelles showed no immunogenicity and cytotoxicity, which could guarantee their safety when used in vivo. Treatment of glioma-bearing mice with PTL loaded DWVAP modified PEG-PLA micelles plus PTX loaded DWVAP modified PEG-PLA micelles or PTL loaded DWVAP modified PEG-PLA micelles plus TMZ showed improved anti-tumor efficacy in comparison to PTL and PTX loaded unmodified micelles or PTL loaded unmodified micelles plus TMZ. Conclusion: Combination of all-stage targeting strategy and concomitant use of chemotherapeutics and stem cell inhibitors could achieve precise targeted therapy for glioma.