Tracking the Fate of Genetically Distinct Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Proteins Highlights the Role for Late Domains in Assembly.
ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) assembly requires condensation of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core with the matrix protein (M) during budding from the plasma membrane. The RNP core comprises the negative-sense genomic RNA completely coated by the nucleocapsid protein (N) and associated by a phosphoprotein (P) with the large polymerase protein (L). To study the assembly of single viral particles, we tagged M and P with fluorescent proteins. We selected from a library of viruses with insertions in the M gene a replication-competent virus containing a fluorescent M and combined that with our previously described virus containing fluorescent P. Virus particles containing those fusions maintained the same bullet shape appearance as wild-type VSV but had a modest increase in particle length, reflecting the increased genome size. Imaging of the released particles revealed a variation in the amount of M and P assembled into the virions, consistent with a flexible packaging mechanism. We used the recombinants to further study the importance of the late domains in M, which serve to recruit the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery during budding. Mutations in late domains resulted in the accumulation of virions that failed to pinch off from the plasma membrane. Imaging of single virions released from cells that were coinfected with M tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and M tagged with mCherry variants in which the late domains of one virus were inactivated by mutation showed a strong bias against the incorporation of the late-domain mutant into the released virions. In contrast, the intracellular expression and membrane association of the two variants were unaltered. These studies provide new tools for imaging particle assembly and enhance our resolution of existing models for assembly of VSV.Assembly of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles requires the separate trafficking of the viral replication machinery, a matrix protein (M) and a glycoprotein, to the plasma membrane. The matrix protein contains a motif termed a "late domain" that engages the host endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to facilitate the release of viral particles. Inactivation of the late domains through mutation results in the accumulation of virions arrested at the point of release. In the study described here, we developed new tools to study VSV assembly by fusing fluorescent proteins to M and to a constituent of the replication machinery, the phosphoprotein (P). We used those tools to show that the late domains of M are required for efficient incorporation into viral particles and that the particles contain a variable quantity of M and P.
Project description:Microbial pathogens exploit the clathrin endocytic machinery to enter host cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an enveloped virus with bullet-shaped virions that measure 70 x 200 nm, enters cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. We showed previously that VSV particles exceed the capacity of typical clathrin-coated vesicles and instead enter through endocytic carriers that acquire a partial clathrin coat and require local actin filament assembly to complete vesicle budding and internalization. To understand why the actin system is required for VSV uptake, we compared the internalization mechanisms of VSV and its shorter (75 nm long) defective interfering particle, DI-T. By imaging the uptake of individual particles into live cells, we found that, as with parental virions, DI-T enters via the clathrin endocytic pathway. Unlike VSV, DI-T internalization occurs through complete clathrin-coated vesicles and does not require actin polymerization. Since VSV and DI-T particles display similar surface densities of the same attachment glycoprotein, we conclude that the physical properties of the particle dictate whether a virus-containing clathrin pit engages the actin system. We suggest that the elongated shape of a VSV particle prevents full enclosure by the clathrin coat and that stalling of coat assembly triggers recruitment of the actin machinery to finish the internalization process. Since some enveloped viruses have pleomorphic particle shapes and sizes, our work suggests that they may use altered modes of endocytic uptake. More generally, our findings show the importance of cargo geometry for specifying cellular entry modes, even when the receptor recognition properties of a ligand are maintained.
Project description:The matrix (M) proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RV) play a key role in both assembly and budding of progeny virions. A PPPY motif (PY motif or late-budding domain) is conserved in the M proteins of VSV and RV. These PY motifs are important for virus budding and for mediating interactions with specific cellular proteins containing WW domains. The PY motif and flanking sequences of the M protein of VSV were used as bait to screen a mouse embryo cDNA library for cellular interactors. The mouse Nedd4 protein, a membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase containing multiple WW domains, was identified from this screen. Ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, the yeast homolog of Nedd4, was able to interact both physically and functionally with full-length VSV M protein in a PY-dependent manner. Indeed, the VSV M protein was multiubiquitinated by Rsp5 in an in vitro ubiquitination assay. To demonstrate further that ubiquitin may be involved in the budding process of rhabdoviruses, proteasome inhibitors (e.g., MG132) were used to decrease the level of free ubiquitin in VSV- and RV-infected cells. Viral titers measured from MG132-treated cells were reproducibly 10- to 20-fold lower than those measured from untreated control cells, suggesting that free ubiquitin is important for efficient virus budding. Last, release of a VSV PY mutant was not inhibited in the presence of MG132, signifying that the functional L domain of VSV is required for the inhibitory effect exhibited by MG132. These data suggest that the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome machinery is involved in the budding process of VSV and RV.
Project description:Many viruses that enter cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis are significantly larger than the dimensions of a typical clathrin-coated vesicle. The mechanisms by which viruses co-opt the clathrin machinery for efficient internalization remain uncertain. Here we examined how clathrin-coated vesicles accommodate vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) during its entry into cells. Using high-resolution imaging of the internalization of single viral particles into cells expressing fluorescent clathrin and adaptor molecules, we show that VSV enters cells through partially clathrin-coated vesicles. We found that on average, virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin adaptor molecules than conventional vesicles, but this increase is insufficient to permit full coating of the vesicle. We further show that virus-containing vesicles depend upon the actin machinery for their internalization. Specifically, we found that components of the actin machinery are recruited to virus-containing vesicles, and chemical inhibition of actin polymerization trapped viral particles in vesicles at the plasma membrane. By analysis of multiple independent virus internalization events, we show that VSV induces the nucleation of clathrin for its uptake, rather than depending upon random capture by formation of a clathrin-coated pit. This work provides new mechanistic insights into the process of virus internalization as well as uptake of unconventional cargo by the clathrin-dependent endocytic machinery.
Project description:Virus particles (virions) often contain not only virus-encoded but also host-encoded proteins. Some of these host proteins are enclosed within the virion structure, while others, in the case of enveloped viruses, are embedded in the host-derived membrane. While many of these host protein incorporations are likely accidental, some may play a role in virus infectivity, replication and/or immunoreactivity in the next host. Host protein incorporations may be especially important in therapeutic applications where large numbers of virus particles are administered. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototypic rhabdovirus and a candidate vaccine, gene therapy and oncolytic vector. Using mass spectrometry, we previously examined cell type dependent host protein content of VSV virions using intact ("whole") virions purified from three cell lines originating from different species. Here we aimed to determine the localization of host proteins within the VSV virions by analyzing: i) whole VSV virions; and ii) whole VSV virions treated with Proteinase K to remove all proteins outside the viral envelope. A total of 257 proteins were identified, with 181 identified in whole virions and 183 identified in Proteinase K treated virions. Most of these proteins have not been previously shown to be associated with VSV. Functional enrichment analysis indicated the most overrepresented categories were proteins associated with vesicles, vesicle-mediated transport and protein localization. Using western blotting, the presence of several host proteins, including some not previously shown in association with VSV (such as Yes1, Prl1 and Ddx3y), was confirmed and their relative quantities in various virion fractions determined. Our study provides a valuable inventory of virion-associated host proteins for further investigation of their roles in the replication cycle, pathogenesis and immunoreactivity of VSV.
Project description:In cell culture infections with vaccinia virus the number of counted virus particles is substantially higher than the number of plaques obtained by titration. We found that standard vaccine preparations of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara produce only about 20-30% plaque-forming virions in fully permissive cell cultures. To evaluate the biological activity of the non-plaque-forming particles, we generated recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under transcriptional control of specific viral early and late promoters. Live cell imaging and automated counting by fluorescent microscopy indicated that virtually all virus particles can enter cells and switch on viral gene expression. Although most of the non-plaque-forming infections are arrested at the level of viral early gene expression, we detected activation of late viral transcription in 10-20% of single infected cells. Thus, non-plaque-forming particles are biologically active, and likely contribute to the immunogenicity of vaccinia virus vaccines.
Project description:Many animal viruses are enveloped in a lipid bilayer taken up from cellular membranes. Because viral surface proteins bind to these membranes to initiate infection, we hypothesized that free virions may also be capable of interacting with the envelopes of other virions extracellularly. Here, we demonstrate this hypothesis in the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic negative-strand RNA virus composed of an internal ribonucleocapsid, a matrix protein and an external envelope1. Using microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugation and flow cytometry, we show that free viral particles can spontaneously aggregate into multi-virion infectious units. We also show that, following establishment of these contacts, different viral genetic variants are co-transmitted to the same target cell. Furthermore, virion-virion binding can determine key aspects of viral fitness such as antibody escape. In purified virions, this process is driven by protein-lipid interactions probably involving the VSV surface glycoprotein and phosphatidylserine. Whereas we found that multi-virion complexes occurred unfrequently in standard cell cultures, they were abundant in other fluids such as saliva, a natural VSV shedding route2. Our findings contrast with the commonly accepted perception of virions as passive propagules and show the ability of enveloped viruses to establish collective infectious units, which could in turn facilitate the evolution of virus-virus interactions and of social-like traits3.
Project description:Host plasma membrane protein SERINC5 is incorporated into budding retrovirus particles where it blocks subsequent entry into susceptible target cells. Three structurally unrelated proteins encoded by diverse retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) S2, and ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) GlycoGag, disrupt SERINC5 antiviral activity by redirecting SERINC5 from the site of virion assembly on the plasma membrane to an internal RAB7+ endosomal compartment. Pseudotyping retroviruses with particular glycoproteins, e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), renders the infectivity of particles resistant to inhibition by virion-associated SERINC5. To better understand viral determinants for SERINC5-sensitivity, the effect of SERINC5 was assessed using HIV-1, MLV, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) virion cores, pseudotyped with glycoproteins from Arenavirus, Coronavirus, Filovirus, Rhabdovirus, Paramyxovirus, and Orthomyxovirus genera. SERINC5 restricted virions pseudotyped with glycoproteins from several retroviruses, an orthomyxovirus, a rhabdovirus, a paramyxovirus, and an arenavirus. Infectivity of particles pseudotyped with HIV-1, amphotropic-MLV (A-MLV), or influenza A virus (IAV) glycoproteins, was decreased by SERINC5, whether the core was provided by HIV-1, MLV, or M-PMV. In contrast, particles pseudotyped with glycoproteins from M-PMV, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), or rabies virus (RABV) were sensitive to SERINC5, but only with particular retroviral cores. Resistance to SERINC5 did not correlate with reduced SERINC5 incorporation into particles, route of viral entry, or absolute infectivity of the pseudotyped virions. These findings indicate that some non-retroviruses may be sensitive to SERINC5 and that, in addition to the viral glycoprotein, the retroviral core influences sensitivity to SERINC5.
Project description:Enveloped viruses commonly utilize late-domain motifs, sometimes cooperatively with ubiquitin, to hijack the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery for budding at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms underlying budding of viruses lacking defined late-domain motifs and budding into intracellular compartments are poorly characterized. Here, we map a network of hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein interactions with the ESCRT machinery using a mammalian-cell-based protein interaction screen and reveal nine novel interactions. We identify HRS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), an ESCRT-0 complex component, as an important entry point for HCV into the ESCRT pathway and validate its interactions with the HCV nonstructural (NS) proteins NS2 and NS5A in HCV-infected cells. Infectivity assays indicate that HRS is an important factor for efficient HCV assembly. Specifically, by integrating capsid oligomerization assays, biophysical analysis of intracellular viral particles by continuous gradient centrifugations, proteolytic digestion protection, and RNase digestion protection assays, we show that HCV co-opts HRS to mediate a late assembly step, namely, envelopment. In the absence of defined late-domain motifs, K63-linked polyubiquitinated lysine residues in the HCV NS2 protein bind the HRS ubiquitin-interacting motif to facilitate assembly. Finally, ESCRT-III and VPS/VTA1 components are also recruited by HCV proteins to mediate assembly. These data uncover involvement of ESCRT proteins in intracellular budding of a virus lacking defined late-domain motifs and a novel mechanism by which HCV gains entry into the ESCRT network, with potential implications for other viruses.<h4>Importance</h4>Viruses commonly bud at the plasma membrane by recruiting the host ESCRT machinery via conserved motifs termed late domains. The mechanism by which some viruses, such as HCV, bud intracellularly is, however, poorly characterized. Moreover, whether envelopment of HCV and other viruses lacking defined late domains is ESCRT mediated and, if so, what the entry points into the ESCRT pathway are remain unknown. Here, we report the interaction network of HCV with the ESCRT machinery and a critical role for HRS, an ESCRT-0 complex component, in HCV envelopment. Viral protein ubiquitination was discovered to be a signal for HRS binding and HCV assembly, thereby functionally compensating for the absence of late domains. These findings characterize how a virus lacking defined late domains co-opts ESCRT to bud intracellularly. Since the ESCRT machinery is essential for the life cycle of multiple viruses, better understanding of this virus-host interplay may yield targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
Project description:HIV-1, the agent of the AIDS pandemic, is an RNA virus that reverse transcribes its RNA genome (gRNA) into DNA, shortly after its entry into cells. Within cells, retroviral assembly requires thousands of structural Gag proteins and two copies of gRNA as well as cellular factors, which converge to the plasma membrane in a finely regulated timeline. In this process, the nucleocapsid domain of Gag (GagNC) ensures gRNA selection and packaging into virions. Subsequent budding and virus release require the recruitment of the cellular ESCRT machinery. Interestingly, mutating GagNC results into the release of DNA-containing viruses, by promo-ting reverse transcription (RTion) prior to virus release, through an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we explored the biogenesis of these DNA-containing particles, combining live-cell total internal-reflection fluorescent microscopy, electron microscopy, trans-complementation assays and biochemical characterization of viral particles. Our results reveal that DNA virus production is the consequence of budding defects associated with Gag aggregation at the plasma membrane and deficiency in the recruitment of Tsg101, a key ESCRT-I component. Indeed, targeting Tsg101 to virus assembly sites restores budding, restricts RTion and favors RNA packaging into viruses. Altogether, our results highlight the role of GagNC in the spatiotemporal control of RTion, via an ESCRT-I-dependent mechanism.
Project description:During virus particle assembly, the arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) associates with the viral genome to form nucleocapsids, which ultimately become incorporated into new virions at the cell membrane. Virion release is facilitated by the viral matrix Z protein through its interaction with the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. However, the mechanism of nucleocapsid incorporation into virions is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that ALIX/AIP1, an ESCRT-associated host protein, is required for the incorporation of the NP of Mopeia virus, a close relative of Lassa virus, into Z-induced virus-like particles (VLPs). Furthermore, we show that the Bro1 domain of ALIX/AIP1 interacts with the NP and Z proteins simultaneously, facilitating their interaction, and we identify residues 342 to 399 of NP as being necessary for its interaction with ALIX/AIP1. Our observations suggest a potential role for ALIX/AIP1 in linking Mopeia virus NP to Z and the budding apparatus, thereby promoting NP incorporation into virions.