Regulation of the perilymphatic-endolymphatic water shunt in the cochlea by membrane translocation of aquaporin-5.
ABSTRACT: Volume homeostasis of the cochlear endolymph depends on radial and longitudinal endolymph movements (LEMs). LEMs measured in vivo have been exclusively recognized under physiologically challenging conditions, such as experimentally induced alterations of perilymph osmolarity or endolymph volume. The regulatory mechanisms that adjust LEMs to the physiological requirements of endolymph volume homeostasis remain unknown. Here, we describe the formation of an aquaporin (AQP)-based "water shunt" during the postnatal development of the mouse cochlea and its regulation by different triggers. The final complementary expression pattern of AQP5 (apical membrane) and AQP4 (basolateral membrane) in outer sulcus cells (OSCs) of the cochlear apex is acquired at the onset of hearing function (postnatal day (p)8-p12). In vitro, hyperosmolar perfusion of the perilymphatic fluid spaces or the administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in cochlear explants (p14) induced the translocation of AQP5 channel proteins into the apical membranes of OSCs. AQP5 membrane translocation was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. The muscarinic M3 acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (M3R) was identified in murine OSCs via mRNA expression, immunolabeling, and in vitro binding studies using an M3R-specific fluorescent ligand. Finally, the water shunt elements AQP4, AQP5, and M3R were also demonstrated in OSCs of the human cochlea. The regulation of the AQP4/AQP5 water shunt in OSCs of the cochlear apex provides a molecular basis for regulated endolymphatic volume homeostasis. Moreover, its dysregulation or disruption may have pathophysiologic implications for clinical conditions related to endolymphatic hydrops, such as Ménière's disease.
Project description:The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. However, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the CDE allows for rapid water exchange between fluid compartments. The molecular mechanism governing water permeation across the CDE remains elusive. We computationally determined the diffusional (PD) and osmotic (Pf) water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating previously derived in vivo experimental data on fluid flow with expression sites of molecular water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). The PD of the entire CDE (PD?=?8.18?×?10(-5) cm s(-1)) and its individual partitions including Reissner's membrane (PD?=?12.06?×?10(-5) cm s(-1)) and the organ of Corti (PD?=?10.2?×?10(-5) cm s(-1)) were similar to other epithelia with AQP-facilitated water permeation. The Pf of the CDE (Pf?=?6.15?×?10(-4) cm s(-1)) was also in the range of other epithelia while an exceptionally high Pf was determined for an epithelial subdomain of outer sulcus cells in the cochlear apex co-expressing AQP4 and AQP5 (OSCs; Pf?=?156.90?×?10(-3) cm s(-1)). The Pf/PD ratios of the CDE (Pf/PD?=?7.52) and OSCs (Pf/PD?=?242.02) indicate an aqueous pore-facilitated water exchange and reveal a high-transfer region or "water shunt" in the cochlear apex. This "water shunt" explains experimentally determined phenomena of endolymphatic longitudinal flow towards the cochlear apex. The water permeability coefficients of the CDE emphasise the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of water dynamics in the cochlea in particular for endolymphatic hydrops and Ménière's disease.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (?-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal ?-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS.
Project description:Traumatic noise causes hearing loss by damaging sensory hair cells and their auditory synapses. There are no treatments. Here, we investigated mice exposed to a blast wave approximating a roadside bomb. In vivo cochlear imaging revealed an increase in the volume of endolymph, the fluid within scala media, termed endolymphatic hydrops. Endolymphatic hydrops, hair cell loss, and cochlear synaptopathy were initiated by trauma to the mechanosensitive hair cell stereocilia and were K+-dependent. Increasing the osmolality of the adjacent perilymph treated endolymphatic hydrops and prevented synaptopathy, but did not prevent hair cell loss. Conversely, inducing endolymphatic hydrops in control mice by lowering perilymph osmolality caused cochlear synaptopathy that was glutamate-dependent, but did not cause hair cell loss. Thus, endolymphatic hydrops is a surrogate marker for synaptic bouton swelling after hair cells release excitotoxic levels of glutamate. Because osmotic stabilization prevents neural damage, it is a potential treatment to reduce hearing loss after noise exposure.
Project description:Slc26a4 (?/?) mice are deaf, develop an enlarged membranous labyrinth, and thereby largely resemble the human phenotype where mutations of SLC26A4 cause an enlarged vestibular aqueduct and sensorineural hearing loss. The enlargement is likely caused by abnormal ion and fluid transport during the time of embryonic development, however, neither the mechanisms of ion transport nor the ionic composition of the luminal fluid during this time of development are known. Here we determine the ionic composition of inner ear fluids at the time at which the enlargement develops and the onset of expression of selected ion transporters. Concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) were measured with double-barreled ion-selective electrodes in the cochlea and the endolymphatic sac of Slc26a4 (?/+), which develop normal hearing, and of Slc26a4 (?/?) mice, which fail to develop hearing. The expression of specific ion transporters was examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. High Na(+) (?141 mM) and low K(+) concentrations (?11 mM) were found at embryonic day (E) 16.5 in cochlear endolymph of Slc26a4 (?/+) and Slc26a4 (?/?) mice. Shortly before birth the K(+) concentration began to rise. Immediately after birth (postnatal day 0), the Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in cochlear endolymph were each ?80 mM. In Slc26a4 (?/?) mice, the rise in the K(+) concentration occurred with a ?3 day delay. K(+) concentrations were also found to be low (?15 mM) in the embryonic endolymphatic sac. The onset of expression of the K(+) channel KCNQ1 and the Na(+)/2Cl(-)/K(+) cotransporter SLC12A2 occurred in the cochlea at E19.5 in Slc26a4 (?/+) and Slc26a4 (?/?) mice. These data demonstrate that endolymph, at the time at which the enlargement develops, is a Na(+)-rich fluid, which transitions into a K(+)-rich fluid before birth. The data suggest that the endolymphatic enlargement caused by a loss of Slc26a4 is a consequence of disrupted Na(+) transport.
Project description:Electrocochleography (ECochG) has been used to assess Ménière's disease, a pathology associated with endolymphatic hydrops and low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. However, the current ECochG techniques are limited for use at high-frequencies only (≥1 kHz) and cannot be used to assess and understand the low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in ears with Ménière's disease. In the current study, we use a relatively new ECochG technique to make measurements that originate from afferent auditory nerve fibers in the apical half of the cochlear spiral to assess effects of endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pig ears. These measurements are made from the Auditory Nerve Overlapped Waveform (ANOW). Hydrops was induced with artificial endolymph injections, iontophoretically applied Ca2+ to endolymph, and exposure to 200 Hz tones. The manipulations used in this study were far smaller than those used in previous investigations on hydrops. In response to all hydropic manipulations, ANOW amplitude to moderate level stimuli was markedly reduced but conventional ECochG measurements of compound action potential thresholds were unaffected (i.e., a less than 2 dB threshold shift). Given the origin of the ANOW, changes in ANOW amplitude likely reflect acute volume disturbances accumulate in the distensible cochlear apex. These results suggest that the ANOW could be used to advance our ability to identify initial stages of dysfunction in ears with Ménière's disease before the pathology progresses to an extent that can be detected with conventional measures.
Project description:Meniere's disease is a common disease, that presents with recurrent vertigo and cochlear symptoms. The pathology of Meniere's disease was first reported to involve endolymphatic hydrops in 1938. The endolymphatic sac is thought to have a role to keep the hydrostatic pressure and endolymph homeostasis for the inner ear. As a surgery for intractable Meniere's disease, endolymphatic sac drainage with intraendolymphatic sac application of large doses of steroids is performed to control the endolymphatic hydrops and preserve or improve inner ear function. In the present study, to observe the effect of this surgery, we calculated the endolymphatic space size using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 4 h after intravenous injection of gadolinium enhancement at two time points: just before surgery and 2 years after. To reveal the condition of the endolymphatic space, we constructed three-dimensional MR images semi-automatically and fused the three-dimensional images of the total fluid space of inner ear and the endolymphatic space. After fusing the images, we calculated the volume of the total fluid space and endolymphatic space. Two years after surgery, 16 of 20 patients (80.0%) showed relief from vertigo/dizziness and reductions in the ratio of the volume of the endolymphatic size to the total fluid space of inner ear. Endolymphatic sac drainage with intraendolymphatic sac application of large doses of steroids could control vertigo/dizziness and decrease the endolymphatic hydrops. These results indicate that endolymphatic sac drainage is a good treatment option for patients with intractable Meniere's disease. In addition, volumetric measurement of inner ear volume could be useful for confirming the effect of treatments on Meniere's disease.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune disease that destroys the salivary glands and results in severe dry mouth. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been recently proposed as a promising therapy for restoring cells in multiple degenerative diseases. We have recently utilized advanced proteomics biochemical assays to identify the key molecules involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) of co-cultured mouse bone-marrow-derived MSCs mMSCs with primary salivary gland cells. Among the multiple transcription factors (TFs) that were differentially expressed, two major TFs were selected: muscle, intestine, and stomach expression-1 (MIST1) and transcription factor E2a (TCF3). These factors were assessed in the current study for their ability to drive the expression of acinar cell marker, alpha-salivary amylase 1 (AMY1), and ductal cell marker, cytokeratin19 (CK19), in vitro. Overexpression of MIST1-induced AMY1 expression while it had little effect on CK19 expression. In contrast, TCF3 induced neither of those cellular markers. Furthermore, we have identified that mMSCs express muscarinic-type 3 receptor (M3R) mainly in the cytoplasm and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in the nucleus. While MIST1 did not alter M3R levels in mMSCs, a TCF3 overexpression downregulated M3R expressions in mMSCs. The mechanisms for such differential regulation of glandular markers by these TFs warrant further investigation.
Project description:To test the hypotheses that pregnancy represents a physiologic condition that is associated with dry eye symptoms, and the expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and AQP5 are altered in the lacrimal gland (LG) from term pregnant rabbits.Schirmer's test, tear break-up time (BUT), and Rose Bengal staining were used to evaluate ocular surface health. LG were obtained from term pregnant rabbits and age-matched female control rabbits and then processed for laser capture microdissection (LCM), real time RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence for the detection and quantification of mRNA and proteins of AQP4 and AQP5.Pregnant rabbits demonstrated typical clinical symptoms of dry eye, including decreased Schirmer score and BUT as well as increased Rose Bengal staining of cornea. In term pregnant rabbits, mRNA for AQP5 from whole LG was significantly lower than that of control rabbits, while mRNA for AQP4 was not. Levels of mRNA for AQP4 and AQP5 underwent significant changes in acini and epithelial cells from specific duct segments during pregnancy. Western blot from whole LG lysates demonstrated that expression of AQP4 was 24% more abundant in term pregnant rabbits while AQP5 was 22% less when compared to control rabbits respectively. At term pregnancy, AQP4 immunoreactivity (AQP4-IR) was increased in acini while its intensity remained the same in ducts. AQP5-IR was present in both apical and basolateral membranes of acinar cells in normal control and pregnant rabbits, while ductal cells in pregnant rabbits also showed significant amount of AQP5-IR.The data presented here demonstrated significant dry eye symptoms in pregnant rabbits. Our data also showed altered expressions of AQP4 and AQP5 during pregnancy and suggested that these changes may contribute to the altered LG secretion and dry eye symptoms during pregnancy.
Project description:The environment of the inner ear is highly regulated in a manner that some solutes are permitted to enter while others are excluded or transported out. Drug therapies targeting the sensory and supporting cells of the auditory and vestibular systems require the agent to gain entry to the fluid spaces of the inner ear, perilymph or endolymph, which surround the sensory organs. Access to the inner ear fluids from the vasculature is limited by the blood-labyrinth barriers, which include the blood-perilymph and blood-strial barriers. Intratympanic applications provide an alternative approach in which drugs are applied locally. Drug from the applied solution enters perilymph through the round window membrane, through the stapes, and under some circumstances, through thin bone in the otic capsule. The amount of drug applied to the middle ear is always substantially more than the amount entering perilymph. As a result, significant amounts of the applied drug can pass to the digestive system, to the vasculature, and to the brain. Drugs in perilymph pass to the vasculature and to cerebrospinal fluid via the cochlear aqueduct. Conversely, drugs applied to cerebrospinal fluid, including those given intrathecally, can enter perilymph through the cochlear aqueduct. Other possible routes in or out of the ear include passage by neuronal pathways, passage via endolymph and the endolymphatic sac, and possibly via lymphatic pathways. A better understanding of the pathways for drug movements in and out of the ear will enable better intervention strategies.
Project description:Muscarinic receptor antagonists act as potent inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation and accelerate remyelination. However, the use of muscarinic antagonists in the clinic is limited by poor understanding of the operant receptor subtype, and questions regarding possible species differences between rodents and humans. Based on high selective expression in human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), we hypothesized that M3R is the functionally relevant receptor. Lentiviral M3R knockdown in human primary CD140a/PDGF?R+ OPCs resulted in enhanced differentiation in vitro and substantially reduced the calcium response following muscarinic agonist treatment. Importantly, following transplantation in hypomyelinating shiverer/rag2 mice, M3R knockdown improved remyelination by human OPCs. Furthermore, conditional M3R ablation in adult NG2-expressing OPCs increased oligodendrocyte differentiation and led to improved spontaneous remyelination in mice. Together, we demonstrate that M3R receptor mediates muscarinic signaling in human OPCs that act to delay differentiation and remyelination, suggesting that M3 receptors are viable targets for human demyelinating disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The identification of drug targets aimed at improving remyelination in patients with demyelination disease is a key step in development of effective regenerative therapies to treat diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. Muscarinic receptor antagonists have been identified as effective potentiators of remyelination, but the receptor subtypes that mediate these receptors are unclear. In this study, we show that genetic M3R ablation in both mouse and human cells results in improved remyelination and is mediated by acceleration of oligodendrocyte commitment from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Therefore, M3R represents an attractive target for induced remyelination in human disease.